Sunday, 14 May 2023

Coercion In Islam

Ibn Hajar Asqalani:



The Statement of Allah:

"Whoever disbelieves in Allah after his belief... except for one who is forced [to renounce his religion] while his heart is secure in faith. But those who [willingly] open their breasts to disbelief, upon them is wrath from Allah, and for them is a great punishment; (16:106)

And His Statement:

"...Except if you indeed fear a danger from them..." (3:28)

(Al-Bukhari says): And this is Taqqiyah.

And Allah also said:

"...Verily! As for those whom the angels take (in death) while they are wronging themselves (as they stayed among the disbelievers even though emigration was obligatory for them), they (angels) say (to them): 'In what (condition) were you?' They reply: 'We were weak and oppressed on earth... (up to) ... 

And Allah is Ever Oft-Pardoning, Oft-Forgiving." (4:97-99)

And Allah also said:

"(And what is wrong with you that you fight not in the Cause of Allah), and for those weak, ill-treated and oppressed among men, women, and children, whose cry is: 'Our Lord! Rescue us from this town whose people are oppressors, and raise for us from You, one who will protect, and raise for us from You, one who will help.'" (4:75)

So Allah excused the weak who cannot refuse from leaving what Allah has enjoined on him. The coerced person cannot be but weak and unable to refuse to do what he is ordered to do.

Al-Hassan said: At- Taqiyyah (i.e., speaking against one's own beliefs lest his opponents put him in great danger) will remain till the Day of Resurrection."

And Ibn 'Abbas said that if the thieves compelled someone to divorce his wife, the divorce would not be valid. And Ibn Az-Zubair, Ash-Sha'bi and Al-Ilasan gave the same verdict.

The Prophet said, "One's deeds are to be considered according to one's intentions."

(Ibn Hajar says in his commentary of Sahih Al-Bukhari about this chaper: )

His (i.e. Al-Bukhari's) statement: 'And His Statement: "...Except if you indeed fear a danger from them..." (3:28),

And this is Taqiyyah.' he has taken it from the statement of Abi Ubayda who said: Tuqaat and Taqiyyah is the same.

I (i.e. Ibn Hajar) say: And it passed in the commentary of Aal-e-Imraan and and the meaning of the verse is: "The believers shall not take the unbelievers as friends, neither in hidden nor in public, except for Taqqiyah, so it is permissible to take him as a friend if he fears him and hates him in his heart."

It has been said that the wisdom that the believers are not addressed directly (in this verse) is because taking the unbelievers as friends was obscene, therefore Allah did not address the believers directly.

I (Ibn Hajar Asqalani) say: it seems to me that the wisdom in this is rather because Allah says in the verse: "O ye who believe! take not the Jews and the Christians for your friends and protectors: They are but friends and protectors to each other. And he amongst you that turns to them (for friendship) is of them." (5:51)

Because Muslims took this verse as a general rule and criticized those who had an excuse in befriending the unbelievers, therefore Allah revealed this verse (i.e. 3:28) as a permission for it, and it is like the explicit verses about those who deviate into disbelief after believing, and then Allah allowed it for those who have an excuse for it.

Source: Fatal Bari Sharh Sahih Al-Bukhari. Vol. 16, Pg. # 211 /213-214. 

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