Wednesday, 2 July 2014

The Oppression Of Sayeda Faatima (s.a) Part VII-II The Conclusion


In This Section We Will Cover:

  • What Was Fadak?
  • Fadak in the Holy Qur'aan
  • Inheritance Of The Prophets (a.s) In The Holy Qur'aan
  • Sayeda Faatima (s.a) Died Angry With Aboo Bakr
  • Fadak In Shi'a Narrations
  • Did Alee (a.s) Anger Faatima (s.a)?
  • Umar Attacks The Houses Of The Wives Of The Prophet (saw)
  • Umar Threatens To Burn His Sons House Down
  • Umar Burns The House Of A Companion Of The Prophet (saw)
  • Aboo Bakr Orders To Burn The House Of The Wife Of The Prophet Muhammad (saw)


The Land Of Fadak Usurped From The Ahlulbayt (a.s)


Sayeda Faatima (s.a) passed away while being angry with Aboo Bakr because beside all other oppressions he had also deprived her of the inheritance left for her by her father, the Prophet (saw). The land of Fadak is a village in Hijaz which was inhabited by some Jews. When the Messenger of Allah (saw) commenced the conquest of Khaybar, Allah (swt) cast fear in the hearts of those Jews; therefore, they reconciled with the Messenger of Allah (saw) in exchange for Fadak. 


Thus, Fadak became the property of the Messenger of Allah (saw) because neither cavalry nor infantry was ever involved in its conquest. The Prophet (saw) then gave it to his daughter Sayeda Faatima (s.a) since this was his personal property, nobody else had any right in it besides him.

The topic of Fadak has been discussed extensively in numerous books and websites. Our purpose is not to delve too much into the subject, as to do any justice to the subject would require several articles alone, therefore we will only briefly touch upon it. 



What Was Fadak?

Al-Tabari:

Narrated Muhammad ibn Bashar from Abul A'laa from Sa'eed from Qutada about the verse:


"Whatever Allah has restored to His Messenger from the people of the towns, it is for Allah and for the Messenger, and for the near of kin and the orphans and the needy and the wayfarer." {59:7}  

He said: At first the Fai was for these people, then it was abrogated by the verse in Surah Al-Anfaal where it says: 

"And know that whatever thing you gain, a fifth of it is for Allah and for the Messenger and for the near of kin and the orphans and the needy and the wayfarer." {8:41} 

So this verse abrogated the previous verse of Surah Al-Hashr and the Khums (one fifth) was specified for the people that were given the Fai in the verse of Surah Al-Hashr {59:7}. 

And the booty was divided into five shares, four shares was for those who fought for it and the one remaining share was divided into five shares. One share was for the Prophet (saw), one share was for the kin of the Messenger of Allah (saw) in his lifetime, and one share for the orphans and one share for the needy and one share for the wayfarer. When the Messenger of Allah (saw) passed away, Aboo Bakr and Umar took the first two shares, which were the share of the Prophet (saw) and share of his near kin, and they used it in the way of Allah (swt) as the charity of the Messenger of Allah (saw). 

Some others say: It refers to that wealth that the enemies gave to Muslims through peaceful agreement, and they say about the verse:


"Whatever Allah has restored to His Messenger from the people of the towns, it is for Allah and for the Messenger." {59:7} 

It refers to division of the wealth according to the previous verse and that is:

And whatever Allah restored to His Messenger from them you did not press forward against it any horse or a riding camel." {59:6}

And this opinion is the opinion of some insignificant jurists of the later generations.

The correct meaning in my opinion is that the decree of this verse is different from the one before and that is because the previous verse talks about that wealth which Allah (swt) has dedicated for His Messenger alone, excluding the others. He hasn't specified from it any share for anyone other than him. And there is a hadeeth about this through Umar ibn Al-Khattab.


Source: Tafsir Al-Tabari Jamia Al-Bayan An Ta'wil Al-Qur'aan. Vol. 22, Pg. # 517 - 519.



No battle was fought to conquer Fadak. The Prophet (saw) acquired this land from the Jewish occupants who gave it to him in return for no war being waged against them. One fifth he dedicated to himself and one fifth for his near kin, both of which were usurped by Aboo Bakr and Umar claiming that whatever the Prophet (saw) left was for charity. 

Aboo Bakr ibn Al-Arabi:


And in Saheeh (Authentic) hadeeth it has been narrated from A'isha that: What the Messenger of Allah (saw) left behind was Khaybar, Fadak and the charity in Madinah which Umar returned to Alee (a.s) and Abbas, but he withheld the properties of Khaybar and Fadak in his custody and said, "These two properties are the Sadaqah which Allah's Apostle (saw) used to use for his expenditures and urgent needs. Now their management is to be entrusted to the ruler." A
nd it has been proven that Khaybar and Fadak and Bani Nadhir was for the Prophet (saw) himself and his family as Sunnah, and for his expenditures and urgent needs. Not one fifth of the one fifth that the companions of Al-Shafi'i claim, and this narration is authentic and there is no problem in it and there is nothing against anyone of its narrators.

Source: Tafsir ibn Arabi. Vol. 2, Pg. # 407 - 408.




Points to be noted in the above Tafsir are that Fadak, Khaybar and the properties in Madinah belonged to the Messenger of Allah (saw) alone, and he (saw) would spend it on his family and other expenses. Umar returned the properties of Madinah to Alee (a.s) and Al-Abbas (the properties what Allah (swt) gave to the Prophet (saw) from Bani Nadhir), but he kept Fadak and Khaybar claiming that it was the Prophet's (saw) charity which he would spend on expenditure and urgent needs and that he entrusted it to the ruler after him.

Firstly, this action of Umar contradicts Aboo Bakr's in that he deprived Ahlulbayt (a.s) of any share. Secondly, Umar claims Fadak and Khaybar were for the ruler after the Prophet (saw) which is again baseless since it contradicts the narration of Aboo Bakr and other sources that ibn Arabi himself mentions that the Messenger of Allah (saw) spent it on his family along with other expenditures.

Al-Dhahabi:

Yunus said narrating from ibn Is'haq from ibn Muhammad ibn Muslima Al-Ansari from one of his relatives who witnessed the incident and from Miknaf who both said: The Messenger of Allah (saw) went to the castles Al-Watih and Solalum of the people of Fadak, until they were sure that they will be killed, so they asked the Messenger of Allah (saw) to take them captives and spare their lives, and the Prophet (saw) spared their lives. The Messenger of Allah (saw) earned all the wealth from Shaq, Nitah, Katiba and all their castles, except for two castles. When the people of Fadak heard in what they did, they sent emissaries to the Messenger of Allah (saw) to ask him to spare their lives, and in return they would abandon to him all their property. He (saw) agreed. And the Muhadha ibn Masoud was the person who exchanged these talks. After he had reached an understanding with the people of Khaybar, they asked to be allowed to cultivate their own lands, and to retain one-half of the produce, saying, 'We know the estates better than thou, and how to cultivate them.' The apostle concluded peace with them on this basis, but added, 'If we should find it convenient to expel you, we shall do so.' The people of Fadak made peace with him on the same terms; the property of Khaybar was thus common to all the Muslims, but that of Fadak belonged to the apostle of Allah (saw) only, because the Muslims did not conquer it with the aid of cavalry or camels.

Source: Tarikh Al-Islam. Vol. 1, Pg. # 421 - 422.


Al-Mawardi:

When the people of Fadak heard in what was done with the people of Khaybar, they sent emissaries to the Messenger of Allah (saw) to ask him to spare their lives, and in return they would abandon to him all their property. Muhaiyisa ibn Masoud negotiated this between the Prophet (saw) and them and they agreed upon this. So Fadak became the property of the Messenger of Allah (saw) alone, because he (saw) earned it without the aid of cavalry or camels, so it was a Fai for him alone, and that was the best booty for the Muslims.

Source: Al-Hawi Al-Kabir. Vol. 14, Pg. # 55.



Abil Fidaa:

Aboo Rafeh the servant of the Messenger of Allah (saw) has narrated saying: We went with Alee (a.s) when the Messenger of Allah (saw) sent him towards Khaybar. The people of the castle came out to confront him. Alee (a.s) fought with them, then a man of the Jews struck Alee (a.s), as  a result of which the shield broke in his hand. Then Alee (a.s) took a gate off the castle and used it as a shield and that gate was in his hand until Allah (swt) gave him victory, then he threw it away. I with a group of seven men tried to flip that gate, but we couldn't. The conquest of Khaybar was in year seven of Hijra, and people of Khaybar asked the Messenger of Allah (saw) to divide half of their production and that he (saw) can expel them whenever he (saw) wants, and the Prophet (saw) accepted it. And he did the same thing with the people of Fadak. Khaybar was for the Muslims and Fadak was for the Messenger of Allah(saw) alone, because it was conquered without arms.

Source: Tarikh Abil Fidaa. Pg. # 175 - 176.


Abi Dawood:

Narrated Al-Zuhri: Umar said explaining the verse: 'What Allah has bestowed on His Apostle (and taken away) from them - for this ye made no expedition with either cavalry or camelry.' This belonged specially to the Messenger of Allah (saw): Lands of Urainah, Fadak, and so-and-so. What Allah (swt) has bestowed on His Apostle (saw) (and taken away) from the people of the townships - belong to Allah (swt) - to the Apostle (saw), and to kindred and orphans, the needy and the wayfarer, to the indigent emigrants, those who were expelled from their homes and their property, and to those who, before them, had homes (in Madinah), and had adopted the faith, and to those who came after them. This verse completely covered all the people; there remained no one from the Muslims but he had his right in it, or share (according to Ayyub's version) except the slaves.

Al-Albani: It is Saheeh (Authentic).

Narrated Umar ibn Al-Khattab: Malik ibn Aws Al-Hadthan said: One of the arguments put forward by Umar was that he said that the Messenger of Allah (saw) received three things exclusively to himself: Banu An-Nadir, Khaybar and Fadak. The Banu An-Nadir property was kept wholly for his emergent needs, Fadak for travellers, and Khaybar was divided by the Messenger of Allah (saw) into three sections: Two for Muslims, and one as a contribution for his family. If anything remained after making the contribution of his family, he divided it among the poor Emigrants.

Al-Albani: The chain is Hasan (Good).

Source: Saheeh Sunan Abi Dawood. Vol. 2, Pg. # 238 - 239.


Muslim ibn Hajjaj:

It is reported by Zuhri that this tradition was narrated to him by Malik b. Aus who said: Umar b. Al-Khattab sent for me and I came to him when the day had advanced. I found him in his house sitting on his bare bed-stead, reclining on a leather pillow. He said (to me): "Malik, some people of your tribe have hastened to me (with a request for help). I have ordered a little money for them. Take it and distribute it among them." I said: "I wish you had ordered somebody else to do this job." He said: "Malik, take it (and do what you have been told)." At this moment (his man-servant) Yarfa came in and said: "Commander of the Faithful, what do you say about Uthman, Abd Al-Rahman b. Auf, Zubair and Sa'd (who have come to seek an audience with you)?" He said: "Yes" and permitted them. So they entered. Then he (Yarfa) came again and said: "What do you say about Alee (a.s) and Abbas (who are present at the door)?" He said: "Yes" and permitted them to enter. Abbas said: "Commander of the Faithful, decide (the dispute) between me and this sinful, treacherous, dishonest liar." The people (who were present) also said: "Yes. Commander of the Faithful, do decide (the dispute) and have mercy on them." Malik b. Aus said: "I could well imagine that they had sent them in advance for this purpose (by Alee (a.s) and Abbas)." Umar said: "Wait and be patient. I adjure you by Allah (swt) by Whose order the heavens and the earth are sustained, don't you know that the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: We (prophets) do not have any heirs; what we leave behind is (to be given in) charity?" They said: "Yes." Then he turned to Abbas and Alee (a.s) and said: "I adjure you both by Allah (swt) by Whose order the heavens and earth are sustained, don't you know that the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: We do not have any heirs; what we leave behind is (to be given in) charity?" They (too) said: "Yes." (Then) Umar said: "Allah, the Glorious and Exalted, had done to His Messenger (saw) a special favour that He has not done to anyone else except him." He quoted the Qur'aanic verse: "What Allah has bestowed upon His Apostle from (the properties) of the people of township is for Allah and His Messenger." The narrator said: I do not know whether he also recited the previous verse or not. Umar continued: "The Messenger of Allah (saw) distrbuted among you the properties abandoned by Banu Nadir. By Allah (swt)!He never preferred himself over you and never appropriated anything to your exclusion. (After a fair distribution in this way) this property was left over. The Messenger of Allah (saw) would meet from its income his annual expenditure, and what remained would be deposited in the Bait-ul-Mal. (Continuing further) he said: I adjure you by Allah (swt) by Whose order the heavens and the earth are sustained. Do you know this?" They said: "Yes." Then he adjured Abbas and Alee (a.s) as he had adjured the other persons and asked: "Do you both know this?" They said: "Yes." He said: "When the Messenger of Allah (saw) passed away, Aboo Bakr said: 'I am the successor of the Messenger of Allah (saw).' Both of you came to demand your shares from the property (left behind by the Messenger of Allah (saw))." (Referring to Abbas). He said: "You demanded your share from the property of your nephew, and he (referring to Alee (a.s)) demanded a share on behalf of his wife from the property of her father. Aboo Bakr said: The Messenger of Allah (saw) had said: 'We do not have any heirs; what we leave behind is (to be given in) charity.' So both of you thought him to be a liar, sinful, treacherous and dishonest. And Allah (swt) knows that he was true, virtuous, well-guided and a follower of truth. When Aboo Bakr passed away and (I have become) the successor of the Messenger of Allah (saw) and Aboo Bakr, you thought me to be a liar, sinful, treacherous and dishonest. And Allah (swt) knows that I am true, virtuous, well-guided and a follower of truth. I became the guardian of this property. Then you as well as he came to me. Both of you have come and your purpose is identical. You said: 'Entrust the property to us.' I said: If you wish that I should entrust it to you, it will be on the condition that both of you will undertake to abide by a pledge made with Allah (swt) that you will use it in the same way as the Messenger of Allah (saw) used it. So both of you got it." He said: "Wasn't it like this?" They said: "Yes." He said: "Then you have (again) come to me with the request that I should judge between you. No, by Allah (swt)! I will not give any other judgment except this until the arrival of the Doomsday. If you are unable to hold the property on this condition, return it to me."

Source: Saheeh Muslim. Pg. # 839 - 840, H. # 49.



Al-Bukhari:

Narrated Malik bin Aus An-Nasri: I proceeded till I entered upon Umar (and while I was sitting there), his gate-keeper Yarfa came to him and said, "Uthman, Abdur-Rahman, Az-Zubair and Sa'd ask your permission to come in." Umar allowed them. So they entered, greeted, and sat down. (After a while the gatekeeper came) and said, "Shall I admit Alee (a.s) and Abbas?'' Umar allowed them to enter. Al-Abbas said, "O Chief of the believers! Judge between me and the oppressor (Alee (a.s))." Then there was a dispute (regarding the property of Bani Nadir) between them (Abbas and Alee (a.s)). Uthman and his companions said, "O Chief of the Believers! Judge between them and relieve one from the other." Umar said, "Be patient! I beseech you by Allah (swt), with Whose permission the Heaven and the Earth Exist! Do you know that Allah's Messenger (saw) said, 'Our property is not to be inherited, and whatever we leave is to be given in charity?' And by this, Allah's Messenger (saw) meant himself?" On that, the group said, "He verily said so." Umar then faced Alee (a.s) and Abbas and said, "I beseech you both by Allah (swt)! Do you both know that Allah's Messenger (saw) said so?" They both replied, "Yes." Umar then said, "Now I am talking to you about this matter (in detail). Allah (swt) favoured Allah's Messenger (saw) with some of this wealth which He did not give to anybody else, as Allah (swt) said: 'What Allah bestowed as Fai (Booty on His Apostle for which you made no expedition... ' (59.6) So that property was totally meant for Allah's Messenger (saw), yet he did not collect it and ignore you, nor did he withhold it with your exclusion, but he gave it to you and distributed it among you till this much of it was left behind, and the Prophet (saw), used to spend of this as the yearly expenditures of his family and then take what remained of it and spent it as he did with (other) Allah's (swt) wealth. The Prophet (saw) did so during all his lifetime, and I beseech you by Allah (swt), do you know that?" They replied, "Yes." Umar then addressed Alee (a.s) and Abbas, saying, "I beseech you both by Allah (swt), do you know that?" Both of them replied, "Yes." Umar added, "Then Allah (swt) took His Apostle (saw) unto Him. Aboo Bakr then said 'I am the successor of Allah's Messenger (saw)' and took over all the Prophet's property and disposed of it in the same way as Allah's Messenger (saw) used to do, and you were present then." Then he turned to Alee (a.s) and Abbas and said, "You both claim that Aboo Bakr did so-and-so in managing the property, but Allah (swt) knows that Aboo Bakr was honest, righteous, intelligent, and a follower of what is right in managing it. Then Allah (swt) took Aboo Bakr unto Him. I said: 'I am the successor of Allah's Messenger (saw) and Aboo Bakr.' So I took over the property for two years and managed it in the same way as Allah's Messenger (saw), and Aboo Bakr used to do. Then you both (Alee (a.s) and Abbas) came to me and asked for the same thing! (O Abbas! You came to me to ask me for your share from nephew's property; and this (Alee (a.s)) came to me asking for his wives share from her father's property, and I said to you both, 'If you wish, I will place it in your custody on condition that you both will manage it in the same way as Allah's Messenger (saw) and Aboo Bakr did, and as I have been doing since I took charge of managing it; otherwise, do not speak to me anymore about it.' Then you both said, 'Give it to us on that (condition).' So I gave it to you on that condition. Now I beseech you by Allah (swt), did I not give it to them on that condition?" The group (whom he had been addressing) replied, "Yes." Umar then addressed Abbas and Alee (a.s) saying, "I beseech you both by Allah (swt)! Didn't I give you all that property on that condition?" They said, "Yes." Umar then said, "Are you now seeking a verdict from me other than that? By Him with Whose Permission the Heaven and the Earth exists I will not give any verdict other than that till the Hour is established; and if you both are unable to manage this property, then you can hand it back to me, and I will be sufficient for it on your behalf."

Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. # 1804 - 1805, H. # 7305.



Al-Bukhari:

Narrated A'isha: Faatima (a.s) and Al-Abbas came to Aboo Bakr claiming their inheritance of the Prophet's (saw) land of Fadak and his share from Khaibar. Aboo Bakr said, "I heard the Prophet (saw) saying, 'Our property is not inherited, and whatever we leave is to be given in charity. But the family of Muhammad (saw) can take their sustenance from this property.' By Allah (swt)! I would love to do good to the Kith and kin of Allah's Apostle (saw) rather than to my own Kith and kin."

Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. # 989 - 990, H. # 4035.


Ibn Hibban:

Umar said..."And both of you (i.e. Alee (a.s) and Al-Abbas) thought him (Aboo Bakr) to be an oppressor and evil doer concerning it, and Allah (swt) knows that he was truthful, virtuous and a follower of the truth. Then I became its (Wali) after Aboo Bakr. Two years into my rule, I did the like of what the Messenger of Allah (saw) and Aboo Bakr did concerning it. And both of you thought me to be an omitter and evil-doer concerning it, and Allah (swt) knows that I am truthful, virtuous and a follower of the truth."

Shu'aib Al-Arnaut: The hadeeth is Saheeh (Authentic).

Source: Saheeh ibn Hibban. Vol. 14, Pg. # 577 - 578.


Abi Aw'wanah:

 ...... Umar said "So both of you (i.e. Alee (a.s) and Al-Abbas) thought him (Aboo Bakr) to be a liar, sinful, treacherous and dishonest."

Narration is Saheeh (Authentic).

Source:  Musnad Abi Aw'wanah. Vol. 4, Pg. # 245 - 247, H. # 6666.


We have previously shown the narration of Saheeh Muslim wherein Imam Alee (a.s) and Abbas rebuked Aboo Bakr. We shall now show the same narration with the exact chain of transmission with the words omitted from the text! As the narration has already been shown in Saheeh of Bukhari too, in which he also removes those critical parts: "liar, sinful, treacherous and dishonest".

Distoration Of The Words Of Alee (a.s) And Abbas (a.s)

Ibn Abd Al-Barr:

You demanded a share on behalf of your wife from the property of her father. Aboo Bakr said: The Messenger of Allah (saw) had said: "We do not have any heirs, what we leave behind is (to be given in) charity." So both of you ( i.e Alee (a.s) and Abbas) thought him (Aboo Bakr) to be ?????? and Allah (swt) knows that he was true, virtuous, well-guided and a follower of truth. When Aboo Bakr passed away, I said: 'I am the Wali of the Messenger of Allah (saw) and the Wali of Aboo Bakr.' So you thought me to be, and Allah (swt) knows that I am true, virtuous, well-guided and a follower of truth.

Source: Al-Tamheed. Vol. 8, Pg. # 166.



Our opponents throw sometimes the objection that if Amiral-Muminin Alee(a.s) called Abu Bakr and Umar; liars, sinners, dishonest and treacherous people, Al-Abbas has also called Alee(a.s) with the same words. We let one of biggest of their scholars to answer to this objection: 

Ibn Qutaybah:

A man asked him(i.e. asked Ibn Qutaybah): "O Aba Mohammad, do you know that Alee litigated with Abbas about Fadak to Abu Bakr?" he said: "Yes" the man said: "which one of the two was the oppressor?" he said: "neither of them was an oppressor." the man said: "Subhanallah! how could this be?" he said: "they both were like the two angels who litigated to Dawood(a.s)[Qur'an: 38:21-24], none of them was an oppressor, they both(i.e. the two angels) wanted to make him(i.e. Dawood a.s) realize his mistake and oppression, likewise these two wanted to make Abu Bakr know his mistake and oppression."

Source: Ta'wil Mukhtalif Al-Hadeeth, Pg. 126



As we saw these narrations show that Fadak was Fai, which is booty for the Messenger of Allah (saw) in which the Muslims made no expedition for according to the verse {59:6}. Allah (swt) says:

وَمَا أَفَاء اللَّهُ عَلَى رَسُولِهِ مِنْهُمْ فَمَا أَوْجَفْتُمْ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ خَيْلٍ وَلَا رِكَابٍ وَلَكِنَّ اللَّهَ يُسَلِّطُ رُسُلَهُ عَلَى مَن يَشَاءُ وَاللَّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ

And whatever Allah restored to His Messenger from them you did not press forward against it any horse or a riding camel but Allah gives authority to His messengers against whom He pleases, and Allah has power over all things.
Holy Qur'aan {59:6}


مَّا أَفَاء اللَّهُ عَلَى رَسُولِهِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْقُرَى فَلِلَّهِ وَلِلرَّسُولِ وَلِذِي الْقُرْبَى وَالْيَتَامَى وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ كَيْ لَا يَكُونَ دُولَةً بَيْنَ الْأَغْنِيَاء مِنكُمْ وَمَا آتَاكُمُ الرَّسُولُ فَخُذُوهُ وَمَا نَهَاكُمْ عَنْهُ فَانتَهُوا وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ

Whatever Allah has restored to His Messenger from the people of the towns, it is for Allah and for the Messenger, and for the near of kin and the orphans and the needy and the wayfarer, so that it may not be a thing taken by turns among the rich of you, and whatever the Messenger gives you, accept it, and from whatever he forbids you, keep back, and be careful of (your duty to) Allah; surely Allah is severe in retributing (evil).

Holy Qur'aan {59:7}



Initially, Umar claims that Fadak was Fai which was specified for travellers or wayfarers, but thereafter states the Messenger of Allah (saw) would give from that to his family, he says:

"So that property was totally meant for Allah's Messenger (saw), yet he did not collect it and ignore you, nor did he withhold it with your exclusion, but he gave it to you and distributed it among you till this much of it was left behind, and the Prophet (saw) used to spend of this as the yearly expenditures of his family and then take what remained of it and spent it as he did with (other) Allah's (swt) wealth. The Prophet (saw) did so during all his lifetime."


We must now question, how was it dedicated for travellers when the Prophet (saw) would give to his Ahlulbayt (a.s) from it and use it for the yearly expenditure of his family? Aboo Bakr also says that, "The family of the Messenger of Allah (saw) can take their sustenance from that property" so we repeat, how was it dedicated to travellers? The other important issue to note here is how Faatima (s.a) and Alee (a.s) asked for Fadak when it was Sadaqah (charity) when it is well known that charity is Haraam upon the Ahlulbayt (a.s)?

Muslim ibn Hajjaj:

Abd Al-Muttalib b. Rabi'a b. Al-Harith reported that Rabi'a b. Al-Harith and Abbas b. Abd Al-Muttalib gathered together and said: By Allah (swt)! If we had sent these two young boys (i.e. I and Fadl b. Abbas) to the Messenger of Allah (saw) and they had spoken to him, he would have appointed them (as the collectors) of these sadaqat; and they would (collect them) and pay (to the Holy Prophet (saw)) as other people (collectors) paid and would get a share as other people got it. As they were talking about it, there came Alee b. Aboo Talib (a.s) and stood before them, and they made a mention of it to him. Alee b. Aboo Talib (a.s) said: "Don't do that; by Allah (swt)! He (the Holy Prophet (saw)) would not do that (would not accept your request)." Rabi'a b. Harith turned to him and said: "By Allah (swt)! You are not doing so but out of jealousy that you nurse against us. By Allah (swt)! You became the son-in-law of the Messenger of Allah (saw) but we felt no jealousy against you (for this great privilege of yours)." Alee (a.s) then said: "Send them (if you like)." They set out and Alee (a.s) lay on the bed. When the Messenger of Allah (saw) offered the noon prayer we went ahead of him to his apartment and stood near it till he came out. He took hold of our ears (out of love and affection) and then said: "Give out what you have kept in your hearts." He then entered (the apartment) and we also went in and he (the Holy Prophet (saw)) was on that day (in the house of) Zainab b. Jahsh. We urged each (of us) to speak. Then one of us thus spoke: "Messenger of Allah (saw)! You are the best of humanity and the best to cement the ties of blood-relations. We have reached marriageable age. We have come (to you) so that you may appoint us (as collectors) of these sadaqat, and we would pay you just as thin people (other collectors) pay you, and get our share as others get it. He (the Holy Prophet (saw)) kept silent for a long time till we wished that we should speak with him (again), and Zainab pointed to us from behind the curtain not to talk (any more). He (the Holy Prophet (saw)) said, "It does not become the family of Muhammad (saw) (to accept) sadaqat for they are the impurities of people. You call to me Mahmiya (and he was in charge of khums, i.e. of the one-fifth part that goes to the treasury out of the spoils of war), and Naufal b. Harith b. Abd Al-Muttalib." They both came to him, and he (the Holy Prophet (saw)) said to Mahmiya: "Marry your daughter to this young man (i.e. Fadl b. Abbas)," and he married her to him and he said to Naufal b. Harith: "Marry your daughter to this young man (i e. Abd al-Muttalib b. Rabi'a, the narrator of this hadith)," and he married her to me, and he said to Mahmiya: "Pay so much mahr on behalf of both of them from this khums." Zuhri, however said: He did not determine (the amount of mahr).

Source: Saheeh Muslim. Pg. # 477 - 478, H. # 167.


Muslim ibn Hajjaj:

Chapter: Zakat is forbidden for the messenger of Allah (pbuh and his family), and they are Banu Hashim and Banu Al-Muttalib, and no one else: Aboo Huraira reported that Hassan ibn Alee (a.s) took one of the dates of the Sadaqah and put it in his mouth, whereupon the Prophet (saw) said: "Leave it, leave it, throw it; don't you know that we do not eat the Sadaqah?"

Aboo Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (saw) as saying: "I go back to my family and I find a date lying on my bed. I then take it up to eat it, but then I throw it away fearing that it may be a Sadaqah."

Out of so many ahadith which Hammam b. Munabbih narrated on the authority of Aboo Huraira from the Messenger of Allah (saw) one is this that the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "I go back to my family and I find a date lying on my bed or in my house, and I take it up to eat it, but then I throw it away fearing that it may be a Sadaqah or from Sadaqah."

Source: Saheeh Muslim. Pg. # 476 - 477, H. # 161.


Ahmad ibn Hanbal:

Narrated Waki from Shu'ba from Muhammad ibn Ziyad from Abi Huraira and also Abdul Rahman from Shu'ba from Muhammad ibn Ziyad who said: I heard Abi Huraira saying: "The Prophet (saw) saw Al-Hassan ibn Alee (a.s) taking a date from the dates dedicated to charity and put it in his mouth. The Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "Throw it, throw it, verily charity is not Halal for us."

Al-Arna'ut: Its chain is Saheeh (Authentic) by the criteria of Sheikhayn (i.e. Bukhari and Muslim).

Source: Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Vol. 15, Pg. # 453, H. # 9728.



On evaluation of the above, we arrive at three different conclusions which are as follows:

1 - The Prophet (saw) did not inform his family that Fadak and the other properties were Sadaqah (charity).

This would make no sense, since we see that the Prophet (saw) was extremely careful that his family never ate anything whatsoever from Sadaqah. How could it be possible that he (saw) would not have told his family regarding Fadak and the other properties of Khaybar etc. being from amongst the Sadaqah? In addition, it would be a complete oddity in that he (saw) would only inform Aboo Bakr about it, this too even when Allah (swt) orders His Prophet (saw) to make matters clear to people:

وَمَا أَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ إِلاَّ لِتُبَيِّنَ لَهُمُ الَّذِي اخْتَلَفُواْ فِيهِ وَهُدًى وَرَحْمَةً لِّقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ

And We have not revealed to you the Book except that you may make clear to them that about which they differ, and (as) a guidance and a mercy for a people who believe.

Holy Qur'aan {16:64} 
 


How does it make sense that the Prophet (saw) did not clear up such an important issue like Fadak to his own daughter wherein the Muslims differed and disputed throughout history?

In an attempt to answer this objection, Fakhr Al-Razi states:


Fakhr Al-Razi:

The people who needed to know this, were no other than Faatima (s.a), Alee (a.s) and Abbas, and these were people of great piety, owner of knowledge and religion, but Aboo Bakr did not need to know this issue indeed, because he was not among those who could even imagine to inherit from the Prophet (saw). So how is it possible that the Messenger (saw) told this to someone who does not need to know, and he (saw) does not inform those who need to know this severely?!

The answer is that: Faatima (s.a) was pleased with the statement of Aboo Bakr after this debate, so the consensus was formed upon the correctness of what Aboo Bakr did, therefore this question is void and Allah (swt) knows best.

Source: Tafsir Fakhr Al-Razi. Vol. 9, Pg. # 217 - 218. 



We can see that the answer which Fakhr Al-Razi gives to this objection is rather baseless, since the evidences clearly show that Faatima (s.a) was not pleased with Aboo Bakr at all. They will be presented in the following sections. She was angry at him, refused to talk to him and in protest of this, did not let him participate in her funeral. The next question one would pose is, were the wives of the Prophet (saw) also aware of this?

Al-Bukhari:

The subnarrator said: I told Urwa bin Az-Zubair of this Hadeeth (i.e. Hadeeth of Alee (a.s) and Abbas going to Umar) and he said, Malik bin Aus has told the truth. I heard A'isha, the wife of the Prophet (saw) saying, "The wives of the Prophet (saw) sent Uthman to Aboo Bakr demanding from him their one-eight of the Fai which Allah (swt) had granted to His Messenger (saw), but I used to oppose them and say to them: 'Will you not fear Allah (swt)? Don't you know that the Prophet (saw) used to say: Our property is not inherited, but whatever we leave is to be given in charity? The Prophet (saw) mentioned that regarding himself. He added: The family of Muhammad (saw) can take their sustenance from this property.' So the wives of the Prophet (saw) stopped demanding it when I told them of that. So, this property (of Sadaqah) was in the hands of Alee (a.s) who withheld it from Abbas and overpowered him. Then it came in the hands of Hassan bin Alee (a.s), then in the hands of Hussain bin Alee (a.s) and then in the hands of Alee ibn Hussain (a.s) and Hassan ibn Hassan, and each of the last two used to manage it in turn. Then it came in the hands of Zaid bin Hassan, and it was truly the Sadaqah of Allah's Messenger (saw)."


Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. # 989, H. # 4034.





The interesting issue here is that while Aboo Bakr rejected giving anything to Faatima (s.a) and even the wives of the Prophet (saw), Umar contradicted him and divided the booty of Khaybar among the wives of the Prophet (saw)!


Al-Bukhari:

Narrated Abdullah bin Umar: The Prophet (saw) concluded a contract with the people of Khaybar to utilize the land on the condition that half the products of fruits or vegetation would be their share. The Prophet (saw) used to give his wives one hundred Wasqs each; eighty Wasqs of dates and twenty Wasqs of barley. (When Umar became the Caliph) he gave the wives of the Prophet (saw) the option of either having the land and water as their shares, or carrying on with the previous practice. Some of them chose the land and some chose the Wasqs, and A'isha chose the land.

Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. # 560, H. # 2328.




Many questions comes to mind here which are that if Fadak was not from the property of the Prophet (saw), how did he (saw) then provide sustenance to his family from it and use it to divide it among Bani Hashim? Why do we see Umar dividing it between the wives of the Prophet (saw)? How is it that here A'isha does not mention that it is charity, but rather cheerfully chooses to be given the land? And if it was inheritance of the Prophet (saw), then how did the wives attain their share but the daughter of the Prophet (saw) was rejected to be given anything from that property?

The other possibility is:

2 - The Prophet (saw) told his daughter Faatima (s.a) that it was Sadaqah, but Faatima (s.a) and Alee (a.s) still insisted to receive that Haraam property after the death of the Prophet (saw).

This is indeed impossible and truly makes no sense. How is it that the chief of the women of paradise and the Commander of the Faithful would engage in corrupt activity and possess characters similar to that of the untruthful?

3 - Aboo Bakr was a liar and he fabricated the narration from the Prophet (saw) that he said: "We the Prophets (a.s) do not leave any wealth, whatever we leave is Sadaqah (charity)." 

So far we can clearly see that the third option is more than likely to be the correct one, since all the evidences provided lean more towards it.

It is also worthy noting that the messenger of Allah (saw) did not give from that property to other than Banu Hashim and Banu Al-Muttalib during his lifetime:

Al-Bukhari:

Narrated Jubair bin Mu'tim: Uthman bin Affan and I went to the Prophet (saw) and said, "You had given Banu Al-Muttalib from the Khumus of Khaibar's booty and left us in spite of the fact that we and Banu Al-Muttalib are similarly related to you." The Prophet (saw) said, "Banu Hashim and Banu Al-Muttalib only are one and the same." So the Prophet (saw) did not give anything to Banu Abd Shams and Banu Nawfal.

Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. # 1037, H. # 4229.



Fadak in the Holy Qur'aan:


وَآتِ ذَا الْقُرْبَى حَقَّهُ وَالْمِسْكِينَ وَابْنَ السَّبِيلِ وَلاَ تُبَذِّرْ تَبْذِيرًا

And give to the near of kin his due and (to) the needy and the wayfarer, and do not squander wastefully.

Holy Qur'aan {17:26}

Al-Hakim Al-Haskani:

Narrated Al-Hakim the father Aboo Muhammad from Umar ibn Ahmad ibn Uthman in Baghdad in oral form from Umar ibn Al-Hassan ibn Alee ibn Malik from Ja'far ibn Muhammad Al-Amsi from Hassan ibn Hussain from Aboo Mu'ammar Sa'eed ibn Khaytham and Alee ibn Al-Qasim Al-Kindi and Yahya ibn Ya'laa and Alee ibn Mas'har from Faudhayl ibn Marzouq from Atiya from Abi Sa'eed who said: "When 'And give to the near of kin his due' was revealed, the Messenger of Allah (saw) gave Fadak to Faatima (s.a)."

Narrated ibn Abi Bakr ibn Sa'eed Al-Hibri from Aboo Amr Al-Hibri from Aboo Ya'laa Al-Mawsili from Al-Hussain bin Yazid Al-Tahaan from Sa'eed ibn Khaytham from Fudhayl from Atiya from Abi Sa'eed who said: "When the verse 'And give to the near of kin his due' was revealed, the Messenger of Allah (saw) called Faatima (s.a) and gave her the Fadak."

Narrated Aboo Yahya Al-Khuri and Aboo Alee Al-Qadhi both of them said: Narrated to us Muhammad ibn Nu'aym Aboo Hamid from Ahmad ibn Ibraheem Al-Faqih from Saleh ibn Abi Ramih Al-Tirmidhi in the year 325 A.H from Aboo Abdullah ibn Abi Bakr ibn Abi Khaythama from Abbad ibn Ya'qoub from Alee ibn Hashim from Dawood Al-Tahi from Fudhayl from Atiya from Abi Sa'eed who said: "When the verse 'And give to the near of kin his due' was revealed, the Messenger of Allah (saw) called Faatima (s.a) and gave her the Fadak."

Narrated Aboo Uthman Sa'eed ibn Muhammad Al-Madini in Madinah from Umm Al-Fatah the servant of Al-Salam daughter of Ahmad ibn Kamil Al-Qadhi in Baghdad from Aboo Bakr Muhammad ibn Isma'eel Al-Bandaar from Abul Hussain ibn Al-Hussain Al-Darhami from Abdullah ibn Dawood from Fudhayl the same narration.

Narrated Zakariya ibn Ahmad in my house from Muhammad ibn Al-Hussain ibn Al-Nukhas in Baghdad from Abdullah ibn Zaydan from Aboo Kurayb Mu'awiyah ibn Hisham Al-Qassar from Fudhayl ibn Marzouq from Atiya from Abi Sa'eed who said: "When the verse 'And give to the near of kin his due' was revealed, the Messenger of Allah (saw) called Faatima (s.a) and gave her the Fadak."

Narrated Aboo Sa'd Al-Sa'di in Jame' from Abul Fadhl Al-Tusi from Aboo Bakr Al-Amiri from Haroun ibn Isa from Bakkar ibn Muhammad ibn Shu'ba from his father from Bakr ibn Al-Atiq from Atiya Al-Awfi from Abi Sa'eed Al-Khudri who said: "When the following verse was revealed upon the Messenger of Allah (saw), 'And give to the near of kin his due' he called Faatima (s.a) and gave her the Fadak and the surroundings and said to her: 'This is the share that Allah (swt) has given to you for your progeny.'"

Narrated Abul Hassan Al-Farsi from Al-Hussain ibn Muhammad Al-Masarjasi from Ja'far ibn Sahl in Baghdad from Al-Mundhir ibn Muhammad Al-Qabusi from his father from his grandfather from Aban ibn Taghlub from Ja'far ibn Muhammad (a.s) from his father (a.s) from Alee ibn Al-Hussain (a.s) from his father (a.s) from Alee (a.s) who said: "When 'And give to the near of kin his due' was revealed, the Messenger of Allah (saw) called Faatima (s.a) and gave the Fadak."

Source: Shawahid Al-Tanzil. Vol. 1, Pg. # 338 - 341.


Attesting Al-Hakim Al-Haskani

Al-Dhahabi:

The Imam, the Muhaddith (scholar of Hadeeth), the righteous, the jurist, Abul Qasim, Ubaydullah ibn Abdullah ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Haskan Al-Qurashi, Al-Amiri, Al-Naysaburi, Al-Hanafi, Al-Hakim also known as ibn Hazzaah, he was one of the children of the commanders who conquered Khorasan, Abdullah ibn Amir ibn Kurayz.

Source: Siyar A'lam Al-Nubala. Vol. 18, Pg. # 268 - 269, Person # 132.



Al-Suyuti:

And narrated Al-Bazzar and Abu Ya'laa and ibn Abi Hatam and ibn Mardawaih from Abi Sa'eed Al-Khudri who said: "When the following verse was revealed, 'And give to the near of kin his due,' the Messenger of Allah (saw) called Faatima (s.a) and gave her the Fadak."

And narrated ibn Mardawaih from ibn Abbas who said: "When the verse 'And give to the near of kin his due' was revealed, the Messenger of Allah (saw) gave Fadak to Faatima (s.a)."

Source: Al-Durr Al-Manthur Fi Tafsir Bil-Ma'thur. Vol. 9, Pg. # 320 - 321.


Aboo Ya'la Al-Mawsili:


Narrated to me Al-Hussain ibn Yazeed Al-Tahaan this narration from Sa'eed ibn Khuthaym from Fudhayl from Atiya from Abi Sa'eed who said: "When the following verse was revealed, 'And give to the near of kin his due,' the Prophet (saw) called Faatima (s.a) and gave her the Fadak."

Footnote: Its chains is weak due to the weakness of Atiya. Al-Haythami has mentioned it and said: "Narrated Al-Tabarani and in it there is Atiya Al-Awfi, and he is Matrook" and he has forgotten to mention it through Abi Ya'la too.

Source: Musnad Aboo Ya'la. Vol. 2, Pg. # 334.


Attesting Atiya Al-Awfi 

Interestingly, Al-Haythami who mentions under the above narration that "Atiya Al-Awfi is weak and matrook" says in several other places that "Atiya is Weak, but ibn Ma'een has authenticated him." The only place where he weakens Atiya is under the narration which mentions that the Prophet (saw) gave Fadak to Faatima (s.a)! Here we can see the obvious tricks and double standards of the Nawasib.

Al-Haythami:

Atiya Al-Awfi is in it, and he is weak, but ibn Ma'een has authenticated him.

Source: Maj'ma ul-Zawa'id. Vol. 7, Pg. # 432.



Ibn Sa'd:

Atiya ibn Sa'd ibn Junada Al-Awfi from the tribe of Qays and his title was Abal Hassan.
And he was trustworthy Insha'Allah, and he has reliable narrations and some people do not take him as proof.

Source: Tabaqat Al-Kubra. Vol. 8, Pg. # 421.


Ibn Hajar:

Atiya ibn Sa'd ibn Junada, Al-Awfi Al-Jadali, Al-Kufi, Abul Hassan, he is truthful, he used to make mistakes much. And he was Shi'a and Mudallis (when a narrator narrates a hadeeth from someone but then says the someone else has narrated it to him). He is of the 8th generation. He died in the year 111 A.H. Bukhari in his Tarikh, Abi Dawood, Tirmidhi and ibn Majah have narrated from him.

Source: Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Pg. # 333, Person # 4616.



Ibn Shaheen mentions him in his book  "name of trustworthy narrators":

Ibn Shaheen:

Atiya Al-Awfi, there is no problem in him, Yahya (ibn Ma'een) says this.

Source: Tarikh Asma Al-Thiqat. Pg. # 172.


Al-Ijli also mentions him in his book "knowing the trustworthy narrators":

Al-Ijli:

Atiya Al-Awfi, a trustworthy Tabi'ee from Kufa, and he is not strong.

Source: Ma'rifat Al-Thiqat. Vol. 2, Pg. # 140.


Al-Dhahabi:

Atiya ibn Sa'd Al-Awfi, Abul Hassan, he has narrated from Abi Sa'eed and a group of Sahabah and his sons have narrated from him and also Amr, Al-Hassan, Mis'ar and Qurra. The scholars have weakened him. He died in the year 111 A.H. Abi Dawood, Al-Tirmidhi and Al-Nasai have narrated from him.

Footnote: He says in Al-Mughni: "Atiya ibn Sa'd, there is consensus upon his weakness." But Al-Tirmidhi has said about his narration that it is Hasan (Reliable) in his Jame' in the hadeeth: "It is not allowed for anyone to become impure in this Masjid except for you and me." Al-Tirmidhi says: "This narration is Hasan Gharib, we do not know it through any other form." Al-Ijli says:  "A trustworthy Tabi'ee and he is not strong." And in Al-Mizan from ibn Ma'een that he said: "He is reliable."

Source: Al-Kashaf. Vol. 2, Pg. # 27.


Ibn Khuzayma, Imam of Imams according to Ibn Taimiyyah says about a narration's chain in which Atiya narrates from Abi Sa'eed Al-Khudri that its chain is firm and its content is authentic:

Ibn Khuzayma:

Chapter of the narrations that have firm chains and correct content that many of the people of ignorance count these narrations contradictory to what we have mentioned before, because of their different wording, but they are not contradictory in our opinion due to their hidden meaning and we will mention the meaning of every one of them after narrating the narration with their wording. May Allah (swt) give success in this and be pleased with it.

Narrated Bishr ibn Ma'aaz from Khalid ibn Abdullah Al-Wasiti from Zakariyya ibn Abi Zahida from Atiya from Abi Sa'eed Al-Khudri who said: The Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "Whoever dies without associating someone with Allah (swt), he will enter into Paradise."

Source: Al-Tawheed. Pg. # 847 / 852 - 853.



The best argument that the Salafi scholar Ibn Kathir derives when narrating this narration is that this Qur'aanic Surah (i.e. Surah 17, Al-Asraa or Bani Isra'eel) is a Makkan Surah and therefore to say that the Prophet (saw) gave Fadak to Faatima (s.a) when Verse 26 of this Surah was revealed, is void. He goes even further to say that this narration may have been fabricated by the Rafidha! When the best argument of a great scholar of theirs lowers himself to such a level, then it is fairly obvious that they stand no chance in refuting the issue of Fadak. 

Now let us see if what ibn Kathir says has any basis:

Al-Zamakhshari:

Surah Al-Asraa, it is Makkan, except for the verses 26, 32, 33, 57 and from 73 to 80 which are Madani and the verse 111 has been revealed after the Surah of Al-Qasas.

Source: Tafsir Al-Kashaf. Vol. 3, Pg. # 491.



Al-Suyuti & Al-Muhallah:

Surah Al-Asraa, it is Makkan, except for the verses 26, 32, 33, 57 and from 73 to 80 which are Madani and the verse 111 has been revealed after the Surah of Al-Qasas.

Source: Tafsir Al-Jalalayn. Pg. # 282.


Mahmud Al-Alusi:

Surah 17, the Bani Isra'eel. It is also called Al-Asraa and Subhan too. And this Surah is Makkan according to what ibn Mardawaih has narrated from ibn Abbas and ibn Al-Zubayr, and being Makkan in its entire form is also the opinion of the majority. And the author of Al-Ghanyan has said that there is consensus on this, it is said though that with the exception of the two verses: "And surely they had purposed to turn you away…"{17:73} and "And surely they purposed to unsettle…"{17:76} and it is said except the following four verses:  The previous two verses and the verse "And when We said to you: Surely your Lord encompasses men…" {17:60} and "And say: My Lord! make me to enter a goodly entering…" {17:60}, and Maqatil has added this verse too: "Surely those who are given the knowledge before…" {17:107} and Al-Hassan has said that except the following five verses of it: "And do not kill any one whom…" {17:33} and "And go not nigh to fornication…" {17:33} and "Those whom they call upon…" {17:57} and "Keep up prayer" {17:78} and "And give to the near of kin his due" {17:26}, and Qatada has said that except eight verses: and that is the verse "And surely they had purposed to turn you away" {17:73} up to the end, and there are also other opinions.

Source: Ruh Al-Ma'ani Fi Tafseer Al-Qur'aan. Vol. 15, Pg. # 1.


Mahmud Al-Alusi:

And what has been narrated by Al-Bazzar, Aboo Ya'la, ibn Abi Hatam and ibn Mardawaih from Abi Sa'eed Al-Khudri that when this verse was revealed, the Messenger of Allah (saw) called Faatima (s.a) and gave her the Fadak, does not confine in addressing to him (saw), because there is something in my heart about the authenticity of this narration, based on the fact that this Surah is Makkan and this verse is not of the exceptions (i.e. of being a Madani verse) and Fadak was not under the Messenger of Allah's (saw) control at that time, rather she (s.a) asked for it as her inheritance after the death of the Prophet (saw), as it is famous.  

Source: Ruh Al-Ma'ani Fi Tafseer Al-Qur'aan. Vol. 15, Pg. # 62.



As can be seen, Mahmud Al-Alusi having a Nasibi heart contradicts himself and states that this verse is not from among the exceptions of being Makkan, even though he himself mentions the opinion of Hassan Al-Basri, that Verse 26 is an exception, i.e. It has been revealed after Hijra in Madinah. Let us take a look at something even more interesting as to what he says about Verse 85 of the same Surah (17):

Mahmud Al-Alusi:

And the verse according to this and the previous one is Makkan, and according to two authentic narrations it is Madani, and some scholars have gathered the two opinions into one and said that the verse has been revealed twice, so think about it.

Source: Ruh Al-Ma'ani Fi Tafseer Al-Qur'aan. Vol. 15, Pg. # 153.



Interitance Of The Prophets (a.s) In The Holy Qur'aan


ذِكْرُ رَحْمَةِ رَبِّكَ عَبْدَهُ زَكَرِيَّا

A mention of the mercy of your Lord to His servant Zakariya.

إِذْ نَادَى رَبَّهُ نِدَاء خَفِيًّا

When he called upon his Lord in a low voice,

قَالَ رَبِّ إِنِّي وَهَنَ الْعَظْمُ مِنِّي وَاشْتَعَلَ الرَّأْسُ شَيْبًا وَلَمْ أَكُن بِدُعَائِكَ رَبِّ شَقِيًّا

He said: My Lord! surely my bones are weakened and my head flares with hoariness, and, my Lord! I have never been unsuccessful in my prayer to Thee:

وَإِنِّي خِفْتُ الْمَوَالِيَ مِن وَرَائِي وَكَانَتِ امْرَأَتِي عَاقِرًا فَهَبْ لِي مِن لَّدُنكَ وَلِيًّا

And surely I fear my cousins after me, and my wife is barren, therefore grant me from Thyself an heir,

يَرِثُنِي وَيَرِثُ مِنْ آلِ يَعْقُوبَ وَاجْعَلْهُ رَبِّ رَضِيًّا

Who should inherit me and inherit from the children of Yaqoub, and make him, my Lord, one in whom Thou art well pleased.

Holy Qur'aan {19:2-6}


Sufyan Al-Thawri:

Sufyan said about this verse: "Who should inherit me and inherit from the children of Yaqoub" {19:6}, it means that "Who should inherit from me the wealth and inherit from the children of Yaqoub (a.s) the Prophethood."

Footnote: This is also the opinion of ibn Abbas, Abi Saleh, Al-Hassan (Al-Basri), Al-Suddi, Zayd ibn Aslam, Mujahid, Al-Sha'bi and Al-Zah'haak as mentioned in Tafsir of Tabari.

Source: Tafsir Sufyan Al-Thawri. Pg. # 181.


Al-Tabari:

The verse: "Who should inherit me and inherit from the children of Yaqoub"{19:6}, it said that it means: "Who should inherit from me my wealth after my death and inherit from the children of Yaqoub (a.s), the Prophethood, because Zakariya (a.s) was of the children of Yaqoub (a.s). And the scholars of interpretation have said like we have said about this.

Those who have said this: Narrated Aboo Kurayb from Jabir ibn Nooh from Isma'eel from Abi Saleh about the verse: "Who should inherit me and inherit from the children of Yaqoub" {19:6], he says, it means: "Who should inherit my wealth, and inherit the Prophethood from the children of Yaqoub (a.s)."

Narrated Mujahid from Yazeed from Isma'eel from Abi Saleh about this verse: "Who should inherit me and inherit from the children of Yaqoub" {19:6}, he said: "Who should inherit my wealth, and inherit the Prophethood from the children of Yaqoub (a.s)."

Narrated Yaqoub from Hushaym from Isma'eel ibn Khalid from Abi Saleh about this verse: "Who should inherit me and inherit from the children of Yaqoub" {19:6}, he said: "Who should inherit my wealth, and inherit the Prophethood from the children of Yaqoub (a.s)."

Narrated Aboo Kurayb from Jabir ibn Nooh from Mubarak from Al-Hassan who said: The Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "May Allah (swt) bless Zakariyya (a.s), he did not have heirs for his wealth when he said: "Therefore grant me from Thyself an heir, Who should inherit me and inherit from the children of Yaqoub" {19:5-6}.

Source: Tafsir Al-Tabari. Vol. 15, Pg. # 457 - 459.


Al-Suyuti:

Narrated Al-Faryabi from ibn Abbas who said: Zakariyya (a.s) did not have any child, so he asked his Lord and said: "Therefore grant me from Thyself an heir, Who should inherit me and inherit from the children of Yaqoub (a.s) {19:5-6}." He said, it means, "Who should inherit my wealth and inherit the Prophethood from the children of Yaqoub (a.s)."

Narrated ibn Abi Shaybah and ibn Al-Mundhir from Mujahid and Ikrimah about the verse: "Who should inherit me and inherit from the children of Yaqoub (a.s) {19:6}," they said: it means, "Who should inherit my wealth, and inherit the Prophethood from the children of Yaqoub (a.s)."

And narrated Abd ibn Humayd from Abi Saleh about the verse: "And surely I fear my cousins after me" he said, it means that he feared the cousins as a man who did not have any progeny. And the verse: "Who should inherit me and inherit from the children of Yaqoub (a.s)" [19:6], he said: it means: "Who should inherit my wealth and inherit the Prophethood from the children of Yaqoub (a.s)."

Source: Al-Durr Al-Mansoor. Vol. 10, Pg. # 12.


Ibn Atiya:

The majority of the Mufasireen say that he (i.e. Prophet Zakariyya (a.s)) meant inheritance of wealth.

Source: Tafsir ibn Atiya. Vol. 6, Pg. # 8.


Al-Qurtubi:

Al-Nukhas said: About the meaning of, "Who should inherit me and inherit from the children of Yaqoub (a.s)" {19:6}. The scholars have three opinions: Some say: It is inheritance of Prophethood, some say: It is inheritance of Wisdom, and some say: It is inheritance of wealth.

The first opinion, i.e. inheritance of Prophethood is impossible, because Prophethood cannot be inherited, if it was like that then some might have said: The people are children of Noah (a.s) and he was a Prophet sent by Allah (swt).

The second opinion is inheritance of Wisdom and knowledge, which is the opinion of Al-Hassan (Al-Basri), and there is a hadeeth, "The scholars are the heirs of the Prophets."

And the third opinion which is inheritance is not impossible, even though some people have rejected it due to the statement of the Prophet (saw): "Our property should not be inherited, and whatever we leave, is to be spent in charity..." But this is no proof for it, because it is possible that a person talks about himself in plural form and also that narration can be interpreted this way: "Our property should not be inherited, what we have left is charity." Because the Prophet (saw) did not leave things that can be inherited from him. And what Allah (swt) has made permissible for him, was in his lifetime due to the verse: "And know that whatever thing you gain, a fifth of it is for Allah and for the Messenger…" {8:41}, because the meaning of "for Allah" is "for the path of Allah" and from the path of Allah (swt) is what is good for the Messenger (saw) as long as he is alive.

If it is asked that in some narrations in says: "We the group of Prophets cannot be inherited, whatever we leave, is to be spent in charity," then there are two interpretations for it. First that "whatever" means "those things" and the second is that a person like this cannot be inherited.

Source: Tafsir Al-Qurtubi. Vol. 13, Pg. # 415.


Objection One:

If Zakariyya (a.s) prayed to Allah (swt) to grant him a son so that he can inherit his wealth, it shows him to be stingy and envious. 

Response One:

Firstly, the word "inheritance" refers to "inheritance of wealth" in the common language and if used for other than that, for instance knowledge etc. it would be in the metaphorical form which would require proof to make that clear. Secondly, when lady Faatima Az-Zahra (s.a) used these verses of the Holy Qur'aan in the discussion she had with Aboo Bakr, nobody from amongst the companions spoke out and said that these verses refer to the inheritance of prophethood and knowledge. Rather, Aboo Bakr tried to escape from it through the 'Sunnah,' which of course he himself had fabricated. We shall discuss the issue of the debate that took place later Insha'Allah Ta'Ala.

As for the objection that this would turn Zakariyya (a.s) into a jealous and a miserly person; We say that it does not show that at all, because a prophet does not wish that his wealth and property be inherited by people of Fisq (transgression) and sinners who would use it in the path of Shaytaan instead of the path of Allah (swt). Nevertheless, if what they claim to be is true, then the same objection would also apply to the inheritance of Prophethood and knowledge. Does it really make sense that a Prophet of God would feel jealousy towards his cousins if they were to become prophets and possess knowledge after him?! This in itself actually goes to show how ridiculous this objection is.


وَوَرِثَ سُلَيْمَانُ دَاوُودَ وَقَالَ يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ عُلِّمْنَا مَنطِقَ الطَّيْرِ وَأُوتِينَا مِن كُلِّ شَيْءٍ إِنَّ هَذَا لَهُوَ الْفَضْلُ الْمُبِينُ

And Sulaiman was Dawood's heir, and he said: O men! We have been taught the language of birds, and we have been given all things; most surely this is manifest grace.


Holy Qur'aan {27:16}

 
Samaqandi:

Then Allah (swt) said: "And Sulaiman was Dawood's heir." i.e. Heir of his kingdom, and Al-Hasan (Al-Basri) has said: "He inherited the wealth and the kingdom and not the Prophethood and knowledge, because Prophethood and knowledge are the graces of Allah (swt) and cannot be inherited."

Source: Tafsir Al-Samarqandi. Vol. 2, Pg. # 491.



 
Objection Two:

Dawood (a.s) had many wives and children, so if this verse was about inheritance of wealth, why didn't the other heirs of Dawood (a.s) inherit from him?

Response Two:

The verse does not exclude the other heirs of Dawood (a.s) of their inheritance. But it only mentions Sulayman (a.s), since it was he, out of all the sons whom inherited the kingdom and the property that belonged to it in particular which was the major part which Prophet Dawood (a.s) left behind. Thus this objection is void.   

Some may ask then how is it that Faatima (s.a) asked for Fadak as her inheritance? Firstly, Fadak was in her hands, but Aboo Bakr usurped it and expelled her servants from Fadak. When she (s.a) asked for it, Aboo Bakr asked for witnesses, thereafter Umm Ayman and Imam Alee (a.s) witnessed that the Prophet (saw) gave Fadak to her. Aboo Bakr did not accept the witnesses and so Faatima (s.a) told him to give her the Fadak as her inheritance. Aboo Bakr then fabricated that narration to not return Fadak back. We will Insha'Allah Ta'ala show the evidences for that, but first we shall allow the scholars of the so-called 'Ahl ul Sunnah' to answer this question:

Al-Zarkashi:

Al-Sam'ani has argued for the validiy of the consensus of the Sahaba because they singled the statement of Allah (swt), "Allah enjoins you concerning your children..." {4:11} to the Prophet's (saw) statement: "We the group of Prophets do not leave inheritance." If someone asks that Faatima (s.a) asked for it as her inheritance, we will reply that: She asked for it as gift (of the Prophet (saw)) not as inheritance.

Source: Al-Bahr Al-Muhit Fi Usool Al-Fiqh. Vol. 3, Pg. # 364.


Again, we see excuse after excuse in order to create rulings for the validity of the consensus of the Sahaba. The scholar of the so-called 'Ahl ul Sunnah' states that Faatima (s.a) asked for Fadak as a gift from the Prophet (saw) to her and not inheritance. But even we are to bring this argument forward we find the opponents reverting back to the other side saying she (s.a) asked for Fadak only as her inheritance!

Here, Shahristani mentions the disputes which took place after the Prophet (saw) demise.

Al-Shahristani:

The sixth dispute: In the issue of Fadak and the inheritance of the Prophet (saw) and the claim of Faatima (s.a) for it once as her inheritance and as her property the other time, until her claim was rejected by the famous narration of the Prophet (saw): "We the group of Prophets do not leave inheritance, whatever we leave is charity."

Source: Al-Milal Wa Nihal. Vol. 1, Pg. #32 - 33.



If Faatima (s.a) claimed Fadak as her inheritance then why is it that we do not see it in any of the six major books? Only traces of it are apparent, however, the debate which actually took place is unseen. Traces are available in Sahih Al-Bukhari and Muslim for example where it is mentioned that Imam Alee (a.s) confronted Aboo Bakr and Umar and as a result, accused both Aboo Bakr and Umar of being, "liars, sinful, treacherous and dishonest." Imam Alee (a.s) even disliked to see the face of Umar, those harsh words against them shows that a huge dispute had happened before between Ahlulbayt(a.s) and the usurpers, but of course, they care not to mention the whole story in its true form. This leads one to search other books which are more open to revealing such disputes between the Ahlulbayt (a.s) and the so-called Companions. We will mention some of those traces to create the full image of what truly happened.

Imam Alee (a.s) says in his letter to Uthman ibn Unayf Al-Ansari that Fadak was in their hands:

Ibn Hamdoon:

Yes, from all that was under the sky only Fadak was in our hands, then it was targeted by the greedy of some people (i.e. Aboo Bakr and Umar) and another group (i.e. the Ahlulbayt (a.s)) generously left it.

Source: Al-Tazkira Al-Hamdawiyya. Vol. 1, Pg. # 99.


Al-Baladhari:

Narrated Al-Mada'ini from Sa'eed ibn Khalid, servant of Khuza'a from Musa ibn Uqba who said: Faatima (s.a) entered upon Aboo Bakr when he was paid allegiance, she said: "Umm Ayman and Rabah bear witness for me that the Messenger of Allah (saw) gave me the Fadak." Aboo Bakr said: "By Allah (swt)! There is no one more dear to me than your father, I wished the Judgment Day had happened in the day that he passed away, I prefer A'isha to encounter poverty rather than your poverty, do you think I give every red and black their rights and I oppress you, while you are the daughter of the Messenger of Allah (saw)? This wealth is for the Muslims. Your father used to appoint people over it and spent it for charity. I will do with it what your father did. Faatima (s.a) said: "By Allah (swt)! I will not speak to you!" He said: "By Allah (swt)! I will not leave speaking with you." She said: "By Allah (swt)! I will pray to Allah (swt) against you." He said: "But I will pray to Allah (swt) for you."

Source: Ansaab Al-Ashraaf. Vol. 10, Pg. # 79.


Aboo Bakr Al-Jawhari narrates the same narration through another chain:

Al-Jawhari:

Narrated Hisham ibn Muhammad from his father who said: Faatima (s.a) said to Aboo Bakr: "Umm Ayman bears witness that the Messenger of Allah (saw) has given me the Fadak." Aboo Bakr said: "O daughter of the Messenger of Allah (saw)! By Allah (swt)! There is no one more dear to me than your father, the Messenger of Allah (saw), I wished that the sky had fallen on Earth on the day that your father passed away, I prefer A'isha to encounter poverty rather than your poverty, do you think I give every red and black their rights and I oppress you, while you are the daughter of the Messenger of Allah (saw)? This wealth was not for the Prophet (saw), it was for Muslims. Your father used to appoint people over it and spent it for charity. When the Messenger of Allah (saw) died, I did the same as he did with it. Faatima (s.a) said: "By Allah (swt)! I will never speak to you again!" He said: "By Allah (swt)! I will not leave speaking with you." She said: "By Allah (swt)! I will pray to Allah (swt) against you." He said: "But I will pray to Allah (swt) for you." When it was near her death, she willed that Aboo Bakr does not pray over her body, so she was buried at night and Abbas ibn Abdul Mutallib prayed over her, and her death was 72 nights after her father's death.

Source: Al-Saqifah Wa Fadak. Pg. # 104.


Al-Baladhari narrates the same issue with two other chains in his other book Futuh Al-Buldan:

Al-Baladhari: 

And narrated to us Abdullah ibn Maymoon Al-Mukattib from Al-Fudhayl ibn Ayyadh from Malik ibn Ja'wana from his father who said: Faatima (s.a) said to Aboo Bakr: "The Messenger of Allah (saw) gave me the Fadak, so return it to me." Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s) bore witness for her, then Aboo Bakr asked for another witness, so Umm Ayman bore witness for her. Then Aboo Bakr said: "You know O daughter of the Messenger of Allah (saw) that it is not acceptable unless it is bearing witness of two men or a man and two women." So she left.

And narrated to me Rawh Al-Karabisi from Zayd ibn Hubab from Khalid ibn Tahman from a man, I think it was Rawh from Ja'far ibn Muhammad that Faatima (s.a) said to Abi Bakr: "Return the Fadak to me, because the Messenger of Allah (saw) gave it to me." So he asked for witnesses, then Umm Ayman and Rabah, servant of the Messenger of Allah (saw) bore witness for her about it. Aboo Bakr said: "This is not acceptable, except with a man and two women."

Source: Futuh Al-Buldan. Pg. # 43.


Fakhr Al-Razi:

"After the death of Rasulullah (saw), Faatima (s.a) raised the issue of Fadak. Aboo Bakr said, 'I don't know if you are telling the truth.' Faatima (s.a) brought forward a female servant called Umma Ayman and a male Servant called Rabah. Aboo Bakr said, 'Bring forth another witness whose word is acceptable.' But there wasn't."

Source: Tafsir Al-Razi. Vol. 29, Pg. # 285.



Al-Hamwi:

Fadak is a village in Hijaaz with a distance of two days from Madinah, or three days. Allah (swt) bestowed it for His Messenger (saw) in the seventh year (of Hijra) peacefully, and that was when the Prophet (saw) went to Khaybar to conquer its castles and it did not remain except one third of it. When the siege became hard on them, they sent delegations to the Messenger of Allah (saw) asking him to let them be expelled, so he (saw) did. The news came to the people of Fadak, so they sent delegations to the Messenger of Allah (saw) to agree with them upon half of their wealth and production, so he (saw) accepted it. So that was a booty that was not received by expedition with either cavalry or camelry. Therefore, that property was especially given to the Messenger of Allah (saw) and there were roaring springs and many date palms in it, and that is the property that Faatima (s.a) said: "The Messenger of Allah (saw) gave it to me." Aboo Bakr then said: "I want witnesses for this." And there is a story about it. Then Umar decreed to return it to the heirs of the Messenger of Allah (saw) when he became Khalifa and he opened lands and the Muslims became rich. So Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s) and Al-Abbas disputed over it. Alee (a.s) used to say: "The Prophet (saw) gave it to Faatima (s.a) in his lifetime." And Al-Abbas used to deny it and say: "It is the property of the Messenger of Allah (saw) and I am his heir." So they used to dispute over it in front of Umar. Umar refused to judge between them and he said: "You know better about your issue, I passed it to you, so whoever of you knows more should act upon it." Then when Umar ibn Abdul-Aziz became Khalifa, he wrote to his governor in Madinah and ordered him to return the Fadak to the children of Faatima (s.a). It was in their hands during Umar ibn Abdul-Aziz's Khilafa. When Yazeed ibn Abdul-Malik succeeded him, he took it back and it was in the hands of Bani Umayyad until Abul Abbas Al-Saffah came into power and he returned it to Al-Hassan ibn Al-Hassan ibn Alee ibn Abi Talib. Then when Al-Mansoor came into power and the children of Al-Hassan revolted against him, he took it back. When Al-Mahdi ibn Al-Mansoor became Khalifa, he returned it to them. Then Musa Al-Hadi took it back until the rule of Al-Ma'moon. Then a delegate of the children of Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s) came to him, so he ordered to give it back to them. When the order was written and recited before Ma'moon, De'bil the poet recited this poetry: "The face of the time laughed *** when Ma'moon returned Fadak to Hashim.

And there is much dispute about the issue of Fadak after the Prophet (saw), and Abi Bakr and the family of the Messenger of Allah (saw) and the narrators of it who have narrated the narrations about it from them and the intensity of the dispute. However, the most authentic of what has been narrated in my opinion is what Ahmad ibn Jabir Al-Baladhari has narrated in his book Al-Futuh, he says: "The Messenger of Allah (saw) sent Muhayisa ibn Masoud to the land of Fadak after he conquered Khaybar. The chief of Fadak in that time was the Jew Yushe ibn Noon. He (saw) invited them to Islam, but they were afraid and fearful when they heard about Khaybar, so they agreed with him upon the half of their land. He (saw) accepted it and signed it with them, so it became property of the Messenger of Allah (saw) alone, because it was not conquered with expedition of either cavalry or camelry. He (saw) used to spend the wealth that was gained from that among wayfarers, and its people lived in it until Umar sent someone to give a price of half of the land to the Jews, and then he expelled them to Shaam. When the Messenger of Allah (saw) passed away, Faatima (s.a) said to Abi Bakr: "The Messenger of Allah (saw) gave Fadak to me, so return it to me." And Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s) and Umm Ayman the servant of the Prophet (saw) testified for her. Then Aboo Bakr said: "O daughter of the Messenger of Allah (saw)" The testimony is not accepted unless with two men or one man and two women." So she left. And it has been narrated through Umm Hani that: Faatima (s.a) went to Abi Bakr and said: "Who inherits from you?" He said: "My children and family." She (s.a) said: "Then how is it that you have inherited from the Messenger of Allah (saw) excluding us?!" He said: "O daughter of the Messenger of Allah (saw)! I have not inherited gold or silver or such and such and such." She said: "Where is our share of Khaybar and our Sadaqah of Fadak?" He said: "O daughter of the Messenger of Allah (saw)! I heard from the Messenger of Allah (saw) saying: 'This is a provision which Allah (swt) has given to me in my lifetime. When I die, it is for the Muslims.'" And it has been narrated through Urwa ibn Al-Zubayr: The wives of the Messenger of Allah (saw) sent Uthman ibn Affan (as their spokesman) to Aboo Bakr to demand from him their share from the legacy of the Prophet (saw). He said: "I heard the Messenger of Allah (saw) saying: 'We (Prophets) do not have any heirs; what we leave behind is (to be given in) charity, this property is for the family of Muhammad (saw), for their servants and guests, when I die, it is for the one who rules after me.' So they abandoned it." When Umar ibn Abdul-Aziz came into power, he gave a sermon and mentioned the story of Fadak, saying that: "It was only for the Messenger of Allah (saw), and that he (saw) used to spend it for his family and he used to give the rest of it to the wayfarers, and he mentioned that Faatima (s.a) asked him to give it for her, but he refused and said: "It is not good for you to ask for it, and it is not good for me to give it to you." And he used to spend the wealth of it for the wayfarers and that when he (saw) died, Aboo Bakr, Umar, Uthman and Alee (a.s) did the same thing. When Mu'awiyah came into power, he gave it to Marwan ibn Al-Hakam and Marwan gave it to Abdul-Aziz and Abdul-Malik his sons. Then it came into my hand and Waleed and Sulayman. And when Waleed became the ruler, I asked him for it, so he gave it to me and I asked Sulayman his share of it and he gave it to me too, so I joined them together and there wasn't a property more dear to me than this, so I make you my witnesses that I return it to what it was during the life of the Prophet (saw) and Abi Bakr, Umar, Uthman and Alee (a.s)." So he used to take its wealth and the rulers after him and spend it among wayfarers. Then in the year 210 A.H. Al-Ma'moon returned it to the children of Faatima (s.a) and he wrote to Qusham ibn Ja'far, his governor in Madinah that the Messenger of Allah (saw) gave Fadak to his daughter Faatima (s.a) and that was a famous and known issue, then Faatima (s.a) used to spend it among those who were more in need. He wanted to return it to Muhammad ibn Yahya ibn Al-Hussain ibn Zayd ibn Alee ibn Al-Hassan ibn Alee ibn Abi Talib and Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Al-Hussain ibn Alee ibn Al-Hussain ibn Alee ibn Abi Talib to take charge of it and spend it among their families. When Ja'far Al-Mutawakil came into power, he returned it to what it was during the lifetime of the Messenger of Allah (saw) and Abi Bakr and Umar, Uthman and Alee (a.s) and Umar ibn Abdul-Aziz and the Khulafa after him.

Source: Mu'jam Al-Buldaan. Vol. 4, Pg. # 238 - 240.



Mohib Al-Tabari:

It is narrated from him (i.e. Zayd ibn Alee) when he was asked about the issue of Fadak, he said: Faatima (s.a) mentioned to Aboo Bakr that the Prophet (saw) had given her the Fadak. He said: "Bring witnesses for your claim." So she (s.a) brought a man and a woman. Aboo Bakr said: "Bring either another man in addition to this man or another woman with that woman." So she left it. Zayd said: "By Allah (swt)! If the judgment returned to me I would have judged the same way Aboo Bakr did."

Source: Riyadh Al-Nadhira. Vol. 1, Pg. # 42.


Ibn Shabbah:

Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Al-Zubayr from Fudhayl ibn Marzouq from Al-Numayri ibn Hassan who said: I said to Zayd ibn Alee and I wanted to know the truth about Aboo Bakr, so I said: Aboo Bakr took away Fadak from Faatima (s.a). He said: Aboo Bakr was a merciful man and he disliked to change the way the Prophet (saw) used to do things, then Faatima (s.a) came to him and said: "The Messenger of Allah (saw) gave me the Fadak." So he said: "Do you have witnesses for this?" So she brought Alee (a.s) and he bore witness for her. Then she brought Umm Ayman and she said: "Don't you bear witness that I am of the people of Paradise?" Aboo Bakr said: "Yes." Aboo Ahmad said: It means that she said it to Abi Bakr and Umar. The she (i.e. Umm Ayman) said: "So I bear witness that the Prophet (saw) gave her the Fadak." Aboo Bakr said: "With the testimony of a man and woman you cannot win this." Zayd said: "By Allah (swt)! If the judgment returned to me I would have judged the same way Aboo Bakr did."

Footnote: Fudhayl ibn Marzouq is in its chain and he has been accused of being Shi'a.

Source: Tarikh Madinah of ibn Shabbah. Vol. 1, Pg. # 192 - 193.


Later on in the article, we shall reply to the ending sentences from the last two books above which has been attributed to Zayd ibn Alee Insha'Allah Ta'ala, but our point here is that Faatima (s.a) claimed Fadak as her property and that the Prophet (saw) had given it to her during his lifetime.

From what has been presented up to this point, it becomes clear that firstly Faatima (s.a) brought Umm Ayman and Rabah, the servant of the Prophet (saw) as her witnesses, but then Aboo Bakr asked for either another man beside Rabah, or another woman beside Umm Ayman. Imam Alee (a.s) came before Aboo Bakr as a witness for Faatima (s.a), but he did not approve of either, giving the excuse that he is her husband. 

This issue of bearing witness of Imam Alee (a.s) for Faatima (s.a) in the issue of Fadak is so famous that even early Sunni scholars have taken it as proof in their Fiqhi books to extract certain fiqhi rulings.

Al-Sarakhsi:

Sufyan Al-Thawri used to say that, "Bearing witness of husband for his wife is acceptable and bearing witness of wife for her husband is not acceptable, because she is under his possession from the viewpoint of jurisprudence, she is under his control, so she can lie in her testification for her husband and that destroys her testification." He (i.e. Sufyan Al-Thawri) has trusted in this opinion upon the hadith of Alee (a.s), because Alee (a.s) testified for Faatima (s.a) in her claim of Fadak. That testification was with another woman who bore witness before Aboo Bakr. Thereupon Aboo Bakr said to Faatima (s.a) to bring either another man beside Alee (a.s) or another woman with that woman, so this is the opinion of both (i.e. Sufyan and Shafi'i) for the permissibility of testification of a husband for his wife.

Source: Al-Mabsout. Vol. 16, Pg. # 123 - 124.


Ibn Hazm:

It has been narrated that Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s) bore witness for Faatima (s.a) before Aboo Bakr and with him also Umm Ayman. Then Aboo Bakr said to him: "If another man bears witness with you or another woman, I will accept it."

Source: Al-Muhallah. Pg. # 1571.


Now let us see the double standards of Aboo Bakr. Jabir ibn Abdullah claims some money in which the Prophet (saw) had promised him, Aboo Bakr does not ask for any other witnesses beside Jabir himself for that claim and he gives him even twice as much the Prophet (saw) had promised him! Why the unfair treatment?  

Al-Bukhari:

Narrated Jabir bin Abdullah: Once the Prophet (saw) said (to me), "If the money of Bahrain comes, I will give you a certain amount of it." The Prophet (saw) had breathed his last before the money of Bahrain arrived. When the money of Bahrain reached, Aboo Bakr announced, "Whoever was promised by the Prophet (saw) should come to us." I went to Aboo Bakr and said, "The Prophet (saw) promised me that when the property of Bahrain comes I will give you so and so." Aboo Bakr gave me a handful of coins and when I counted them, they were five-hundred in number. Aboo Bakr then said, "Take twice the amount you have taken (besides)."

Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. # 549 - 550, H. # 2296.




Ibn Hajar's explanation of the above narration:

This proves that the single testimony of Sahaba is acceptable, even if that is in their own benefit, because Aboo Bakr did not ask Jabir for any other witnesses to prove his claim.

Source: Fath ul-Bari fi Sharh Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Vol. 6, Pg. # 81.


Al-Aynee:

Aboo Bakr did not ask for witnesses from him, because he is just according to the Qur'aan and Sunnah. From Qur'aan because Allah (swt) says: "You are the best of the nations raised up for (the benefit of) men" {3:110}, and "And thus We have made you a medium (just) nation that you may be the bearers of witness to the people" {2:143}, so someone like Jabir if he was not of the best nation then who will be? And from the Sunnah: The statement of the Prophet (saw): "Whoever lies upon me intentionally, then let him take his seat in the Fire." So even from an ordinary Muslim this is not expected (i.e. to lie upon the Prophet (saw)), let alone the Sahabi.

Source: Umdatul Qari Sharh Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Vol. 12, Pg. # 171.



Al-Buzdawi:

It has been proven through authentic narrations from the Prophet (saw) that he used to accept solitary reports. Like the narration of Buraira about gifts and the narration of Salman about gifts and charity, and this is something that one cannot count all the occasions and it is something famous in his conduct that he used to send delegations to cities, like Alee (a.s), Ma'aaz, Attaab ibn Asyad, Dahiyya and others, and that is something that we cannot even count how often it has happened, and it is much more famous than to be hidden. And also the Companions have acted upon solitary narrations and have taken it as proof. Muhammad has mentioned some of those occasions in his book Al-Istehsaan and we have summarized it to this much, due to its clarity and being something famous and the Ummah has consensus over accepting the solitary narrations from representatives and messengers and delegates and others.

Source: Kanzul Wusool Ilaa Ma'rifatil Usool. Vol. 1, Pg. # 154.


So why is it that the same rule does not apply to the chief of the woman of Paradise and Imam Alee (a.s)? How is it that Aboo Bakr did not accept the testimony of Faatima (s.a), Alee (a.s), Umm Ayman and Rabah the servants of the Prophet (saw), when he quite happily accepted the sole testimony of Jabir in his claim? Did the Prophet (saw) not say "O Allah (swt)! Let the truth turn to wherever Alee (a.s) turns?"

One objection used very often by our opponents is the following narration in Al-Kafi:

Sheikh Kulayni:

Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Isa from Muhammad ibn Khalid from Aboo Al-Bakhtari from Aboo Abd Allah (a.s) who has said the following: "The scholars are the heirs of the prophets because the prophets did not leave any Dirham or Dinar (units of money) as their legacy. What they left was certain pieces of their statements. Those who acquired anything of these pieces of their statements have certainly gained a colossal share. You must be very careful when acquiring such knowledge, to know from what kind of people you receive them. After (the death of) every one of us (the Ahlulbayt (a.s), family of the Holy Prophet (saw), recipient of divine supreme covenant), there comes a just person who removes (and exposes) from (the texts of Shari'ah) the forgeries of the exaggerators, the materials of the fallacious ones that might have been made to infiltrate and the interpretations of the ignorant ones."

Source: Al-Kafi. Vol. 1, H. # 45, Ch. 2, H. # 2.

And

Muhammad ibn Al-Hassan and Ali ibn Muhammad has narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad and Muhammad ibn Yahya from Ahmad ibn Muhammad, all from Ja'far ibn Muhammad Al-Ash'ari from Abd Allah ibn Maymun Al-Qaddah and Ali ibn Ibraheem from his father from Hammad ibn Isa from Al-Qaddah from Aboo Abd Allah, recipient of divine supreme covenant, who has said the following: The Holy Prophet (saw) has said, "If one sets out on a journey to seek knowledge, Allah (swt) will lead him to the path that takes him to paradise. The angels will stretch their wings for the pleasure of the seeker of knowledge, and all that is in heaven and earth, even the whales in the oceans, will ask (Allah (swt)) to forgive him. The excellence of the scholar over other people is like the brilliance of the moon over other stars during a full-moon night. Scholars are the heirs of the prophets. The prophets did not leave any Dirham or Dinar (wealth) as their legacy but left knowledge as their legacy. Whoever acquires a share from such legacy has gained an enormous share."

Source: Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, H. # 57, Ch. 4, H. # 1.

And we find a similar narration in the books of our opponents:

Narrated Kathir ibn Qays: Kathir ibn Qays said: I was sitting with Aboo Darda in the mosque of Damascus. A man came to him and said: "Aboo Darda, I have come to you from the town of the Messenger of Allah (saw) for a tradition that I have heard you relate from the Messenger of Allah (saw). I have come for no other purpose." He said: "I heard the Messenger of Allah (saw) say: 'If anyone travels on a road in search of knowledge, Allah (swt) will cause him to travel on one of the roads of Paradise. The angels will lower their wings in their great pleasure with one who seeks knowledge, the inhabitants of the heavens and the Earth and the fish in the deep waters will ask forgiveness for the learned man. The superiority of the learned man over the devout is like that of the moon, on the night when it is full, over the rest of the stars. The learned are the heirs of the Prophets (a.s), and the Prophets (a.s) did not leave neither dinar nor dirham, they left only knowledge, and he who takes it takes an abundant portion.'"

Source: Sunan Abi Dawood. Book 26, H. # 1.

Firstly, this narration is informing us that the aim of a prophets (a.s) life is not to work for the dunya in which they gain wealth and leave it behind as inheritance, but it is to teach mankind and spread wisdom and knowledge. Inheritance mentioned here is metaphorical, because scholars also gained knowledge from the Prophet (saw) through learning and this is not like inheritance of wealth. If that were so, it would mean the scholars would possess the same level of knowledge as the Prophets (a.s), which is of course, not the case. Besides that, it does not reject the fact that they leave inheritance in the absolute form. Secondly, the narration mentions leaving behind cash money, not other properties such as land etc.

The other major difference of the above narration to the fabricated narration of Aboo Bakr is that the Prophet (saw) does not include himself in that particular group because he says: "...and the prophets (a.s) did not leave a dinar or a dirham, but they left knowledge." As mentioned before, here the Prophet (saw) mentions the aim of the previous Prophets (a.s) in that they were not to gather wealth and it is not a decree, unlike the narration of Aboo Bakr which says: "We group of Prophets (a.s) do not leave behind inheritance, whatever we leave is charity." And there is a big difference between لو يورثوا  and لا نورث”.


The same narration has been narrated in Sunni sources. So if one were to take it literally and believe it refers to properties of all kinds, it would contradict the narration of Aboo Bakr that everything the Prophets (a.s) left behind is charity, since the narration denies the fact that Prophets (a.s) leave behind any wealth or property. Even if we were to accept this definition, it supports our point that Fadak belonged to Faatima (s.a) and that the Prophet (saw) had given it to her in his lifetime. 

We shall now present some examples of what the Prophet (saw) left behind as inheritance, thus rejecting the interpretation of our opponents in regards to the above narration.

Al-Bukhari:

Narrated Amr bin Al-Harith: The Prophet (saw) did not leave anything (after his death) except his arms, a white mule, and a (piece of) land which he had given as Sadaqah (charity).

Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. # 764, H. # 3098.


Al-Bukhari:

Narrated Isa bin Tahman: Anas brought out to us two worn out leather shoes without hair and with pieces of leather straps. Later on Thabit Al-Banani told me that Anas said that they were the shoes of the Prophet (saw).

Narrated Abu Burda: A'isha brought out to us a patched wool Len garment, and she said, "(It chanced that) the soul of Allah's Messenger (saw) was taken away while he was wearing this." Abu-Burda added, "A'isha brought out to us a thick waist sheet like the ones made by the Yemenites, and also a garment of the type called Al-Mulabbada."

Narrated Alee bin Al-Hussain (a.s): That when they reached Madinah after returning from Yazid bin Mu'awiyah after the martyrdom of Hussain bin Alee (a.s) (may Allah bestow His Mercy upon him), Al-Miswar bin Makhrama met him and said to him, "Do you have any need you may order me to satisfy?" Alee (a.s) said, "No." Al-Miswar said, "Will you give me the sword of Allah's Messenger (saw) for I am afraid that people may take it from you by force? By Allah (swt)! If you give it to me, they will never be able to take it till I die." When Alee bin Aboo Talib (a.s) demanded the hand of the daughter of Abi Jahl to be his wife besides Faatima (s.a), I heard Allah's Messenger (saw) on his pulpit delivering a sermon in this connection before the people, and I had then attained my age of puberty. Allah's (swt) Messenger (saw) said, "Faatima (s.a) is from me, and I am afraid she will be subjected to trials in her religion (because of jealousy)." The Prophet (saw) then mentioned one of his son-in-law who was from the tribe of Abu Shams, and he praised him as a good son-in-law, saying, "Whatever he said was the truth, and he promised me and fulfilled his promise. I do not make a legal thing illegal, nor do I make an illegal thing legal, but by Allah (swt)! The daughter of Allah's Messenger (saw) and the daughter of the enemy of Allah (swt), (i.e. Aboo Jahl) can never get together (as the wives of one man) (See Hadeeth No. 76, Vol. 5).

Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari.  Pg. # 766, H. # 3107 / 3108 /3110.


Ibn Kathir:

As for the mule, it was grey…and it is said that it lived after him (saw) and it was with Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s) during his caliphate.

Source: Al-Bidaya Wa An-Nihaya. Vol. 8, Pg. # 381.



Ahmad ibn Hanbal:

Narrated Yahya ibn Hammad from Abu Uwana from Al-A'mash from Isma'eel ibn Rahaa from Umayr the servant of ibn Abbas from ibn Abbas who said: When the Messenger of Allah (saw) died and Aboo Bakr was appointed as caliph, Al-Abbas disputed with Alee (a.s) concerning some things that the Messenger of Allah (saw) had left behind. Aboo Bakr said: "It is something that the Messenger of Allah (saw) left the way it is and I am not going to introduce any changes to it." When Umar was appointed as caliph, they referred the dispute to him and he said: "It is something that Aboo Bakr did not change and I am not going to change it." When Uthman was appointed as caliph, they referred the dispute to him and Uthman remained quiet and lowered his head. Ibn Abbas said: "I was afraid that he (i.e. Uthman) would take it, so I struck Al-Abbas between his shoulders and said: 'O my father! I insist that you leave it to Alee (a.s),' so he left it to him."

Footnote: Al-Arna'ut: Its chain is Saheeh by the criteria of Muslim.

Source: Musnad Ahmad. Vol. 1, Pg. # 238 - 239, H. # 77.


Al-Dhahabi:

Narrated Al-Zuhri saying: Narrated to me Al-A'raj that he heard Ab00 Huraira saying: I heard the Messenger of Allah (saw) saying: "By the One in whose hand is my soul, my heirs do not divide anything of what I leave behind, what we leave is charity." So this charity was in the hands of Alee (a.s) that he overcame Al-Abbas in it, and their dispute was on that, so Umar refused to divide it between them, until Abbas left it and Alee (a.s) overcame it. Then it was in the hand of Al-Hassan(a.s), after that it was in the hand of Al-Hussain (a.s), then in the hands of Alee ibn Al-Hussain (a.s) and Al-Hassan ibn Al-Hassan, both of them used to administer it periodically, then it came in the hand of Zayd and that was truly the charity of the Messenger of Allah (saw).

Source: Tarikh Al-Islam. Vol. 3, Pg. # 27.



Taking all this evidence in to consideration, how is it possible for one to deny that the Prophet (saw) did not leave behind any inheritance? Then what was this property so often referred to? More importantly, all this was left in the hands of the kin of the Prophet (saw) with the exception of Anas who was his servant. 
 
One should also take note that Ahmad ibn Hanbals authentic narration above mentions a variety of things that Alee (a.s) received from what the Prophet (saw) had left behind, to which Abbas also wanted a share. The narration does not reveal what those things were, but from the continuous dispute of Abbas in front of Aboo Bakr, Umar and Uthman we can safely assume what was left was worthy enough to dispute about.


Another objection we face from our opponents is the following narration:

Alee ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Muhammad ibn Isa from Yunus from Muhammad ibn Humran from Zurarah from Muhammad ibn Muslim who has narrated the following: "Aboo Ja'far, Alayhi Al-Salam, has said, 'Women do not inherit from land and real property anything.'"

Source: Al-Kafi. Vol. 7, H. # 13125, Ch. 27, H. # 1.

The desperation of our opponents has led them into throwing such absurd objections because this narration and many more mention inheritance of real property of a wife from her husband, and not a daughter from her father. We shall also quote the next two narrations of the same chapter to help make the matter more clearer:

A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad and Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad and Humayd ibn Ziyad from ibn Sama'ah, all from ibn Mahbub from Alee ibn Ri'ab from Zurarah who has narrated the following: "Aboo Ja'far, Alayhi Al-Salam, has said, "A woman does not inherit anything of the towns, houses, arms and stumper that her husband leaves behind; but she inherits from assets, furnishings, clothes, household items which he has left and the broken homes, doors, branches and reeds must be appraised to pay her right thereof."


Source: Al-Kafi. Vol. 7, H. # 13126, Ch. 27, H. # 2.

Alee ibn Ibraheem has narrated from his father from ibn Aboo Umayr from ibn Udhaynah from Zurarah, Bukayr, Fudayl, Burayd and Muhammad ibn Muslim from Aboo Ja'far and Aboo Abd Allah, Alayhim Al-Salam, and certain ones of them has narrated from Aboo Abd Allah, and others have narrated who has narrated the following: One of the two Imams, (Aboo Ja'far or Aboo Abd Allah), Alayhim Al-Salam, has said, "A woman does not inherit from the legacy of her husband in the form of land of his house or land. However, she can inherit from bricks and wood which must be appraised from the value of which one-fourth must be given to her or one-eighth, if she has children, of the value of bricks, branches and wood."

Source: Al-Kafi. Vol. 7, H. # 13127, Ch. 27, H. # 3.


We have yet another objection that our opponents use against us from the following narration in Musnad Ahmad. Let us see if this objection is of any use for them:

Ahmad ibn Hanbal:

Narrated to us Abdullah ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Shayba and I heard it from Abdullah ibn Abi Shayba too who said: Narrated to us Fudhayl from Al-Waleed ibn Jumai from Abil Tufayl who said: When the Messenger of Allah (saw) died, Faatima (s.a) sent word to Aboo Bakr saying: "Have you inherited from the Messenger of Allah(saw) or his family?" He said: "No, rather his family." She said: "Then where is the share of the Messenger of Allah (saw)?" Aboo Bakr said: "I heard the Messenger of Allah (saw) say: 'If Allah (swt) grants some wealth to a Prophet, then takes his soul, He grants it to the one who takes charge after him.' So I have decided to give the benefit of it to the Muslims." She said: "You and what you heard from the Messenger of Allah (saw) know."

Footnote: Its chain is Hasan 'Good'…and Ibn Kathir says in Al-Bidaya Wa An-Nihaya 5/289 after he narrates this narration from Musnad: In the wordings of this hadeeth there is oddity and queerness. It has probably been narrated in a form that one of the narrators has understood it, and among them there is someone in whom there is tashayyu, you should notice that. And the best part in this narration is where is says: "You and what you heard from the Messenger of Allah (saw)," and this is the correct approach and something expected from her and better for her and her status, her knowledge and her relgion, may Allah (swt) be pleased with her.

Source: Musnad Ahmad. Vol. 1, Pg. # 191 - 192.



It seems that this narration suddenly becomes odd because it contains certain aspects which are not favourable towards the belief of the so-called 'Ahl ul Sunnah,' while at the same time only a part of it is acceptable since it conforms to their belief in that Faatima (s.a) agrees with Aboo Bakr. Ibn Kathir views the sentence that may show submission of Faatima (s.a) in her dispute against Aboo Bakr to be somewhat true. However, if one looks closely at this sentence, one would realise the sentence in itself does not make much sense, "You and what you heard from the Messenger of Allah (saw)."
Nevertheless, let us see what is in this narration that is so disliked by the scholars of the so-called 'Ahl ul Sunnah':

Al-Dhahabi:

Narrated ibn Fudhayl from Al-Waleed ibn Jumai from Abi Tufayl who said: When the Messenger of Allah (saw) died, Faatima (s.a) sent word to Aboo Bakr saying: "Have you inherited from the Messenger of Allah (saw) or his family?" He said: "No, rather his family." She (s.a) said: "Then where is his share?" Aboo Bakr said: "I heard the Messenger of Allah (saw) say: 'If Allah (swt) grants some wealth to a Prophet, then takes his soul, He grants it to the one who takes charge after him.' So I have decided to give the benefit of it to the Muslims." She (s.a) said: "You and what you heard from the Messenger of Allah (saw)."

Al-Dhahabi: Narrated it Ahmad in his Musnad and it is Munkar, and the odd thing in it is where is says: "No, rather his family."

Source: Tarikh Al-Islam. Vol. 3, Pg. # 23.




Firstly, what Al-Dhahabi and ibn Kathir narrate from Musnad Ahmad does not contain the word "a'lam" at the end, which slightly changes the meaning of the sentence: "You and what you heard from the Messenger of Allah (saw)." This shows that Sayeda Faatima (s.a) doubts what Aboo Bakr says and does not admit to the fact that it is true. It seems rather suspicious, and makes one think that the last sentence has been added later to the Musnad in order to alter the meaning of the narration, since, as mentioned earlier, it does not make much sense. But if it were to say: "فانت كاذب و ما سمعت من رسول الله" i.e. "You are a liar, and you have not heard it from the Messenger of Allah (saw)" it would make more sense as it would be in accordance with the narrations of Bukhari and Muslim. It could well be possible that they have removed the word "كاذب" and added the word "اعلم", to change the meaning of the narration. But even without the word liar, what Al-Dhahabi and ibn Kathir have narrated from Musnad can also be interpreted as: "This is what you claim, and you have not heard it from the Messenger of Allah (saw)."

Secondly, in regards to Al-Dhahabi mentioning what is so disliked about this narration: "No, rather his family." i.e. "Rather his family inherited from the Prophet (saw)." It contradicts the other narration of Aboo Bakr claiming that the Prophets (a.s) do not leave inheritance. So here you can see the evil double standards of the Nawasib, who accept the narration because of one sentence contained therein which they approve of and then reject the same narration due to the sentence they dislike, SubhanAllah!

We face another objection from our opponents in that the Shi'a have many narrations which state that the knowledge of the Prophets (a.s) is inherited and the seal of the Prophets (saw) has inherited all the knowledge of the previous prophets (a.s) and thus the Imams (a.s) have inherited that knowledge from him:


Al-Kulayni:

H 585, Ch. 32, h1
A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Al-Hussain ibn Sa'id from Al-Nadr ibn Suwayd from Yahya Al-Halabi from Burayd ibn Mu'awiyah from Muhammad ibn Muslim from Aboo Abd Allah (a.s) who has said the following: "Alee (a.s), recipient of divine supreme covenant, was a man of knowledge and knowledge is inherited. Whenever a man of knowledge dies, he leaves another man of knowledge behind who possesses his knowledge or whatever Allah (swt) wants."

H 586, Ch. 32, h2
Alee ibn Ibraheem has narrated from his father from Hammad ibn Isa from Hariz from Zuraara and Al-Fudayl from Aboo Ja'far, recipient of divine supreme covenant, who has said the following: "The knowledge that came with Adam (a.s) was not taken away. Knowledge is inherited. Alee (a.s), recipient of divine supreme covenant, was the knowledgeable person of this nation (Muslims). No one from us has ever left this world without leaving behind one like himself in knowledge or whatever Allah (swt) wants."

H 588, Ch. 32, h4
Aboo Alee Al-Ash'ari has narrated from Muhammad ibn Abd Al-Jabbar from Safwan from Musa ibn Bakr from Al-Fudayl ibn Yasar who has said the following: I heard Aboo Abd Allah (a.s), recipient of divine supreme covenant, say, "In Imam Alee (a.s), recipient of divine supreme covenant, there is the Sunnah (tradition) of a thousand prophets. The knowledge that came with Adam (a.s) was not taken away. No man of knowledge (Imam) ever died along with knowledge. Knowledge is inherited."

H 594, Ch. 33, h2
Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Alee ibn Al-Hakam from Abd Al-Rahman ibn Kathir from Aboo Ja'far (a.s), recipient of divine supreme covenant, who has said the following: The Messenger of Allah (saw) has said, "The first successor and executor of the will on earth was Hibbatu Allah (swt) (gift from Allah (swt)), the son of Adam (a.s). No Prophet (a.s) has ever left this world without first leaving behind one who would execute his will. The prophets (a.s) were one hundred twenty thousand persons. Five of them were commissioned Messengers Ul Al-Azm, like Noah (a.s), Ibraheem (a.s), Musa (a.s), Isa (a.s) and Muhammad (saw), recipient of divine supreme covenant. Alee ibn Aboo Talib (a.s), recipient of divine supreme covenant, was the 'Hibbatu Allah (swt)' (gift from Allah (swt)) for Muhammad (saw), recipient of divine supreme covenant. He inherited the knowledge of the executors of the wills of the prophets (a.s) and the knowledge of those who were before him. (Is it not true) that Muhammad (saw), recipient of divine supreme covenant, inherited the knowledge of the prophets (a.s) and the messengers who lived before him? It is written on the columns of the Throne (Arsh), 'Hamza (r.a) is the lion of Allah (swt) and the lion of His Messenger (saw). He (Hamza (r.a)) is the master of the martyrs.' On top of the Throne is written, 'Alee (a.s), recipient of divine supreme covenant, is Ameer Al-Mo'mineen (commander of the believers).' This is evidence against those who deny our rights and refuse to yield to us our right of inheritance. We are not forbidden to speak. Before us is all certainty. What else can serve as clearer supporting evidence than this?"

H 595, Ch. 33, h3
Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Salama ibn Al-Khattab from Abd Allah ibn Muhammad from Abd Allah ibn Al-Qasim from Zur'a ibn Muhammad from Al-Mufaddal ibn Umar who has said the following: Aboo Abd Allah (a.s), recipient of divine supreme covenant, has said, "Solomon (a.s) inherited from David (a.s). Muhammad (saw), recipient of divine supreme covenant, inherited from Solomon (a.s) and we inherited from Muhammad (saw), recipient of divine supreme covenant. We have the knowledge of the Torah and the Gospel (Injil), the Psalms, (Al-Zabur) and the explanation of what the tablets contained." I (the narrator) said, "This certainly is knowledge." The Imam (a.s), recipient of divine supreme covenant, said, "This is not knowledge. Knowledge is what happens day after day and hour after hour."

H 596, Ch. 33, h4
Ahmad ibn Idris has narrated from Muhammad ibn Abd Al-Jabbar from Safwan ibn Yahya from Shu'ayb Al-Haddad from Durays Al-Kunasi who has said the following: Once I was in the presence of Aboo Abd Allah (a.s), recipient of divine supreme covenant, and Aboo Basir also was there. The Imam (a.s) said, "Dawood (a.s) inherited knowledge from the prophets (a.s). Sulyman (a.s) inherited from Dawood (a.s). Prophet Muhammad (saw), recipient of divine supreme covenant, inherited from Sulyman (a.s) and we inherited from Muhammad, (saw) recipient of divine supreme covenant. With us are the books (pages) of Abraham (a.s)and the tablets of Musa (a.s)." Aboo Basir then said, "This is the knowledge." The Imam (a.s) said, "O Aboo Muhammad! This is not knowledge. The knowledge is what happens in the nights and in the days, day after day and hour after hour."


In an attempt to prove the Shi'a wrong, our opponents use these narrations against us to prove that the Prophets (a.s) do not leave wealth as inheritance, but knowledge.

Firstly, these narrations show the extent of the knowledge of Ahlulbayt (a.s), and that whosoever possesses such knowledge, it is only such an individual who would be worthy of successorship after the Prophet (saw). The lengthy discussion on Fadak is only to manifest the truth in that those who came into power after the Prophet (saw) were oppressors unworthy of leading the Muslim Ummah, they certainly usurped the position of the successorship of the Prophet (saw). It should be taken in to account that the fact that the prophets (a.s) can leave wealth and property as inheritance, is something agreed upon among the Shi'a, and as mentioned earlier, the above mentioned narrations are not in contradiction to that. Secondly, these narrations do not reject the fact that the prophets (a.s) left wealth as inheritance either.  


Sayeda Faatima (s.a) Died Angry With Aboo Bakr


In the matter of asking for her inheritance, Fadak and what remained of the Khums of the [Khaybar booty] Faatima (s.a) became angry with Aboo Bakr, deserted him and never spoke him until she died. When she (Faatima) died, her husband Alee (a.s.) buried her at night. Aboo Bakr neither was informed about her death nor performed the funeral prayers for her (s.a). 

Al-Bukhari:

Narrated Yahya ibn Bakir from Laith from Oqail from ibn Shahab (Al-Zuhri) from Urwa from A'isha who said: Faatima (s.a) daughter of the Messenger of Allah (saw) sent somebody to Aboo Bakr asking him to give her her inheritance from the Prophet (saw) from what Allah (swt) had given to His Apostle through Fai (i.e. booty gained without fighting). She asked for the Sadaqah (i.e. wealth assigned for charitable purposes) of the Prophet (saw) at Madinah, and Fadak, and what remained of the Khumus (i.e. one-fifth) of the Khaybar booty. Aboo Bakr said, "Allah's Apostle (saw) said, 'We (Prophets (a.s)), our property is not inherited, and whatever we leave is Sadaqah, but Muhammad's (saw) family can eat from this property, i.e. Allah's (swt) property, but they have no right to take more than the food they need. By Allah (swt)! I will not bring any change in dealing with the Sadaqah of the Prophet (saw) (and will keep them) as they used to be observed in his (i.e. the Prophet's (saw)) life-time, and I will dispose with it as Allah's Apostle (saw) used to do.'" Faatima (s.a) was angered on Aboo Bakr and quit talking to him till she died; and she lived for 6 months after the death of Holy Prophet (saw); when she died, Alee (a.s) buried her in night and did not allow Aboo Bakr to take part in her funeral; and prayed on her. Alee (a.s) had a status in the life of Faatima (s.a), but when she died, people negated his status so he asked for a treaty with Aboo Bakr and to pledge allegiance; since Alee (a.s) had not pledged allegiance all those months, so he sent someone to Aboo Bakr to come alone and do not bring anyone since he disliked the presence of Umar, then Umar said to Aboo Bakr: "No, By Allah (swt)! Do not enter unto them alone." Aboo Bakr said: "What do you think they would do with me? By Allah (swt), I will go." Alee (a.s) said: "We know your virtues and what Allah (swt) has given to you and we don't feel any envy to goodness that Allah (swt) gave to you, but you carried out tyranny over us and we seen that we have right in that, due to our kinship to the Messenger of Allah (saw)."

Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. # 1040, H. # 4240 - 4241.


Muslim ibn Al-Hajjaj:

Narrated Muhammad ibn Rafeh from Hojain from Laith from Oqail from ibn Shahab from Urwa ibn Zubair from A'isha who said: Faatima (s.a) daughter of the Messenger of  Allah (saw) sent somebody to Aboo Bakr asking him to give her her inheritance from the Prophet (saw) from what Allah (swt) had given to His Apostle through Fai (i.e. booty gained without fighting). She asked for the Sadaqah (i.e. wealth assigned for charitable purposes) of the Prophet (saw) at Madinah and Fadak, and what remained of the Khumus (i.e. one-fifth) of the Khaybar booty. Aboo Bakr said, "Allah's Apostle (saw) said, 'We (Prophets (a.s)), our property is not inherited, and whatever we leave is Sadaqah, but Muhammad's (saw) family can eat from this property, i.e. Allah's (swt) property, but they have no right to take more than the food they need.' By Allah (swt)! I will not bring any change in dealing with the Sadaqah of the Prophet (saw) (and will keep them) as they used to be observed in his (i.e. the Prophet's (saw)) life-time, and I will dispose with it as Allah's Apostle (saw) used to do.'" Faatima (s.a) was angered on Aboo Bakr and quit talking to him till she died; and she lived for 6 months after death of Holy Prophet (saw); when she died, Alee (a.s) buried her in the night and did not inform Aboo Bakr about her death; and he offered funeral prayers himself. Alee (a.s) had a status in the life of Faatima (s.a), but when she died, people negated his status so he asked for a treaty with Aboo Bakr and to pledge allegiance; since Alee (a.s) had not pledged allegiance all those months, so he sent someone to Aboo Bakr to come alone and do not bring anyone since he disliked the presence of Umar, then Umar said to Aboo Bakr: "No, By Allah (swt)! Do not enter unto them alone." Aboo Bakr said: "What do you think they would do with me? By Allah (swt), I will go." Alee (a.s) said: "We know your virtues and what Allah (swt) has given to you and we don't feel any envy to goodness that Allah (swt) gave to you, but you carried out tyranny over us and we seen that we have right in that, due to our kinship to the Messenger of Allah (saw).

Source: Saheeh Muslim. Vol. 2, Pg. # 841, H. # 1759 / 52.


Al-Dhahabi:


"So she (Faatima (s.a)) became angry, and left Aboo Bakr until she passed away..."

Footnote: Recorded in Ahmad ibn Hanbal extracted it from 1/4, 6, 9, 10 and Bukhari 4/96, 5/25, 115, 177, 8/185, and Muslim 5/155, and Aboo Dawood (2968) (2969) (2970), and Nasa'i 7/132, and Musnad Al-Jami' 9/623-627 Hadeeth (7111).

Source: Siyar Al-A'lam Nubala. Vol Of The Khalifahs. Pg. # 34.


Sayeda Faatima (s.a) was not happy with the way Aboo Bakr had dealt with the property of Fadak. As a result of his actions, she (s.a) died angry and did not allow the Sheikhayn to partake in her burial. 

Objection Three


The Hadeeth has been narrated on the authority of A'isha and we find Zuhri is one of main sub narrators of this Hadeeth. He appears in most of the chains of this narration. Our opponents sought to suggest these are not the words of A'isha but rather the words of Zuhri.

Response Three

In the science of Hadeeth Idraaj (interpolation) takes places when a sub narrator gives his opinion in the narration. Thus the words "Faatima (s.a), the daughter of Allah's Apostle (saw) got angry and stopped speaking to Aboo Bakr, and continued assuming that attitude till she died..." are said to be the words of Zuhri. Therefore, we should find the masculine arabic term (قال ‚'He said...') as opposed to  (قالت  'She said...' ) contained within the narration. Let us examine if these words are from A'isha or Zuhri.


Ibn Hajar Asqalani:

Al-Bayhaqi has pointed to that part of Hadeeth which says: "And she lived for.." to the end of the Hadeeth is Idraaj, and this is in Muslim through another chain from Al-Zuhri and has mentioned the Hadeeth and has said at the end of it: I said to Al-Zuhri: "How long did Faatima (s.a) live after the Prophet (saw)?" He said: "Six months!" And has attributed it to the narration of Muslim, and such a thing is not in Muslim and in Muslim it is continuous (Mawsool) like it is in Al-Bukhari, and Allah (swt) knows best. 

And the part of Hadeeth, "Alee (a.s) had a status in the life of Faatima (s.a)"...means that the people respected him because of Faatima (s.a), and when she died and Alee (a.s) continued not to come to Aboo Bakr, the people reduced their respect for him, because they wanted that Alee (a.s) does what the people did (i.e. pledge allegiance), and because of that, A'isha said at the end of the narration, "When Alee (a.s) came and pledged the allegiance, people came near to him again and everything became good again."

Source: Fath Al-Bari. Vol. 9, Pg. # 342.


Al-Bayhaqi said that the Idraaj (interpolation) of the narration, is from the point of the text, "And she lived for..." till the the remainder of the text. However, these words appear after "Faatima (s.a), the daughter of Allah's Apostle (saw) got angry and stopped speaking to Aboo Bakr, and continued assuming that attitude till she died." This shows that this is clearly not the opinion of Zuhri as claimed by Al-Bayhaqi.

The only subnarrator that has narrated it from ibn Shahab Al-Zuhri with the addition of the word قال  (he said) is Mo'ammar, but we also found that he has narrated it also as  قالت (she said) elsewhere, i.e. She said (A'isha) said: "Faatima (s.a) was angered..." 

Al-Maruzi:

Narrated Ahmad ibn Alee from Aboo Bakr ibn Zanjawaih from Abdul Razzaq from Mo'ammar from Al-Zuhri from Urwa from A'isha who said: Faatima (s.a) and Al-Abbas came to Aboo Bakr, seeking their share from the property of Allah's Apostle (saw) and at that time, they were asking for their land at Fadak and their share from Khaybar. Aboo Bakr said to them, "I have heard from Allah's Apostle (saw) saying, 'Our property cannot be inherited, and whatever we leave is to be spent in charity.' But the family of Muhammad (saw) may take their provisions from this property." Aboo Bakr added, "By Allah (swt)! I will not leave the procedure I saw Allah's Apostle (saw) following during his lifetime concerning this property." She said: "Faatima (s.a) was angry towards Aboo Bakr and quit talking to him till she died, then Alee (a.s) buried her at night and did not inform Aboo Bakr about her funeral"; she said: "Alee (a.s) had a status in the life of Faatima (s.a), but when she died, people negated his status, and she lived for 6 months after the death of Holy Prophet (saw) and then died." Mo'ammar said: Then a man asked Al-Zuhri: "Did he not pledge allegiance for six months?" He said: "Not he, nor anyone of the tribe of Bani Hashim pledged allegiance, until Alee (a.s) pledged allegiance." He said: "And when Alee (a.s) saw that people negate his status, he asked for a treaty with Aboo Bakr and to pledge allegiance; so he sent someone to Aboo Bakr..."

Footnote: Its chain is Saheeh (Authentic).

Source: Musnad Abi Bakr Al-Maruzi. Pg. # 74 - 75, H. # 38.





Two new narrators exist in the the above cited narrations, and both are deemed trustworthy which can be proven as follows:

1 - Ahmad ibn Alee (Aboo Bakr Al-Maruzi)

Ibn Hajar Asqalani:

Ahmad ibn Alee ibn Sa'eed ibn Ibraheem Al-Maruzi, Aboo Bakr the jurist: Trustworthy and Hafiz, from the 12th generation, died in 290 A.H at the age of 90, narrated from him Al-Nasa'i.

Source: Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Pg. # 22, Person # 81.



2 - Aboo Bakr ibn Zanjawaih

Ibn Hajar Asqalani:

Muhammad ibn Abdul Malik ibn Zanjawaih Al-Baghdadi, Aboo Bakr Al-Ghazzaal: Trustworthy, from the 11th generation, died in 258 A.H. Narrated from him the four (i.e. Al-Tirmidhi, Al-Nasa'i, Aboo Dawood and Ibn Majah).

Source: Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Pg. # 428, Person # 6097.




We now arrive at quite a number of chains pertaining to the same issue. The narrations contain more than six different sub narrators narrating from Zuhri, and they are as follows:


1 - Saleh ibn Kaisan

2 - Uqail ibn Khalid

3 - Shohaib ibn Abi Hamza

4 - Mo'ammar

5- Muhammad Ibn Abdullah Ibn Muslim

6- Al-Waleed Ibn Muhammad


Let us see in which form the other subnarrators have narrated it from ibn Shahab Al-Zuhri:



1 - Via Saleh ibn Kaisan from ibn Shahab Al-Zuhri:


Al-Bukhari:

Narrated Abdul Aziz ibn Abdullah from Ibraheem ibn Sa'd from Saleh from ibn Shihab Al-Zuhri from Urwa ibn Al-Zubair from A'isha who said: After the death of Allah's Apostle (saw), Faatima (s.a) the daughter of Allah's Apostle (saw) asked Aboo Bakr As-Siddiq to give her, her share of inheritance from what Allah's Apostle (saw) had left of the Fai (i.e. booty gained without fighting) which Allah (swt) had given him. Aboo Bakr said to her, "Allah's Apostle (saw) said, 'Our property will not be inherited, whatever we (i.e. Prophets (a.s)) leave is Sadaqah (to be used for charity).'" Faatima (s.a), the daughter of Allah's Apostle (saw) got angry and refused to speak to Aboo Bakr anymore, and did not leave that attitude till she died. Faatima (s.a) remained alive for six months after the death of Allah's Apostle (saw). She used to ask Aboo Bakr for her share from the property of Allah's Apostle (saw) which he left at Khaybar, and Fadak, and his property at Madinah (devoted for charity). Aboo Bakr refused to give her that property and said, "I will not leave anything Allah's Apostle (saw) used to do, because I am afraid that if I left something from the Prophet's (saw) tradition, then I would go astray." Umar gave the Prophet's (saw) property (of Sadaqah) at Madinah to Alee (a.s) and Abbas, but he withheld the properties of Khaybar and Fadak in his custody and said, "These two properties are the Sadaqah which Allah's Apostle (saw) used to use for his expenditures and urgent needs. Now their management is to be entrusted to the ruler." (Az-Zuhri said, "They have been managed in this way till today.")


Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. #  761 - 762, H. # 3092.



Ahmad ibn Hanbal:

Narrated Yaqoob from his father from Saleh from ibn Shihab Al-Zuhri  from Urwa ibn Al-Zubair from A'isha who said: After the death of Allah's Apostle (saw), Faatima (s.a) the daughter of Allah's Apostle (saw) asked Aboo Bakr As-Siddiq to give her, her share of inheritance from what Allah's Apostle (saw) had left of the Fai (i.e. booty gained without fighting) which Allah (swt) had given him. Aboo Bakr said to her, "Allah's Apostle (saw) said, 'Our property will not be inherited, whatever we (i.e. Prophets (a.s)) leave is Sadaqah (to be used for charity).'" Faatima (s.a), the daughter of Allah's Apostle (saw) got angry and refused to speak to Aboo Bakr anymore, and did not leave that attitude till she died. Faatima (s.a) remained alive for six months after the death of Allah's Apostle (saw). She used to ask Aboo Bakr for her share from the property of Allah's Apostle (saw) which he left at Khaybar, and Fadak, and his property at Madinah (devoted for charity). Aboo Bakr refused to give her that property and said, "I will not leave anything Allah's Apostle (saw) used to do, because I am afraid that if I left something from the Prophet's (saw) tradition, then I would go astray." Umar gave the Prophet's (saw) property (of Sadaqah) at Madinah to Alee (a.s) and Abbas, but he withheld the properties of Khaybar and Fadak in his custody and said, "These two properties are the Sadaqah which Allah's Apostle (saw) used to use for his expenditures and urgent needs. Now their management is to be entrusted to the ruler." Az-Zuhri said, "They have been managed in this way till today."

Footnote: Shu'aib Al-Arna'ut has authenticated the chain as Saheeh (Authentic) by the criteria of Sheikhayn (Bukhari and Muslim).

Source: Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Vol. 1, Pg. # 204 - 205, H. # 25.




2 - Via Uqail ibn Khalid from ibn Shahab Al-Zuhri:

We have already mentioned two narrations from Saheeh Al-Bukhari and Saheeh Muslim through Uqail from Al-Zuhri at the beginning of this section. Now some other examples:


Ahmad ibn Hanbal:


Narrated Hajjaj ibn Muhammad from Laith from Uqail from ibn Shahab from Urwa ibn Al-Zubair from A'isha who said: Faatima (s.a) the daughter of Allah's Apostle (saw) asked Aboo Bakr As-Siddiq to give her, her share of inheritance from what Allah's Apostle (saw) had left of the Fai (i.e. booty gained without fighting) which Allah (swt) had given him in Madinah and of Fadak and whatever he had left from the Khumus of Khaybar. Aboo Bakr said to her, "Allah's Apostle (saw) said, 'Our property will not be inherited, whatever we (i.e. Prophets (a.s)) leave is Sadaqah (to be used for charity), but the family of Muhammad (saw) may take their provisions from this property.' By Allah (swt)! I will not bring any change in dealing with the Sadaqah of the Prophet (saw) as they used to be observed in his life-time." And Aboo Bakr refused to give her anything of that. Faatima (s.a), the daughter of the Messenger of Allah (saw) got angry on Aboo Bakr. Then Aboo Bakr said: "By the One in whose hands is my soul, I love the kin of Allah's Apostle (saw) more than my own kith and kin. And whatever is left of this property between me and you, and I will not deviate from the right path about them. By Allah (swt)! I will not leave the procedure I saw Allah's Apostle (saw) following concerning this property.

Footnote: Shu'aib Al-Arna'ut has authenticated the chain as Saheeh (Authentic) by the criteria of Sheikhayn (Bukhari and Muslim).


Source: Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Vol. 1, Pg. # 222 - 223, H. # 55.




Ibn Hibban:


Narrated Muhammad ibn Hassan ibn Qotaiba from Yazid ibn Mawhab from Al-Laith ibn Sa'd from Uqail ibn Khalid from ibn Shahab from Urwa from A'isha who said: Faatima (s.a) daughter of the Messenger (saw) sent somebody to Aboo Bakr asking him to give her her inheritance from the Prophet (saw) from what Allah (swt) had given to His Apostle (saw) through Fai (i.e. booty gained without fighting). She asked for the Sadaqah (i.e. wealth assigned for charitable purposes) of the Prophet (saw) at Madinah, and Fadak, and what remained of the Khumus (i.e. one-fifth) of the Khaybar booty. Then Aboo Bakr said, "Allah's Apostle (saw) said, 'We (Prophets (a.s)), our property is not inherited, and whatever we leave is Sadaqah, but Muhammad's (saw) family can eat from this property.' By Allah (swt)! I will not bring any change in dealing with the Sadaqah of the Prophet (saw) (and will keep them) as they used to be observed in his (i.e. the Prophet's (saw)) life-time, and I will dispose with it as Allah's Apostle (saw) used to do." Faatima (s.a) was angered on Aboo Bakr and quit talking to him till she died; and she lived for 6 months after the death of the Holy Prophet (saw); when she died, Alee (a.s) buried her in the night and did not inform Aboo Bakr to take part of her funeral; and prayed on her. Alee (a.s) had a status in the life of Faatima (s.a), but when Faatima (s.a) died, people turned their faces from Alee (a.s), so he wanted to do peace treaty to Aboo Bakr and pledge allegiance, since he had not pledged allegiance all those months. So he sent someone to Aboo Bakr to come alone and said do not bring anyone since he disliked the presence of Umar, then Umar said to Aboo Bakr: "By Allah (swt)! Do not enter unto them alone." Aboo Bakr said: "What do you think they would do to me? By Allah (swt) I will go." Alee (a.s) said: "Now your virtues and what Allah (swt) has given to you and we don't feel any envy to goodness that Allah (swt) gave to you, but you carried out tyranny over us and we seen that we have right in that due to our kinship to the Messenger of Allah (saw)."

Footnote: The chain is Saheeh (Authentic).


Source: Saheeh ibn Hibban. Vol. 14, Pg. # 573 - 575, H. # 6607.





3 - Via Shohaib ibn Abi Hamza from ibn Shahab Al-Zuhri:


Ibn Hibban:


Narrated Muhammad ibn Ubaidallah ibn Fadl Al-Kala'ee in Hams, from Amr ibn Uthman ibn Sa'eed from his father from Shohaib ibn Abi Hamza from ibn Shihab Al-Zuhri from Urwa from A'isha who said: Faatima (s.a) daughter of the Messenger (saw) sent somebody to Aboo Bakr asking him to give her her inheritance from the Prophet (saw) from what Allah (swt) had given to His Apostle (saw) through Fai (i.e. booty gained without fighting). She asked for the Sadaqah (i.e. wealth assigned for charitable purposes) of the Prophet (saw) at Madinah, and Fadak, and what remained of the Khumus (i.e. one-fifth) of the Khaybar booty. A'isha said: then Aboo Bakr said, "Allah's Apostle (saw) said, 'We (Prophets (a.s)), our property is not inherited, and whatever we leave is Sadaqah, but Muhammad's (saw) family can eat from this property, but they have no right to take more than the food they need.' By Allah (swt)! I will not bring any change in dealing with the Sadaqah of the Prophet (saw) and will keep them) as they used to be observed in his (i.e. the Prophet's (saw)) life-time, and I will dispose with it as Allah's Apostle (saw) used to do." Faatima (s.a) was angered on Aboo Bakr and quit talking to him till she died; and she lived for 6 months after the death of the Holy Prophet (saw); when she died, Alee (a.s) buried her in the night and did not inform Aboo Bakr about her funeral; and prayed on her himself. Alee (a.s) had a status in the life of Faatima (s.a), but when she died, people turned their faces from Alee (a.s), till he lost them, so he wanted to do peace treaty to Aboo Bakr, since he had not pledged allegiance all those months, so he sent someone to Aboo Bakr to come alone and do not bring anyone since he disliked the presence of Umar because he knew his harshness, then Umar said to Aboo Bakr: "No, By Allah (swt)! Do not enter unto them alone." Aboo Bakr said: "What do you think they would do with me? By Allah I will go." Alee (a.s) said: "We know your virtues and what Allah (swt) has given to you and we don't feel any envy to goodness that Allah (swt) gave to you, but you carried out tyranny over us and we seen that we have right in that." And then he repeated his families virtues and their rights according to their kinship to the Messenger of Allah (saw)...

Footnote: The chain is Authentic, it's narrators are trustworthy of the narrators of 

Al-Sheikhayn (i.e Bukhari and Muslim), except Amr ibn Sa'eed Al-Hamsi and his father, the authors of Sunan have narrated from them and they both are trustworthy.


Source: Saheeh ibn Hibban. Vol. 11, Pg. # 152 - 154, H. # 4823.





If we take a look at the very first narration mentioned above related from Yahya ibn Bakir and the second narration related from Muhammad ibn Rafeh and Hojain (while the rest of the chain is identical), we find that they are directly narrated from A'isha without any insertion of قال (He said) or قالت (She said). Clearly, even if this was the opinion of Zuhri, the information has come from no one else other than A'isha. 

4 - Via Mo'ammar from ibn Shahab Al-Zuhri:


This is the only chain that contains "He said", but there are versions from Mo'mmar too that mention "She said" like the one we showed at the beginning from Musnad of Abi Bakr Al-Maruzi.


5 - Via Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Muslim from Ibn Shahab Al-Zuhri:


Al-Hakim:


Narrated to me Al-Hussain ibn Alee Al-Tamimi from Muhammad ibn Hamwaih from Ahmad ibn Hafs ibn Abdullah from his father from Ibraheem ibn Tahmaan from Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Muslim from Al-Zuhri from Urwa from A'isha who said: Faatima (s.a) daughter of the Messenger (saw) asked Aboo Bakr after the departure of the Messenger of Allah(saw) to give her her inheritance from the Prophet (saw) from what Allah (swt) had given to His Apostle (saw) through Fai (i.e. booty gained without fighting). Then Aboo Bakr said to her, "Allah's Apostle (saw) said, 'We (Prophets (a.s)), our property is not inherited, and whatever we leave is Sadaqah". Faatima (s.a) was angered, and quit talking to Aboo Bakr till she died; and she lived for 6 months after that. Fatimah (s.a) used to ask her inheritance from what the Messenger of Allah(saw) left of the booties of Khaybar, Fadak and the Sadaqah in Medina. Aboo Bakr said, "I will not bring any change in dealing with what the Prophet(saw) has left, and whatever he used to do with them I will do the same,  fear if I depart a little from his practice, I shall diverge (from the right path).


Footnote: The narration is Saheeh (Authentic)


Source: Fadhahil Fatimah Al-Zahra (s.a). Pg. # 125 - 126.



6- Via Al-Waleed ibn Muhammad from ibn Shahab Al-Zuhri:

Ibn Shabbah:


Narrated to us Suwaid ibn Sa'eed and Al-Hassan ibn Uthman, both of them said: narrated to us Al-Waleed ibn Muhammad from Al-Zuhri from Urwa from A'isha who said: Faatima (s.a) daughter of the Messenger (saw) sent somebody to Aboo Bakr asking him to give her her inheritance from the Prophet (saw) from what Allah (swt) had given to His Apostle (saw) through Fai (i.e. booty gained without fighting). She asked for the Sadaqah (i.e. wealth assigned for charitable purposes) of the Prophet (saw) at Madinah, and Fadak, and what remained of the Khumus (i.e. one-fifth) of the Khaybar booty. Then Aboo Bakr said, "Allah's Apostle (saw) said, 'We (Prophets (a.s)), our property is not inherited, and whatever we leave is Sadaqah", but Muhammad's (saw) family can eat from this property.' I will not bring any change in dealing with the Sadaqah of the Prophet (saw) (and will keep them) as they used to be observed in his (i.e. the Prophet's (saw)) life-time, and I will dispose with it as Allah's Apostle (saw) used to do." So Aboo Bakr refused to give back Faatima (s.a) anything from that. Then Faatima (s.a) was angered on Aboo Bakr about it and quit talking to him till she died; and she lived for 6 months after the death of the Holy Prophet (saw); when she died, Alee (a.s) buried her in the night and did not allow Aboo Bakr to take part at her funeral; and Alee (a.s) prayed on her. 


Footnote: The narration is agreed upon (on its authenticity).


Source: Tareekh Madina ibn Shabbah. Vol. 1, Pg. # 189 - 190.









As evidenced, the objection that those words are actually the words of Al-Zuhri and not A'isha is rather baseless. The one chain through Mo'ammar does not stand a chance against the other five Saheeh chains narrated by Al-Zuhri. Even so, the one chain through Mo'ammar has also been narrated in another form which clearly shows that those words do indeed belong to A'isha.

Scholarly Views on The Mursal Narrations Of Ibn Shahab Al-Zuhri


Ibn Hajar:

The Mursal of Tabi'ee, if he mentioned an occasion that he was not present in, it is called Mursal, even though it is possible that he has heard it actually from a companion that has experienced the occasion. But the thing is that if he has been present in its time, it is considered as if he actually has heard it or was present in it with the condition that he should be free of Tadlees, and Allah (swt) knows best.

Source: Fath Ul-Bari Fi Sharh Sahih Al-Bukhari. Vol. 9, Pg. # 104 - 105.


Mulla Alee Al-Qari:

I say: "Mursal of Al-Tabi'ee is Hujjah (proof) among the Jumhoor (majority) of scholars, let alone the Mursal of someone about whose companionship (to the Prophet (saw)) there is difference of opinion? (i.e. it is indeed Hujjah)."

Source: Mirqatul Al-Mafatih Sharh Mishkatul Masabih. Vol. 9, Pg. # 434.


In the above narration we find the narrators are reliable. The scholars of science of Hadeeth have also accepted that the Mursal of a Tabi'ee is Hujjah (proof) among the Jumhoor (majority) of scholars. Therefore, it is not expected from a devoted and Godly indvidual to say something that would destroy the reputation of his holy figures, unless it is a known fact.

Khatib Al-Baghdadi:

Yaqoob ibn Sufyan said: I heard Ja'far ibn Abd Al-Waheed Al-Hashimi saying to Ahmad ibn Salih that Yahya ibn Sa'eed said: "The Mursal (hurried) of Al-Zuhri is unreliable." Ahmad got angry and said: "What does Yahya know about the knowledge of Zuhri? That which Yahya said is untrue!"

Source: Al-Kifaya. Pg. # 386.


The criticism of Zuhri has been recorded in Tarikh Kabir of Bukhari. However, despite this, Bukhari still deemed him as proof to have recorded from him in his authentic works. Al-Bukhari, being a hadeeth scientist himself would have undoubtedly taken Zuhri's Idraaj in to consideration before including it into his 'Saheeh' (Authentic) collection. 

Having said that, the Idraaj from Al-Zuhri, is of the permissible type whereby he added his explanation of the Ghareeb words contained in the hadeeth. Thus, it is correct to say, to add something from oneself in the text of a hadeeth is Haraam. However, the Idraaj exercised by Al-Zuhri proved to be permissible, and is proven by the following quote:

Al-Suyuti:

"And according to me (Suyuti), the Idraaj that is done to explain the ghareeb words of a hadeeth is not prohibited. Imam Zuhri and other A'immah of Hadeeth have used this type of Idraaj."

Source: Tadreeb Al-Rawi. Vol. 1, Pg. # 148.


May we also add that there is, without a shadow of doubt that Saheeh Al-Bukhari is deemed as the most authentic book of Hadeeth after the Holy Qur'aan by the so-called 'Ahl ul Sunnah.'

Shawkani:

"You should know that whatever is recorded in the two Saheehs (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) or one of them can be relied upon without the need for further investigation to ascertain its authenticity, because they (the author of the books) personally sought to record the authentic traditions, in addition the nation has accepted the contents of the books."

Source: Nayl Al-Awtar. Vol. 1, Pg. # 119.



Al-Bukhari only included hadeeth is his book which satisfied his own specific criteria. But the "Shawahid" and "Mutabi'at" of Al-Bukhari are being referred to as disconnected and weak. Since this is the case, we shall turn towards ibn Hajar to see how he would respond to such an assertion.

Ibn Hajar Asqalani:

And what he recorded as "Mutabi'at" (follow ups) and "Shawahid" (witness for other narrations) and "Ta'aleeq" (explaining other narrations) so it varies in the level of the narrator in respect of accuracy of the narration. But if (the narrator is) approved as truthful, then if we found someone weaken them, that will contradict Imam's (Bukhari's) authentication.

Source: Fath Al-Bari. Vol. 2, Pg. # 1002.



Thus as per ibn Hajar, the additional traditions recorded in Saheeh Al-Bukhari such as the disconnected (Mursal) traditions which have been interpolated as explanations of the hadeeth, it would seem that even these type of traditions would also be considered authentic.

Chain Without Ibn Shahab Al-Zuhri

It is common logic that if one persistently demands something from another individual and due to their stubbornness it is dismissed, there will come a point where one would draw a line on the issue and avoid making any further demands on the matter. The decision in no way means one accepts that person's viewpoint, one simply does not wish to waste time and energy any further. Moreover, the more rejections one receives, the more humiliating it becomes. Hence, having unsuccessfully made appeals before Aboo Bakr, Bibi Faatima (s.a) was aware he was not going to change his position.

Al-Timirdhi: 

Narrated Muhammad ibn Al-Muthanna from Abul Walid from Hemad ibn Salama from Muhammad ibn Amr from Abi Salama from Aboo Huraira who said: Faatima (s.a) came to Aboo Bakr and asked: "Who will inherit you?" He said, "My wife and my children." She (s.a) asked, "Then, how it is that I cannot inherit my father?" So, Aboo Bakr said: "I heard Allah's Messenger (saw) say: 'We are not inherited.' But, I will support whom Allah's Messenger (saw) used to support and I will provide whom he used to provide."

This narration has been graded as Saheeh (Authentic) by Al-Albani.

Source: Saheeh Sunan Al-Tirmidhi. Vol. 2, Pg. # 213, H. # 1068.





Narrated Alee ibn Isa from Abdul Wahab ibn Ata from Muhammad ibn Amr from Abi Salama from Abi Huraira who said: Faatima (s.a) came to Aboo Bakr and Umar and she asked to give her, her share of inheritance from the Messenger of Allah (saw). They both said: We heard the Messenger of Allah (saw) saying: "I do not leave property to be inherited." She (s.a) said: "By Allah (swt)! I will not talk to you both forever." And then she died and did not speak with them.


Narration has been graded Saheeh (Authentic) by Al-Albani. Aboo Isa has added the meaning of "I will not talk to you both" is that I will not talk to you about this property forever, you both are right. And this Hadeeth (i.e. I do not leave property...) is narrated in another form from Aboo Bakr from the Messenger of Allah (saw).


Source: Saheeh Sunan Al-Tirmidhi. Vol. 2, Pg. # 214, H. # 1609.



In the above narration, Zuhri does not appear as a sub narrator. However, we have the testimony of two individuals both A'isha and Aboo Huraira, who both confirm Bibi Faatima (s.a) died in a state of anger towards Aboo Bakr. The new addition to the text are from Aboo Huraira who cites the words of Faatima (s.a), wherein she makes an oath, "By Allah (swt)! I will not talk to you again forever...!" Now the sub narrator Aboo Isa has added to the meaning of this narration in which he states, "I will not talk to you both" means, "I will not talk to you about this property forever, you both are right." 

Why do such excuses need to made to cover up the faults of Aboo Bakr and Umar? In no way does Faatima (s.a) indicate she was referring to not talking about the property. It is clear from the given context of the hadeeth, that Faatima (s.a) was speaking about not talking to them forever without any exceptions with further confirmation of, 'she died and did not speak to them.'

The Nawasib also seek to suggest Aboo Bakr spoke to Bibi Faatima (s.a) on her deathbed until she (s.a) was pleased with him. Why would the need to seek the pleasure of Sayeda Faatima (s.a) arise if she (s.a) was not angry with Aboo Bakr and had agreed to the verdict of the two? Or was it that she considered them to be non-Muslim as she remained angry for all those days?

Al-Bayhaqi:

Narrated Shu'ba: When Faatima (s.a) became ill, Aboo Bakr came to her and asked for permission to enter. So Alee (a.s) said, "O Faatima (s.a)! This is Aboo Bakr asking for permission to enter." She answered, "Do you want me to give him permission?" He said, "Yes." So she allowed him (to enter), and he (Aboo Bakr) came in seeking her pleasure, so he told her: "By Allah (swt)! I only left my home and property and my family seeking the pleasure of Allah (swt) and His Messenger (saw) and you, O Ahlulbayt (a.s)." So he talked to her (s.a) until she was pleased with him.

Source: Sunan Al-Bayhaqi. Vol. # 6, Pg. # 30.

Also recorded in Al-Bayhaqi Al-Sunan Al-Kubra, Dala'il Al-Nubuwwa. It is narrated with a good (Hasan) chain. Muhibb Al-Din Al-Khatib in Al-Riyad Al-Nadira. And Dhahabi has said concerning this narration in Siyar A'lam Al-Nubala

Note: Al-Bayhaqi, ibn Kathir, and ibn Hajar all authenticate this hadeeth and ibn Kathir states it as Saheeh in his Al-Bidayah and ibn Hajar in his Fath Al-Bari has said the mursal of Shu'ba is authentic. 

On the other hand, we find other Scholars disregarding the Mursal of Shu'ba.

Status Of Al-Shu'ba

Ibn Hazim:

"Al-Shu'ba was born two years after the death of Umar." 

Source: Al-Muhalla. Vol. 11, Pg. # 50.


Allamah ibn Abd Al-Barr:

"The mursal of Al-Shu'ba according to them is worth nothing." 

Source: Al-Tamheed. Vol. 22, Pg. # 320.


Based on authentic narrations mentioned above, Bibi Faatima (s.a) became angry with Aboo Bakr till she died. If Faatima (s.a) agreed with both of them (i.e Aboo Bakr and Umar) why would she (s.a) say, "By Allah (swt)! I will not talk to you again forever..!" To bear a grudge for such a long period of time proves Faatima (s.a) did not consider them to be Muslim during that time period. And it is not permitted for a Muslim to be angry with another Muslim for more than three days! 

Al-Bukhari:

Narrated Anas bin Malik: Allah's Apostle (saw) said, "Do not hate one another, and do not be jealous of one another, and do not desert each other, and O Allah's (saw) worshipers! Be brothers. Lo! It is not permissible for any Muslim to desert (not talk to) his brother (Muslim) for more than three days!" 

Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. # 1519, H. # 6065.



Muslim ibn Hajjaj:

Anas b. Malik reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: "Neither nurse mutual hatred, nor jealousy, nor enmity, and become as fellow brothers and servants of Allah (swt). It is not lawful for a Muslim that he should keep his relations estranged with his brother beyond three days!"

Source: Saheeh Muslim. Pg. # 1191, H. # 2559 / 23.


Al-Hattaab Al-Ra'ini:

Al-Qurtubi says in the Sharh of Muslim for the chapter of, "The Virtues Of Sayeda Faatima (RA)": and his (saw) statement: "What disturbs her in fact disturbs me" i.e: "Bothers me." And this shows that whatever we do which is allowed, there is no problem in it, even if that action bothers others, but this is not allowed with the Prophet (saw) and it is actually Haraam for us to do whatever bothers him (saw), even if it is allowed (Mubah) originally, but if it led to bothering the Prophet (saw), the permission will be removed and that action will become Haraam.

Source: Al-Mawahib Al-Jalil Li Sharh Mukhtasari Khalil. Vol. 5, Pg. # 12.



Fadak In Shi'a Narrations


Because the creed of the so-called 'Ahl ul Sunnah' is to conceal the truth about their beloved Sahaba, it is a must that we search for the missing pieces of the puzzle to gain the full picture of the entire event. This we believe has been achieved up to this point in the article. However, we shall see how the Shi'a sources do not shy away from the bitter truth and hence give us the full image of what we have evidenced earlier regarding Fadak.

Alee ibn Ibraheem Al-Qummi:

Alee bin Ibrahim said, My father narrated to me, from ibn Aboo Umeyr, from Usmaan bin Isa, and Hamaad bin Usmaan, Aboo Abdullah (a.s) having said: "When allegiance was pledged to Aboo Bakr, and the command was straightened for him upon the Emigrants and the Helpers, he sent an envoy to Fadak and threw out the representative of Faatima (s.a), daughter of RasoolAllah (saw) from it. So Faatima (s.a) came up to Aboo Bakr, so she said: 'O Aboo Bakr! You are preventing me from my inheritance from RasoolAllah (saw), and have dismissed my representative from Fadak, although RasoolAllah (saw) had made it to be for me by the Command of Allah (swt)?' So he said to her (s.a), 'Bring me witnesses upon that.' So she (s.a) came with Umm Ayman who said, 'I will not testify until I first argue against you O Aboo Bakr, with what RasoolAllah (saw) has said. I adjure you to Allah (swt), O Aboo Bakr! Do you not know that RasoolAllah (saw) said: 'Surely Umm Ayman is a woman from the inhabitants of Paradise?' He said, 'Yes.' She said, 'So I hereby testify that Allah (swt)revealed unto RasoolAllah (saw) [30:38]; Then give to the near of kin his due, so he made Fadak to be for Faatima (s.a) by the Command of Allah.'

And Alee (a.s) came and testified similar to that. So he wrote for her, the return of Fadak, and handed it (document) over to her. Umar came up and said, 'And what is this?' So Aboo Bakr said, 'Faatima (s.a) made a claim for Fadak, and Umm Ayman and Alee (a.s) testified for her, therefore I wrote out Fadak for her.' Umar grabbed hold of the document from Sayeda Faatimah (s.a) and tore it up, and said, 'This is war booty for the Muslims.' And he said, 'Aws bin Al-Hadsaan, and A'isha, and Hafsa are testifying that RasoolAllah (saw) said: 'We, the group of Prophets (a.s) do not bequeath (inheritance). What we leave behind is charity.' And Alee (a.s) is her husband. He would lead it to himself. And Umm Ayman, so she is a virtuous woman, if only there was someone else with her (to testify), we would look into the matter.' So Sayeda Faatima (s.a) went out from their presence, crying, grieving. So when it was after this, Alee (a.s) came up to Aboo Bakr whilst he was in the Masjid, and around him were the Emigrants and the Helpers, so he said: 'O Aboo Bakr! Why did you prevent Sayeda Faatima (s.a) from her inheritance from RasoolAllah (saw), and she had owned it during the lifetime of RasoolAllah (saw)?' Aboo Bakr said, 'This is the war booty for the Muslims. So if she can establish witnesses that RasoolAllah (saw), I will make it to be for her, otherwise she has not right in it.' So Ameer-ul-Mo'mineen said: 'O Aboo Bakr! You are passing judgement regarding us in opposition to the Judgement of Allah (swt) regarding the Muslims?' He said, 'No.' He said: 'So if there was a thing which was in the hands of the Muslims which they owned, and I make a claim for it, whom will you ask for the proof?' He said, 'It is you that I will be asking for the proof for what you claim against the Muslims.' He said: 'So if there was something which was in my hands, and the Muslims make a claim for it, you will ask me for the proof upon what is in my hands, and she owned it during the lifetime of RasoolAllah (saw), and after him, and you did not ask the Muslims for the proof upon what they claim against me, for any witnesses, just as you asked me for what I were to claim against them?' So Aboo Bakr was silent, then Umar said, 'O Alee (a.s)! Leave us from your speech, for we are not capable of arguing with you. So if she (s.a) comes with the witnesses, we shall reverse it, otherwise it would be the war booty for the Muslims. There is no right for you, nor for Faatima (s.a) with regards to it.' So Ameer-ul-Mo'mineen (a.s) said: 'O Aboo Bakr! Have you read the Book of Allah (swt)?' He said, 'Yes.' He said: 'Inform me about the Words of Allah (swt) the High [33:33]; But rather, Allah desires to keep away the uncleanness from you, O people of the household.' He (a.s) said: 'If two witnesses were to testify against Faatima (s.a) for immorality, what would you have done?' He said, 'I would have applied the limit (of the Law) against her just as I would for the rest of the Muslims.' He (a.s) said: 'Then, you would be from the Infidels, in the presence of Allah (swt).' He said, 'And why?' He (a.s) said: 'Because you would have rejected the testimony of Allah (swt) for her purity, and would have accepted the testimonies of the people against her, just as you have rejected the Judgement of Allah (swt), and the judgement of His Rasool (saw) that he made Fadak to be for her, and she owned it during his lifetime. Then you accepted the testimony of a Bedouin who urinates upon his heels, the likes of Aws Bin Al-Hadsaan, and snatched Fadak from her, and are alleging that it is the war booty for the Muslims. And RasoolAllah (saw) has said: 'The onus of proof is upon the claimant, and the oath upon what he is claiming against.'

He said, The people murmured, and some of them wept and were saying: 'By Allah (swt)!Alee (a.s) has spoken the truth.' And Alee (a.s) returned to his house. He said, And Sayeda Faatima (s.a) entered the Masjid, and circumambulated the grave of her father, and she wailed, and she was saying (in prose):

'Surely, your separation is the separation of the earth and its rains; 
and your people got disturbed, so appear to them and do not be hidden.
After you there is news, and intense differing; 
If only you would have seen it, speeches would not have been in abundance.
Jibra'eel as had been entertaining us with the Verses; 
So he is absent from us, and so is every good been veiled.
And I was a moon and a light illuminating it; 
upon you was the Revelation from the one with Honourable Books.
The men have impersonated it and belittled us; 
when you are absent from us, so today we have been usurped.
For every family there is a kinship for it and a status; 
in the Presence of God, a nearness of approach.
The men demonstrated what was in their chests; 
when I went and (described) the conditions besides you.
So they gave us difficulties, which they had not given anyone; 
from the wilderness, neither the Arabs nor the non-Arabs.
So they gave us difficulties by its creation; 
the net of taxes, and the prejudices, and the hostilities.
So you are the best of the servants of Allah (swt), all of them; 
and the most truthful of the people when they speak the truth and lie.
So we would be lamenting over you whatever life we live and whatever that remains; 
from us the eyes with what we can bear, from the downpour of tears.
I shall be undertaking it upon myself to inform of the injustices upon us; 
on the Day of Judgement, I will overturn them.'

He said, "Aboo Bakr returned to his house and sent for Umar and called him over, so he said, 'Did you not see Alee's (a.s) gathering from us today? By Allah (swt)! If he were to sit in a session like it, he would spoil our matter.' So the two of them went to Khalid and said, 'We want to burden you with a great matter.' He said, 'Burden me with whatsoever you two like to, even though it may be the murder of Alee bin Aboo Talib (a.s).' They said, 'That is it!' Khalid said, 'When shall I kill him?' Aboo Bakr said, 'When he is present in the Masjid, stand by his side during the prayer. So when I send greetings (at the end of the Prayer), rise upon him and strike his neck.' He said, 'Yes.'

Asma bint Umays heard that, and she was under (wife of) Aboo Bakr, so she said to her maid, 'Go to the house of Alee (a.s) and Faatima (a.s) and covey the greetings to them both, and say to Alee (a.s), '[28:20] Surely the chiefs are consulting together to slay you, therefore depart (at once); surely I am of those who wish well to you.' So she came to the two of them, and said to Alee (a.s), 'Asma bint Umays conveys the greetings to both of you, and she is saying, '[28:20] surely the chiefs are consulting together to slay you, therefore depart (at once); surely I am of those who wish well to you.'  So Alee (a.s) said: 'Relate my words to her: 'Surely Allah (swt) has transmitted what is between them and what they are intending.'

Then he stood up and prepared for the prayer, and went to the Masjid, and prayed while Aboo Bakr went ahead, and Khalid bin Al-Waleed was by his side, with his sword. So when Aboo Bakr sat for the testimonies, fear overtook him and he said, and feared the strife, and the severity of Alee (a.s) and his bravery, and did not stop thinking about it, and he did not dare to send greetings until the people thought that he had forgotten it. Then he turned towards Khalid, so he said, 'Do not do what I ordered you with!' (and then sent the greetings of the prayer) Peace be upon you all, and the Mercy of Allah (swt) and His Blessings.'

So Ameer-ul-Mo'mineen (a.s) said: 'O Khalid! What was it that he had ordered you with?' He said, 'He had ordered me to strike your neck.' He said: 'And would you have done it?' He said, 'Yes, by Allah (swt)! Even without him having said, 'Do not do it – I would have killed you after the greetings.' 

So Alee (a.s) grabbed hold of him and fell him upon the ground, and the people gathered around. So Umar said, 'He will Kill him, by the Lord of the Kaaba!' And the people said, 'O Aboo Al-Hassan (a.s)! Allah (swt)! Allah (swt)! For the sake of the occupant of this grave!' So he let him go and turned towards Umar and grabbed him by his collar and said: 'O son of Sahaak! Had it not been for the oath from RasoolAllah (saw) and the Book of Allah (swt) in front of me, you would have known where the weak helpers are, and fewer numbers.' Then he entered his house.

Source: Tafsir Al-Qummi. Vol. 2, Pg. # 155 - 159.







The chain of the above narration is completely authentic. at the top level two companions of Imam Al-Sadiq (a.s), i.e. Uthman Ibn Isa and Himad ibn Uthman have narrated this narration from him (a.s).


1 - Alee ibn Ibraheem Al-Qummi:

2 - Ibraheem ibn Hashim Al-Qummi

3 - Muhammad ibn Abi Umayr

4 - Uthman ibn Isaa

5- Himad ibn Uthman


Allamah Al-Majlisi I:

Allamah Al-Majlisi: Alee Ibn Ibraheem Ibn Hashim Al-Qummi, he is trustworthy.
Sayyed Al-Khoei: he is trustworthy, Imami. 

Source: Rijal Al-Majlisi. Pg. # 255



Allamah Al-Majlisi I: Ibraheem ibn Hashim Al-Qummi, he is Hasan, like Saheeh (Authetic).

Sayyed Al-Khoei: he is trustworthy, Imami.

Source: Rijal Al-Majlisi. Pg. # 146.


Allamah Al-Majlisi: Muhammad ibn Abi Umayr, he is trustworthy. the scholars are in consensus about his trustworthiness and his Mursal(disconnected narrations) are counted as Masanid(connected).

Sayyed Al-Khoei: he is trustworthy, Imami. 

Source: Rijal Al-Majlisi. Pg. # 289.


Allamah Al-Majlisi: Uthman Ibn Isaa Al-Kilabi, he is trustworthy, but not Imami.

Sayyed Al-Khoei: he is trustworthy, but Waqifi. 

Source: Rijal Al-Majlisi. Pg. # 252.


Allamah Al-Majlisi: Himad Ibn Uthman Al-Fazari, he is trustworthy.

Sayyed Al-Khoei: he is trustworthy, Imami. 

Allamah Al-Majlisi: Himad Ibn Uthman Al-Naab, he is trustworthy. the scholars are in consensus about his trustworthiness.

Sayyed Al-Khoei: he is the same person as the previous one. 

Source: Rijal Al-Majlisi. Pg. # 201.



Sulaym ibn Al-Qays:

Imam Alee (a.s) said: And he and his companion took away the Fadak, when it was in control of Faatima (a.s) and during the time of the Holy Prophet (saw) she ate the food from it. So he asked an evidence from her when it was in her hand.

Neither did they accept her to be true nor Umme Ayman, although he surely knew, like we know, that it was in her hand. It was not right for him to ask her to produce evidence that was in her hand, and it was not right for him to accuse her. Then people thought of him as good, praised him and said that he did that because he had fear of Allah (swt) and this is his merit.

Then the evil actions of both of them were taken as good (i.e. both did not accept Faatima (s.a),) and both said, "We think Faatima (s.a) will not say anything except truth, and Alee (a.s) also has not witnessed except what is truth, and if there was any other lady with Umme Ayman, then we would have given Fadak to Faatima (s.a)." This is how both of them made themselves good in front of the ignorant. Who were them two and who made them both governors that they give some to someone and stop the other from others? But the Ummah got involved with these two, so they both entered into such things over which they had no right, and they both did not have knowledge in this matter, although Faatima (s.a) had told both of them, when he wanted to take away what she had in her hand, "Is this not in my control? And my agent is present and when the Holy Prophet (saw) was alive I have eaten crops from it." Both of them said: "Yes, that has happened." Then Faatima (s.a) said: "When you accept that, why are you asking for evidence of what is in my hand?" So they both said: "This is the property of Muslims. If the evidence is established then it is okay, otherwise we will not give it." So she said to both of them, when people were around them listening, "Do you both want to take back what the Holy Prophet (saw) did, and you order particularly for us that which you did not order for all other Muslims? O people, listen to what these two have done. What! do you two think if I claim what property is in the hands of Muslims, will you ask evidence from me or evidence from them?" They both said: "We will ask from you." So she asked, "So if all Muslims claim on what is in my hands, will you ask for evidence from the people or from myself?" Umar became angry and said: "This is the property of Muslims and their land, and this is in the hands of Faatima (s.a), the food from which she is consuming. So if she produces evidence that the Holy Prophet (saw) from all Muslims had given it to her particularly, although it is the property of Muslims and their right, then we will think about it." So she said, "It is sufficient for me. O People! I bear Allah (swt) as Witness, did you not hear the Holy Prophet (saw) say: 'Surely my daughter is the leader of the women of Paradise?'" Everyone said: "Bearing Allah (swt) as witness we have heard this from the Holy Prophet (saw)." She asked, "So will the leader of the women in Paradise claim falsely and take what is not hers? What! do you think that if four people bear witness against me over a bad deed or two people for stealing will you accept them to be true against me?"

Aboo Bakr remained quiet but Umar said: "Yes, we will apply the Law on you." She said, "You told a lie and are cunning and you accept that you are not on the religion of Muhammad (saw). Surely, a person who declares it compulsory on the leader of the women of Paradise to produce evidence or applies the Law on her, surely he is cursed and is Kafir of what Allah (swt) has revealed on Muhammad (saw) because there can be no evidence against those (from whom Allah (swt) has kept impurity away and has declared pure as it is their right), because they are infallible from corruption, and pure of all evil. O Umar! Tell me who are meant by this verse? If any community bears witness against them or against anyone of them that they have been Mushrik or Kafir, will Muslims keep away from them and will they apply the Law?" He replied "Yes. Everybody and they are equal."

So she said, "You are a liar and a Kafir! Ahlulbayt (a.s) and all people are not equal in this matter because Allah (swt) has kept them Ahlulbayt (a.s) free from sins, and their infallibility and purity has been revealed (in Qur'aan), and has kept evil away from them. Whoever believes anyone true against them then he is the one who has falsified Allah (swt)and His Prophet (saw)." Aboo Bakr said, "O Umar! I hold you by oath, shut up!" 

At night they both sent someone to Khalid ibn Walid and said: "We want to tell you a confidential matter and leave it to you because we trust you." He said: "Whatever you two want, tell me I will obey you." They both said to him, "The Mulk and kingdom that we have acquired cannot benefit us until Alee (a.s) is alive. Did you not hear what he said to us and how he behaved towards us? We are not satisfied, it is possible that he silently calls people of the community and they agree and he fights against us because he is the bravest of Arabs and you know how we treated him, and we have overpowered the Kingdom of his cousin when we do not have any rights in it and we have forfeited Fadak from his wife. So when you recite the morning prayer with people you stand next to him with your sword with you. When I recite salutation you slash his neck."

Alee (a.s) said: "Khalid ibn Walid recited the prayer standing next to me with his sword on him. Aboo Bakr stood for prayer and was thinking and regretting and was confused until sunrise was near. Then before reciting the salutation in prayer, he said: "Do not do what I ordered you to do." Then he recited the salutation. So I said to Khalid: "What was the matter?" He said: "I had been ordered that when he completes reciting the salutation I slash your neck." So I asked: "Were you going to do it?" He said: "By God! Yes, I
would certainly have done that." 

Source: Kitab e Sulaym. H. # 14, Pg. # 226 - 228.


One of the issues that has been mentioned in these two narrations is that when Aboo Bakr and Umar failed to reason with Ahlulbayt (a.s), they conspired to assassinate Imam Alee (a.s) during Salaah by sending Khalid ibn Al-Waleed. Unsurprisingly, this issue has also been narrated by the so-called 'Ahl ul Sunnah,' but as always, they have dismissed to narrate it in the same manner as it has been narrated above.

Aboo Bakr and Umar order Khalid to assassinate Alee (a.s):

Aboo Bakr Al-Khallal:

Narrated to me Muhammd ibn Alee from Al-Athram who said: I heard Aba Abdullah (i.e. Ahmad ibn Hanbal) when the hadeeth of Uqail from Al-Zuhri from Urwa from A'isha from the Prophet (saw) was mentioned to him about Alee (a.s) and Al-Abbas, and from Uqail from Al-Zuhri that Aba Bakr ordered Khalid about Alee (a.s), Aboo Abdullah said: "How?" When he understood it, he said: "I do not like to write down Hadeeth like this."

Footnote: The chain to Ahmad is Saheeh (Authentic).

Source: Al-Sunnah of Aboo Bakr Al-Khallal. Vol. 3, Pg. # 505



Ibn Asakir:

Al-Qasim Al-Taimi and Abul Fadhl Al-Salami narrated from Al-Mubarak ibn Abdul-Jabbar from Ibraheem ibn Umar from Muhammad ibn Abdullah from Umar ibn Muhammad from Aboo Bakr Al-Athram who said: Aboo Abdullah (i.e. Ahmad ibn Hanbal) said: Uqail make less mistakes than him, i.e. than Yunus. And I heard him saying when the hadeeth of Uqail from Al-Zuhri from Urwa from A'isha from the Prophet (saw) was mentioned to him about Alee (a.s) and Al-Abbas, and from Uqail from Al-Zuhri that Aba Bakr ordered Khalid about Alee (a.s), Aboo Abdullah said: "How?" When he understood it, he said: "I do not like to write down Hadeeth like this."

Source: Tarikh Madinat Dimashq. Vol. 41, Pg. # 46 - 47.



Al-Sam'aani mentions it in the biography of Ubbad ibn Yaqoub, one of the Shuyukh of Bukhari.

Al-Sam'aani:

And through him it has been narrated the Aboo Bakr said: "O Khalid! Do not do what I ordered you to." I asked Al-Shareef Umar ibn Ibraheem Al-Husaini in Kufa about the meaning of this hadeeth, he said: "He had ordered Khalid ibn Al-Waleed to assassinate Alee(a.s), but then he regretted it and ordered him not to do it."

Source: Al-Ansaab. Vol. 3, Pg. # 95.



We see how Ahmad ibn Hanbal chooses to ignore the narrations regarding this incident, and how the truth is hidden on disagreements between the Sahaba.


This example, and what we have evidenced makes it crystal clear that in order to find out the truth from the books of the so-called 'Ahl ul Sunnah,' one must not accept blindly what is narrated but dig deeper and search very carefully to join all the pieces of the puzzle together.

Did Alee (a.s) Anger Faatima (s.a)?


Among many issues which trouble our opponents is one where Sayeda Faatima (s.a) died angry with Aboo Bakr. As recorded in Bukhari and many other books of our opponents, the Prophet (saw) said: 

The Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "Faatima (s.a) is part of me, whoever angers her, angers me.”


The Nawasib have attempted throughout history to attribute the merits of Ahlubayt (a.s) to their enemies and the vilifications of their enemies to them. Among the many fabricated stories told against Imam Alee (a.s) was that he had asked for Aboo Jahl's (the chief of infidels) daughter's hand in marriage. When this news reached Sayeda Faatima (s.a), she rushed to her father who found out the falsity of the story and thus the Prophet (saw) said these words. The aim of fabricating this story was to divert the attention from the people who in reality angered Sayeda Faatima (s.a), and put Imam Alee (a.s) under the spotlight as the one who did so. 

We will try to analyse this story to see whether the context that has been given to this narration is something historical or not. Firstly, it is worth mentioning that this story has been narrated through multiple chains, most of them being Mursal through Tabi'een, whereas some are weak and some authentic according to the criteria of the school of the so-called 'Ahl Al-Sunnah Wa Al-Jama'ah.' We will analyse only the authentic chains, which are through two companions; Al-Miswar ibn Mikhrama and Abdullah ibn Al-Zubayr, Insha'Allah Ta'Ala. 

Some scholars have said that apparently ibn Al-Zubayr also heard it from Al-Miswar and has narrated it in Mursal form (which will be shown later). Therefore, this episode ends at one individual, 'Al-Miswar ibn Mikhrama.' Without explaining any further, we put forward the narrations from the authentic books according to the so-called 'Ahl ul Sunnah,' and then mention the scholarly commentaries in regards to it. But before that, let us see how the Nawasib stick to this false story and flip the whole objection from Aboo Bakr to the Ahlulbayt (a.s) degrading not only Imam Alee (a.s), but the Messenger of Allah (saw) and his beloved daughter, Faatima (s.a) in the process. The Sheikh of the Nawasib, ibn Taymiyyah shamelessly uses this false story to degrade Imam Alee (a.s).


Ibn Taymiyyah:

If it happened (Faatima (s.a) died angry with Aboo Bakr) that Aboo Bakr angered her (i.e. Faatima s.a), he did not anger her because of himself, he rather did it to obey Allah (swt) and His Messenger (saw), and to give the right to its owners, but Alee's (a.s) intention was to marry another woman over her, and by that he intentionally wanted to anger her, as contrary to Aboo Bakr. Therefore it is obvious that Aboo Bakr was far away from making her upset compared to Alee (a.s) and that he indeed intended to obey Allah (swt) and His Messenger (saw) as it is obvious in that story, as opposite to Alee (a.s), because for him there was an enjoyment in what made her upset. And Also Aboo Bakr was of those who migrated towards Allah (swt) and His Messenger and this is different from a person whose intention was to marry a woman.

Source: Minhaj Al-Sunnah. Vol. 4, Pg. # 255.
 




Al-Bukhari:

Narrated Abul Yamaan from Shu'aib from Al-Zuhri from Alee ibn Al-Hussain from Al-Miswar bin Makhrama: Alee (a.s) demanded the hand of the daughter of Aboo Jahl. Faatima (s.a) heard of this and went to Allah's Messenger (saw) saying, "Your people think that you do not become angry for the sake of your daughters. Alee (a.s) is now going to marry the daughter of Aboo Jahl." On that, Allah's Messenger (saw) got up after his recitation of Tashahhud. I heard him saying, "Then after! I married one of my daughters to Aboo Al-As bin Al-Rabi (the husband of Zaynab, the daughter of the Prophet (saw) before Islam) and he proved truthful in whatever he said to me. No doubt, Faatima (s.a) is a part of me, I hate to see her being troubled. By Allah (swt)! The daughter of Allah's Messenger (saw) and the daughter of Allah's (swt) enemy cannot be the wives of one man." So Alee (a.s) gave up that engagement. Al-Miswar further said: "I heard the Prophet (saw) talking and he mentioned a son-in-law of his belonging to the tribe of Bani Abd-Shams. He highly praised him concerning that relationship and said (whenever) he spoke to me, he spoke the truth, and whenever he promised me, he fulfilled his promise."

Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. # 917, H. # 3769.


Al-Bukhari:

Narrated Alee bin Al-Hussain (a.s): That when they reached Madinah after returning from Yazid bin Mu'awaiyah after the martyrdom of Hussain bin Alee (a.s) (may Allah bestow His Mercy upon him), Al-Miswar bin Makhrama met him and said to him, "Do you have any need you may order me to satisfy?" Alee (a.s) said, "No." Al-Miswar said, "Will you give me the sword of Allah's Messenger (saw)? For I am afraid that people may take it from you by force? By Allah (swt)! If you give it to me, they will never be able to take it till I die." When Alee bin Aboo Talib (a.s) demanded the hand of the daughter of Abi Jahl to be his wife besides Faatima (s.a), I heard Allah's Messenger (saw) on his pulpit delivering a sermon in this connection before the people, and I had then attained my age of puberty. Allah's Messenger (saw) said, "Faatima (s.a) is from me, and I am afraid she will be subjected to trials in her religion (because of jealousy)." The Prophet (saw) then mentioned one of his son-in-laws who was from the tribe of Aboo Shams, and he praised him as a good son-in-law, saying, "Whatever he said was the truth, and he promised me and fulfilled his promise. I do not make a legal thing illegal, nor do I make an illegal thing legal, but by Allah (swt)! The daughter of Allah's Messenger (saw) and the daughter of the enemy of Allah (swt), (i.e. Aboo Jahl) can never get together (as the wives of one man).


Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. # 766, H. # 3110.


Al-Tirmidhi:

Narrated Al-Miswar bin Makhramah: While he was on the Minbar, I heard the Prophet (saw) saying: "Indeed Banu Hisham bin Al-Mughirah asked me if they could marry their daughter to Alee bin Abi Talib (a.s). But I do not allow it, I do not allow it, I do not allow it - unless Alee bin Abi Talib (a.s) wishes to divorce my daughter and marry their daughter, because she is a part of me. I am displeased by what displeases her, and I am harmed by what harms her."

Al-Albani: It is Saheeh (Authentic).

Aboo Isa: This hadeeth is Hasan Saheeh (Reliable like Authentic), and Amr ibn Dinar has narrated it from ibn Abi Mulaika from Al-Miswar ibn Mikhramah likewise.

Narrated Abdullah bin Az-Zubair: That Alee (a.s) mentioned the daughter of Jahl (for marriage), and that reached the Prophet (saw) so he said: "Indeed Faatima (s.a) is but a part of me, I am harmed by what harms her and I am uncomfortable by what makes her uncomfortable."

Al-Albani: It is Saheeh (Authentic).

Aboo Isa: This hadeeth is Hasan Saheeh (Reliable like Authentic), likewise narrated Ayub from ibn Abi Mulaika from Abdullah ibn Al-Zubayr. And more than one narrator has narrated it from ibn Abi Mulaika from Al-Miswar ibn Mikhramah and it is possible that ibn Abi Mulaika has narrated it from both of them.

Source: Saheeh Sunan Al-Tirmidhi. Vol. 3, Pg. # 569 - 570, H. # 3867.


Ibn Hajar:

Narrated Al-Miswar bin Makhramah: While he was on the Minbar, I heard the Prophet (saw) saying: "Indeed Banu Hisham bin Al-Mughirah asked me if they could marry their daughter to Alee bin Abi Talib (a.s). But I do not allow it, I do not allow it, I do not allow it - unless Alee bin Abi Talib (a.s) wishes to divorce my daughter and marry their daughter, because she is a part of me. I am displeased by what displeases her, and I am harmed by what harms her."

This hadeeth passed in the book of Fardh Al-Khums and in Manaqib through Al-Zuhri from Alee ibn Al-Hussain ibn Alee (a.s) from Al-Miswar, and he adds the story of the sword of the Prophet (saw) in it and that is the reason why Al-Miswar narrates him this hadeeth. And I mentioned whatever belongs to the story of the sword there. And my amazement does not stop from Al-Miswar how he exaggerates in his fanaticism towards Alee ibn Al-Hussain (a.s), he even says: "By Allah (swt)! If you give it to me, they will never be able to take it till I die" considering he was the son of Faatima (s.a), and he uses that hadeeth mentioned in that chapter (i.e. Alee (a.s) wanting to marry daughter of Abi Jahl) and he does not consider to not bother him, because the obvious form of the hadeeth shows that he mocks Alee ibn Al-Hussain (a.s) by degrading his grandfather Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s), when he proposed to the daughter of Abi Jahl over Faatima (s.a), until it ended up that the Prophet (saw) disliked it. And what amazes me more than the first one about Al-Miswar is that he claims to be ready to die to protect the sword because of the children of Faatima (s.a), but he does not put forward his life for Al-Hussain (a.s) himself, father of Alee (a.s) with whom this story happened, until he (i.e. Al-Miswar) was killed by the hands of tyrant rulers. But his excuse could be that when Al-Hussain (a.s) left towards Iraq, Al-Miswar and other people of Hijaz thought that his affairs would end up in what he likes. Allah (swt) knows best.

Source: Fath Ul-Bari Fi Sharh Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Vol. 11, Pg. # 679 - 680.



Ibn Hajar:

And his statement: "From ibn Abi Mulaika from Al-Miswar ibn Mikhrama," this is how Amr ibn Dinar has narrated it and also Al-Layth and ibn La'ia and others, and narrated it Ayub from ibn Abi Mulaika and says: from Abdullah ibn Al-Zubayr, Al-Tirmidhi has narrated it and has authenticated it and he says: It is possible that ibn Abi Mulaika has heard it from both of them and Al-Darqutni and others have preferred the hadeeth through Al-Miswar, and that is something firm, because Al-Miswar has narrated it in this hadeeth a long story that was mentioned in the chapter "son-in-laws of the Prophet (saw)," yes it is possible that ibn Zubayr has heard only this portion of the Hadith from Al-Miswar and has narrated in Mursal form. 

Source: Fath Ul-Bari Fi Sharh Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Vol. 8, Pg. # 475.




Al-Nawawi:

Miswar ibn Makhramah reported that he heard Allah's Messenger (saw) say, as he sat on the pulpit: The sons of Hisham ibn Mughira have asked my permission to marry their daughter with Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s) (that refers to the daughter of Aboo Jahl for whom Alee (a.s) had sent a proposal for marriage). But I would not allow them, I would not allow them, I would not allow them (and the only other alternative possible is) that Alee (a.s) should divorce my daughter (and then marry their daughter), for my daughter is part of me. He who disturbs her in fact disturbs me and he who offends her offends me.

Miswar ibn Makhramah reported Allah's Messenger (saw) as saying:

"Faatima is a part of me. He in fact tortures me who tortures her."

(Imam Zain-ul-Abidin) Alee ibn Hussain  (a.s) reported that when they came to Madinah from Yazid ibn Mu'awiyah after the martyrdom of Hussain ibn Alee (a.s), Miswar ibn Makhramah met him and said to him: "Is there any work for me which you ask me to do?" I said to him: "No." He again said to me: "Would you not give me the sword of Allah's Messenger (saw)? For I fear that the people may snatch it from you? By Allah (swt)! If you give that to me, no one would be able to take it away, so long as there is life in me. Verily Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s) sent a proposal of marriage to the daughter of Aboo Jahl in spite of (the fact that his wife) Faatima (s.a) (had been living in his house). Thereupon I heard Allah's Messenger (saw) say while addressing the people on the pulpit. I was adolescing in those days. He said: 'Faatima (s.a) is a part of me and I fear that she may be put to trial in regard to religion.' He then made a mention of his son-in law who had been from the tribe of Abd Shams and praised his behaviour as a son-in-law and said: 'Whatever he said to me he told the truth and whatever he promised he fulfilled it for me. I am not going to declare forbidden what is lawful and make lawful what is forbidden, but, by Allah (swt)! The daughter of Allah's Messenger (saw) and the daughter of the enemy of Allah (swt) can never be combined at one place.'"

Alee ibn Hussain (a.s) reported that Miswar ibn Makhramah informed him that Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s) sent the proposal of marriage to the daughter of Aboo Jahl as he had Faatima (s.a), the daughter of Allah's Messenger (saw), (as his wife). When Faatima (s.a) heard about it, she came to Allah's Apostle (saw) and said: "The people say that you never feel angry on account of your daughters and now Alee (a.s) is going to marry the daughter of Aboo Jahl." Makhramah said: "Thereupon Allah's Messenger (saw) rose up and I heard him reciting Tashahhud and say: 'Now to the point. I gave a daughter of mine (Zaynab) to Abul-As ibn Rabi, and he spoke to me and spoke the truth. Verily Faatima (s.a), the daughter of Muhammad (saw), is a part of me and I do not approve that she may be put to any trial and by Allah (swt)! The daughter of Allah's Messenger (saw) cannot be combined with the daughter of God's enemy (as the co-wives) of one person.' Thereupon Alee (a.s) gave up (the idea of his intended) marriage."

Al-Nawawi's commentary:

The Prophet (saw) knew that Nikah of the daughter of Abi Jahl to Alee (a.s) was allowed, because he (saw) says: "I am not going to declare forbidden what is lawful," but he forbid for him to marry her upon Faatima (s.a) for two reasons: One: because it could lead to torture of Faatima (s.a) which can lead to torture of the Prophet (saw) and whoever tortures the Prophet (saw), he will be destroyed, so he forbid it due to his sympathy to Alee (a.s) and Faatima (s.a).  And the second reason is: Due to fear of fitna upon Faatima (s.a) because of jealousy, and it is said that the meaning is not gathering between the two, rather due to him knowing through Allah (swt) that they will not gather together under one marriage, as Anas ibn Al-Nadhr said that Allah (swt) will not break the beauty of spring. And it is possible that forbidding is gathering between them and the meaning of, "and I do not make lawful what is forbidden" is that I do not say something that contradicts the decree of Allah (swt), so when he allows something I will not forbid it, and when he forbids something I will not allow it and I will not stay silent declaring it forbidden, because my silence would count as allowing it and it would be a forbidden Nikah to gather the daughter of the Prophet (saw) and the daughter of his enemy under one marriage.


Source: Saheeh Muslim Sharh Al-Nawawi. Vol. 16, Pg. # 3 - 6.


Shah Abdul Aziz:

The love of Aboo Hanifa is famous through his anger towards Al-A'mash when he used to narrate the narration that Alee (a.s) proposed to the daughter of Abi Jahl for marriage, in which he mocked him. Aboo Hanifa told him that even though this story is true, but it is not proper that you spread this narration among people. It has no practical significance and Shareek ibn Abdullah and ibn Shabirma and ibn Abi Layli all of them gathered and went to the house of Al-A'mash and they blamed him about this and that he used to narrate this story. Al-A'mash said: "I love Alee (a.s) more than you, but I narrate this story as I heard it, this is my job."

Source: Tauhfa Athna Ashari. Pg. # 744 - 745.


Some points to be taken in to consideration:

•    Al-Miswar mentions that at the time when the Prophet (saw) narrated the hadeeth in the Masjid, he was Muhtalim (i.e. impure as a result of wet dreams, or nocturnal emissions), which evidences the fact he had already reached the age of puberty, yet he was present in the Masjid in such an impure state!

•    The hadeeth through Alee ibn Al-Hussain (a.s) from Al-Miswar contains the story of the sword, which does not make any sense, and the efforts of commentators like ibn Hajar to make sense out of that nonsense is helpless. 

•    The hadeeth through ibn Al-Zubayr is apparently taken from Al-Miswar.

•    The hadeeth through ibn Abi Mulaika from Al-Miswar contains the story of Banu Hisham ibn Al-Mughira asking the Prophet (saw) for permission to marry their daughter off to Imam Alee (a.s), but the other versions do not mention that.

•    Some versions do not mention the story of the proposal, only the part that the Prophet(saw) says that "Faatima (s.a) is part of me…" is mentioned.

•    The Prophet (saw) mentions one of his Mushrik son-in-laws and praises him by saying, "I married one of my daughters to Aboo Al-As bin Al- Rabi and he proved truthful in whatever he said to me," hence what is being proposed is that Alee (a.s) was not as such.


•    The Prophet (saw) knew what Alee (a.s) is doing is Halaal, thus he says: "I do not make anything lawful, unlawful..." yet contrary to this statement, he (saw) forbids it for Imam Alee (a.s)!

•    Aboo Hanifa finds narrating this incident as an insult to Imam Alee (a.s). So how is it possible that the grandson of Imam Alee (a.s), Alee ibn Al-Hussain (a.s) narrates this story proudly and does not see it as an insult to his grandfather?!


Biography Of Miswar ibn Mikhrama

In the sixth year after Hijra (in the Hudaibiyya peace treaty), Al-Miswar was younger than that to be able to distinguish and discern things.

Ibn Hajar:

Hadeeth of Al-Miswar and Marwan was mentioned before in two forms from Al-Zuhri and it was mentioned at the beginning of the book of Al-Shurut, under the story of the peace treaty of Al-Hudaibiyya that Al-Zuhri has narrated it from Urwa from Al-Miswar and Marwan from the companions of the Prophet (saw), so it becomes obvious that in other places where it doesn't mention, "from the companions of the Prophet (saw)," that it is in Mursal form because Miswar was younger than that to have witnessed the occasion, and Marwan is younger than him. Yes, Miswar was at an age to be able to discern in the occasion of Hunain, and he has memorized the story of proposal of Alee (a.s) to the daughter of Abi Jahl which happened around that time. Allah (swt) knows best.


Source: Fath Ul-Bari Fi Sharh Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Vol. 9, Pg. # 432.


It is interesting how ibn Hajar says that Al-Miswar was younger than that to be able to have witnessed and understood the story of Hudaibiyya by himself and that he rather heard it from other companions of the Prophet (saw), but two years later he was mature enough to discern all things on the occasion of Hunain in the 8th year after Hijra and the story of the proposal of Imam Alee (a.s) to the daughter Abi Jahl around that time.

We ask, what was his criteria and tool to conclude this and make it a fact?


Al-Dhahabi:

"The Prophet (saw) gave a sermon on this pulpit of his and I was Muhtalim (being in the state of Junub because of wet dreams)."

Al-Dhahabi: This shows that he was a grown up, Muhtalim in that time.

And from Ata ibn Yazeed who said: Ibn Zubayr used to not decide upon any occasion without Al-Miswar's approval in Makkah.

And from Umm Bakr who said: Al-Miswar was born in Makkah two years after Hijra, and he died there in Rabi'ul Al-Akhar of the year 64. And this has been recorded by a group of scholars.

Source: Siyar A'lam An-Nu'bala. Vol. 3, Pg. # 393 - 394.



Al-Mazzi:

The Prophet (saw) while he (i.e. Al-Miswar) was a boy of 8 years of age. And Amr ibn Aldd says: Al-Miswar ibn Mikhrama was hit by a catapult while he was praying at home, he lived five days after that and then died in the Rabi'ul Al-Akhar of the year 64 A.H at the age of 63. He was born in Makkah two years after Hijra. He came to Madinah in Dhul-Hijja of the year 8 A.H, the year of conquering Makkah when he was 6 years old.

Source: Tahdheeb Al-Kamal. Vol. 27,  Pg. # 582 - 583.


Ibn Hajar:

He was born in Makkah two years after Hijra. He came to Madinah in Dhul-Hijja of the year 8 A.H. And in Saheeh Muslim is his hadeeth about the proposal of Alee (a.s) to the daughter of Abi Jahl for marriage, Al-Miswar says: "I heard the Prophet (saw) giving a sermon for people and I was Muhtalim at that time." And then he mentions the hadeeth, this is problematic, because the historian does not differ about him being born after Hijra, and the story of the proposal of Alee (a.s) was about six or seven years after the birth of Al-Miswar, so how come he was Muhtalim (nocturnal emission)? It might be the Ihtelaam (the bath for having a wet dream) in this case is metaphorical for him being at an age to discern things. Allah Almighty knows best.

Source: Tahdheeb Al-Tahdheeb. Vol. 4, Pg. # 79 - 80.


Al-Dhahabi:

Al-Miswar ibn Mikhrama ibn Nufil ibn Uhayb ibn Abd Manaf ibn Zuhra ibn Qasi ibn Kilab, Aboo Abdul Rahman, and it is said: Aboo Uthman Al-Zuhri ibn Atika, sister of Abdul Rahman ibn Auf.

He was a companion, and he has also narrated from Abi Bakr, Umar and Uthman and his uncle.

He used to accompany Umar and memorize his sayings, and liked to be in Makkah like ibn Zubayr, he disliked the rule of Yazeed, he was hit by a catapult when Hussain ibn Numair surrounded ibn Zubayr.

Al-Zubayr ibn Bakkar says: and Al-Khawarij used to respect him and give him high position and follow his opinion, until he was killed in those days.

Urwa says: whenever Al-Miswar heard Mu'awiyah being mentioned, he used to send blessing upon him.

Ata ibn Yazeed Al-Laythi says: Al-Miswar joined ibn Al-Zubayr in Makkah, and ibn Al-Zubayr used to not decide about anything without his consulation.

Source: Tarikh Al-Islam. Vol. 5, Pg. # 244 & 248.



Ibn Asakir:

Al-Dhuhli said: Ibn Bukayr said: He died on the day that army of Yazid ibn Mu'awiyah attacked ibn Zubayr in the year 64 A.H. Ibn Zubayr prayed upon him. He was hit with a stone of a catapult while he was praying at home, whereupon he died in Rabi' Al-Awwal. And he was born two years after Hijra, and he went to Madinah in Dhu Al-Hijjah of the year 8 A.H year of conquering Makkah, at the age of six, and when the Prophet (saw) died, he was 8 years old and he was 4 months younger than ibn Zubayr.

Source: Tarikh ibn Asakir. Vol. 58, Pg. # 164.


Biography Of Juwairiyya The Daughter Of Abi Jahl

Ibn Sa'ad mentions her among the women who became Muslim and gave allegiance on the occasion of conquering Makkah in the 8th year after Hijra.

Ibn Sa'ad:

Juwairiyya daughter of Abi Jahl ibn Hisham ibn Al-Mughira ibn Abdullah ibn Umar ibn Makhzoum, and her mother was Arwa daughter of Abil Ays ibn Umayya ibn Abd Shams. She became Muslim and gave allegiance and then Attab ibn Asyad ibn Abil Ays ibn Umayya, then Aban ibn Sa'eed ibn Al-Aas ibn Umayya, but she did not bore any child. And Juwairiyya is the one that Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s) proposed to and the Banu Al-Mughira came to the Messenger of Allah (saw) to give them permission in that matter, but he (saw) did not give them the permission to marry her off to him and he said: "Faatima (s.a) is a part of me, whatever upsets her upsets me."

Source: Tabaqat Al-Kubra. Vol. 10, Pg. # 249.




Ibn Hajar:

Juwairiyya daughter of Abi Jahl, she is the one that Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s) proposed to, but the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "Daughter of the Messenger of Allah (saw) and daughter of the enemy of Allah (swt) cannot come together in marriage under one man." So Alee (a.s) left that marriage, then Attab ibn Asyad the Amir of Makkah married her during the time of the Prophet (saw), and she bore Abdul Rahman who was killed in the battle of Jamal. Ibn Manda has mentioned it and others that her name was Jamila, as mentioned before and her story is in Sahihayn through the narration of Al-Miswar ibn Mikhrama without mentioning her name.

Source: Al-Isaba. Vol. 13, Pg. # 255, Person # 11134.

Abdul Rahman ibn Itab ibn Asyad ibn Abil-Ays ibn Umayya Al-Umawi, the biography of his father was mentioned before, that he was Amir of Makkah, and Abdul Rahman was born at the end of the life of the Prophet (saw), because his mother is Juwairiyya daughter of Abi Jahl who Alee (a.s) wanted to marry, but then gave up, and then Itab married her.

Source: Al-Isaba. Vol. 8, Pg. # 62, Person # 6255.



Biography Of ibn Al-Zubayr 

Al-Baladhari:

And narrated to me Hisham ibn Ammar saying: Narrated Al-Zubayri from Al-Zuhri that he said: One of the biggest issues that Abdullah ibn Al-Zubayr is criticised for is that he left mentioning the Messenger of Allah (saw) in his sermons, and that when he was criticised for it, he said: He has a bad family that when he is mentioned, they become proud of themselves and raise their necks because of his name. 


Source: Ansaab Al-Ashraaf. Vol. 7, Pg. # 2857.


Ibn Asakir:

Ibn Sa'ad says: and I heard Mus'ab saying: Abdullah ibn Al-Zubayr was born two years after Hijra in Madinah and he is the first child that was born from Muhajireen in Madinah.

Narrated Aboo Ghalib Al-Mawardi from Abul Hassan Al-Sirafi from Ahmad ibn Is'haq from Ahmad ibn Umran from Musa from Khalifa who said: and in this year, i.e. the 2nd year, Abdullah ibn Al-Zubayr was born in Madinah, and he is the first child that was born from the Muhajireen.


Source: Tarikh Madinatul Damishq. Vol. 28, Pg. # 160.



Narrated Aboo Muhammad Tahir ibn Sahl from Aboo Bakr Al-Khatib from Aboo Hazim Umar ibn Ahmad ibn Ibraheem Al-Abdawi from Al-Qasim ibn Ghanim ibn Hamwiyya Al-Muhallabi from Muhammad ibn Ibraheem Al-Busanji from ibn Bukayr who said: "When the Prophet (saw) passed away, ibn Al-Zubayr was 8 years old, and Al-Miswar too."  

Source: Tarikh Madinatul Damishq. Vol. 58, Pg. # 165.



Ibn Athir:

And he (i.e ibn Al-Zubayr) has contributed in the battle of Al-Jamal fighting against Alee (a.s), and Alee (a.s) used to say: "Al-Zubayr was one of our lovers, until Abdullah grew up."

Source: Usd Al-Ghaba. Vol. 3, Pg. # 244.


Ibn Abd Rabbih:

And Alee (a.s) came out with four thousand people of Madinah, eight hundred of the Ansar and four hundred of those who witnessed the Bayat Al-Ridhwaan with the Prophet (saw). And the standard of Alee (a.s) was with his son Muhammad ibn Al-Hanafiyya and Al-Hassan (a.s) was the commander of the right side of the army, and Al-Hussain (a.s) the commander of the left side of the army. Ammar ibn Yassir (r.a) was the commander of the masses and Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr on the riders and in front side was Abdullah ibn Abbas and the standard of Talha and Zubayr was with Abdullah ibn Hakim ibn Hizaam and Talha ibn Ubaydallah over the masses, and Abdullah ibn Al-Zubayr over the riders. They met each other where the palace of ibn Ubaydallah ibn Ziyad was located, on a Thursday, mid Jamadi Al-Akhira, and the battle happened on a Friday.
 
And Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s) used to say: Al-Zubayr was one of us Ahlulbayt, until his son Abdullah grew up and took him away from us.

Then he (i.e. ibn Al-Zubayr) called Abdullah ibn Abbas and Muhammad ibn Al-Hanafiyya and a group of Bani Hashim to pay him allegiance, but they denied. So he started to degrade them and swear on them on the pulpit and dismissed mentioning the name of the Prophet (saw) in his sermons, for which he was criticised. So he said: "By Allah (swt)! He did not prevent me to send blessing upon him in public and mentioning him in secret except because I see this group of Bani Hashim, whenever they hear the blessing upon the Prophet (saw) they raise their necks and the most disliked thing for me is to make them happy." Then he said to them: "You either pay allegiance or I will burn you with fire." They denied, so he imprisoned Muhammad ibn Al-Hanafiyya with 15 others of Bani Hashim in prison.


Source: Al-Iqad Al-Farid. Vol. 5, Pg. # 64 / 161.



Some points taken in to consideration:

•    Al-Miswar was eight years old when the Prophet (saw) died, which means that he was around six years old when the story of the proposal happened. 

•    How could he then be in a state of nocturnal emission at the age of six?!

•    How did he perceive the story with such precision and then memorise the hadeeth of the Prophet (saw) at the age of six?

•    Ibn Al-Zubayr was also four months older than Al-Miswar, so how is it possible that it was only these two six years old companions who heard the story and no one from among the elder companions heard it and witnessed it?

•     Is it a coincidence that only these two companions who are famous in their enmity towards Ahlulbayt (a.s) witnessed the occasion?

•    Ibn Zubayr's enmity is clear towards the Ahlulbayt (a.s) since he fought against Imam Alee (a.s) in the battle of Jamal. He also possessed enmity towards his children after him, to the extent that he did not mention the name of the Prophet (saw) in his sermons and send blessings upon him.

•    Al-Miswar was also his sidekick and a person who was praised, respected and obeyed by the Khawarij who declared Imam Alee (a.s) a Kafir. One must question how that could be possible except that he possessed enmity towards Alee (a.s).

•    Al-Miswar would praise and send blessings upon Mu'awiyah whenever his name was mentioned. Is it simply a coincidence that Al-Miswar always was to the side with the enemies of Imam Alee (a.s)?


•    How can a story be accepted from an enemy?

•    Is it a coincidence that only these two harsh enemies of Alee (a.s) heard this story and that both of them were very close friends?

When we take all these facts into consideration, we can easily conclude that this story is a myth created by the Nawasib, narrated by the Nawasib, justified by the Nawasib, promoted by the Nawasib and used by the Nawasib at present to degrade the Messenger of Allah (saw), Imam Alee (a.s) and the chief of the ladies of Paradise, Faatima (s.a), only to save the reputation of Aboo Bakr and Umar.

Even if we accept this fabricated story to be true, we can safely say that Imam Alee (a.s) never married anyone during the life of Sayeda Faatima (s.a) therefore her anger was not with Alee (a.s) rather, it was with them. Nevertheless, we can apply the same principles that Faatima (s.a) anger is not in vain. Thus, it can again be concluded that the Prophet's (saw) love and respect for Sayeda Faatima (s.a) was motivated by some reason other than fatherhood. In addition to Faatima's (s.a) noble traits and special talents, the Prophet (saw) was aware of what was going to happen to her after his death and the great miseries and sorrows to befall her by some so-called Muslims after his departure to the Heavens. It was due to this that the Prophet (saw) intended to make clear to his Ummah the greatness and excellence of Faatima (s.a) so as to clarify the falsity of those who would oppose Faatima (s.a) in the future.

We will conclude this article with the words of a famous Sunni scholar regarding this story attributed to Imam Alee (a.s).

Sayyid Al-Saqqaf:

It has been narrated from ibn Abdu Rabbeh, the author of Al-Iqd Al-Farid in a fabricated story that he has been created to favour Bani Umayyah. So he mentions Mu'awiyah as the fourth Calipha, and the people of Andulus gathered in criticising him and mocking him for what he did, and then this liar came and attributed this to all Ahl Al-Sunnah of the people of Andulus and he claims, may Allah (swt) make his face ugly, that Alee (a.s) died while he still had not forgotten the daughter of Abi Jahl that the Prophet (saw) forbid him to marry her.

Footnote:  "This is an odd tradition and some scholars reject it because it is narrated by Miswar bin Makhrama who was deviated from Sayedna Alee (a.s)."

In Saheeh Muslim recorded his (Musawar's) tradition about Alee's (a.s) proposal to Aboo Jahl's daughter, he said: "I heard the Prophet (saw) addressing the people while I was adult." There is a problem in accepting the hadeeth because the historians never disagreed about his (Miswar's) birth which was after the migration while the story of Alee's (a.s) proposal is about six or seven years after Miswar's birth, thus how come he was an adult with nocturnal emissions?!

Source: Majmu Rasa'il Al-Saqqaf. Vol. 2, Pg. # 737 - 738.



Objection Four

Aboo Bakr was not informed regarding the burial of Sayeda Faatima (s.a) due to inconvenience. Such is the example that can be given during the life of the Prophet Muhammad (saw).

Al-Nasa'i:

Aboo Umamah bin Sahl bin Hunaif said: A poor woman in Al-Awali fell sick and the Prophet (saw) used to ask them about her. He said: "If she dies, do not bury her until I have offered the funeral prayer for her." She died and they brought her to Al-Madinah after dark, and they found that the Messenger of Allah (saw) had gone to sleep. They did not like to wake him up, so they offered the funeral prayer for her and buried her in Baqi' Al-Gharqab. The next morning they came and the Messenger of Allah (saw) asked them about her. They said: "She has been buried O Messenger of Allah (saw)! We came to you and found you sleeping, and we did not like to wake you up." He said: "Let's go." He set out walking and they went with him and showed him her grave. The Messenger of Allah (saw) stood and they formed rows behind him, and he offered the funeral prayer for her, saying the Takbir four times.

Source: Sunan An-Nasa'i. The Book of Funerals: Vol. 3, Book 1, H. # 1971.

Response Four

Firstly, there is no evidence that Aboo Bakr was sleeping during the time. The daughter of the messenger of Allah (saw) had passed away, how would anyone find it inconvenient to be informed about her burial? But more importantly, why has the name of Aboo Bakr specifically been mentioned and not the names of other companions?

Objection Five

Aboo Bakr lead the funeral prayers of Bibi Faatima (s.a).

Ja'far narrates from his father from his grandfather that Faatima (s.a) died at night. Aboo Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Talha, Zubair, Sa'eed and a large group came, so Aboo Bakr said to Alee (a.s), "Go forward and pray her funeral prayer." He said, "No! By God I will not go forward, you are the Caliph of Prophet (saw)." Malik said: So Aboo Bakr went forward and prayed her funeral prayer with four takbir, and buried her at night.

Source: Al-Kamil by ibn Adi 4/258, also recorded in Tabaqat ibn Sa'd, Vol. 8, Pg. # 19. Sunan Al-Kubra, Bayhaqi. Vol. 4. Hilyatul Awliya, Vol. 4, Pg. # 96. Riyad Al-Nadhira (2: 96-97 #534) and Kanz Al-Ummal, Vol. 6, Pg. # 318.

Response Five

Ibn Abd Al-Barr:

Waqidi narrated from Shu'bi that Aboo Bakr prayed on Faatima but that (tradition) is weak and disconnected. And some unreliable narrators narrated from Malik from Ja'far bin Muhammad (a.s) (Imam Al-Baqir) from his father the same. But Al-Darqutni and ibn Uday discredited it. 

Source: Al-Isti'ab. Vol. 14, Pg. # 95.


Ibn Hajar Asqalani:

His statement that her husband, (Alee (a.s)), buried her at night and did not inform Aboo Bakr, ibn Sa'd narrated through the route of Umrah bint Abd Al-Rahman that Al-Abbas prayed upon her. And from a number of chains, it is reported that she was buried in the night due to her will requesting doing so, in order to increase the secrecy (of her burial). It is possible that Aboo Bakr did not know about her death, thinking that it is not hidden from him, and there is nothing in the report showing that Aboo Bakr did not know about her death, or that he did not pray upon her. As for the hadeeth recorded by Muslim, Al-Nasa'i and Aboo Dawood, in the hadeeth of Jabir which forbids burial at night, it only makes it optional because in some of it, except that someone is forced to it.

Source: Fath Al-Bari. Vol. 7, Pg. # 494.


Al-Hakim:

Narrated to us Aboo Ishaq Ibraheem bin Muhammad bin Yahya and Aboo Al-Hussain bin Ya'qoob Al-Hafiz, both said: Narrated to us Aboo Al-Abbas Muhammad bin Ishaq; narrated to us Qutaybah bin Sa'eed; narrated to us Al-Layth, from Aqil, from Al-Zuhri, from Urwah, Narrated A'isha: "Faatima (s.a), daughter of the Messenger of Allah (saw) was buried in the night. She was buried by Alee (a.s), and he did not inform Aboo Bakr about her until after her burial, and Alee bin Abi Taalib (a.s) prayed upon her.

Source: Al-Mustadrak Alaa Al-Sahihayn. Vol. 3, H. # 362 / 4764.


Now, why do we find from reliable sources and notable scholars mentioned, that in actual fact Aboo Bakr did not lead the prayers for Faatima Al-Zahra (s.a). He was neither informed of her (s.a) death and was unwanted at the request of Faatima (s.a) herself.

After Aboo Bakr decided not return Fadak to Lady Faatimah (s.a), she decided to use this oppotunity to expose Aboo Bakr and Umar and their illigitimate government publicly in the mosque. The sermon is very famous that both Bakri and Shi'i authors have narrated it.

The Sermon of Fadakiyya

Abdullah ibn Al-Hassan has narrated through his chain from his forefathers (a.s) that:
"When Aboo Bakr and Umar confiscated Fadak from Faatima (s.a) and she was informed about it, she wrapped a cloth around her head, and wore her Jilbaab and she came with a group of her servants and women of her while her garment was long that covered her feet, and her walking was no different from the walking of the Messenger of Allah (saw), until she entered upon Aboo Bakr while he was summoned with a group of the Muhajireen and Ansar and others, a purdah was made between Faatima (s.a) and the Sahaba. The daughter of the Prophet (saw) sad in a distressed manner, that led to the Sahaba crying. After a short pause she praised Allah (swt), sent Salaam on her father, the Prophet (saw)and said:

"Praise be to Allah (swt) for that which He bestowed (upon us), and thanks be to Him for all that which He inspired, and tribute be to Him for that which He provided; from prevalent favours which He created, and abundant benefactions which He offered, and perfect grants which He presented; that their number is much too plentiful to compute, and too vast to measure; their limit was too distant to realise. He recommended to them (His creatures) to gain more (of His bounties) by being grateful for their continuity. He ordained Himself praiseworthy by giving generously to His creatures, and promised, through supplicating Him, to give more like them.

I bear witness that there is no God but Allah (swt) Who is One without partner; a statement which sincere devotion is made to be its interpretation, put into hearts its continuation, and illuminated in the minds its sensibility. He Who can not be perceived with vision, neither be described with tongues, nor can imagination surround His form.

He originated things but not from anything that existed before them, and created them without examples to follow. He created them with His might and dispersed them according to His will; not for a need did He create them, nor for a benefit for Him did He shape them, but to establish His wisdom, bring attention to His obedience, manifest His might, lead His creatures to humbly venerate Him, and to exalt His decrees. He then made the reward for His obedience, and punishment for his disobedience, so as to protect His creatures from His wrath and amass them into His Paradise.

I too bear witness that my father, Muhammad (saw), is His slave and messenger, whom He chose before sending him, named him before creating him, and preferred him by missioning him; when creatures were still concealed in the unseen, guarded from that which was appalling, and associated with the termination and nonexistence. For Allah (swt) the Exalted knew that which was to follow, comprehended that which will come to pass, and realised the place of every event. Allah (swt) has sent him (Muhammad (saw)) as perfection for His commands, a resolution to accomplish His rule, and an implementation of His decrees. So he found the nations to vary in their faiths, obsessed by their fires, worshipping their idols, and denying Allah (swt) despite their knowledge of Him. Therefore, Allah (swt) illuminated their darkness with my father, Muhammad (saw), uncovered obscurity from their hearts, and cleared the clouds from their insights. He revealed guidance among the people; So he delivered them from being led astray, led them away from misguidance, guided them to the proper religion, and called them to the straight path.

Allah (swt) then chose to recall him back in mercy, love and preference. So, Muhammad (saw) is in comfort from the burden of this world, he is surrounded with devoted angels, the satisfaction of the Merciful Lord, and the nearness of the Powerful King.
May the blessing of Allah (swt) be upon my father, His Prophet (saw), trusted one with the revelation, the choice from among His creatures, and His sincere friend, and may the peace and blessings of Allah (swt) be upon him."

Faatima (a.s) kept on her speech saying, "You are Allah's (swt) slaves at His command and prohibition. You are the bearers of His religion and revelation. You are Allah's (swt) trusted ones with yourselves, and His messengers to the nations. Among you He has a right; a covenant He brought unto you, and an heir He left over you. That is the eloquent Book of Allah (swt), the truthful Qur'aan, the brilliant light, and the shining beam; its insights are clear, its secrets are revealed, its indications are manifest, and its followers are blessed by it. It leads its adherents to bliss, and listening to it leads to salvation. With it are the bright divine authorities achieved, His manifest determination acquired, His prohibited decrees avoided, His manifest evidence recognized, His satisfying proofs made apparent, His permissions granted, and His written laws are achieved. So Allah (swt) made faith to be purification for you from polytheism.

He made prayer an exaltation for you from conceit, zakat a purification for the soul and a (cause of) growth in subsistence, fasting an implantation of devotion, pilgrimage a construction of religion, justice a harmony of the hearts, obeying us (Ahlulbayt (a.s)) management of the nation, our leadership safeguard from disunity, jihad (struggle) a strengthening of Islam, patience a helping course for deserving divine reward, enjoining the good welfare for the public, kindness to the parents a safeguard from wrath, maintaining kinship a cause for a longer life and multiplying the number of descendants, retaliation for sparing blood, fulfillment of vows deserving of forgiveness, completion of weights and measures preventing from ignoring others rights, forbiddance of drinking wines an exaltation from atrocity, avoiding slander a veil from curse, abandoning theft a reason for deserving chastity.

Allah (swt) has also prohibited polytheism so that one can devote himself to His Lordship. Therefore; Fear Allah (swt) as He should be feared, and die not except that you are Muslims.
Obey Allah (swt) in that which He has commanded you to do and that which He has forbidden you from, for surely who fear Allah (swt) among His servants, are those who have knowledge."

Faatima (s.a) then added:

"O People! Be informed that I am Faatima (s.a), and my father is Muhammad (saw). I say that repeatedly and initiate it continually. I say not what I say mistakenly, nor do I do what I do aimlessly.


Now hath come unto you an Apostle from amongst yourselves. It grieves him that you should perish; ardently anxious is he over you, to the believers he is most kind and merciful. Thus, if you identify and recognise him, you shall realise that he is my father and not the father of any of your women; the brother of my cousin (Alee (a.s)) rather than any of your men. What an excellent assistant to him he was, may the peace and blessings of Allah (swt) be upon him and his progeny. Thus, he propagated the Message, by announcing openly with the warning, and inclining away from the path of the polytheists, striking their middles and seizing their throats, inviting to the way of his Lord with wisdom and good preaching. He destroyed the idols, and broke the heads until their gathering fled and turned their backs, until the night revealed its morning, the truth appeared with its genuineness, the leader of the religion spoke out, and the discords of devils were silenced, the stuff of hypocrisy was perished, the knots of infidelity and desertion were untied. So you spoke the word of devotion among a group of the white starving ones (the Ahlulbayt (a.s)).

You were on the brink of a pit of fire, (you were) the drink of the thirsty one, the opportunity of the desiring one, the firebrand of a hasty passer, the foothold, you used to drink from the rainwater (gathered on roads and in which animals urinate), eat animal skin. You were low and despised and always in fear lest men around should extirpate you, but, Allah (swt) the Almighty rescued you through my father, Muhammad (peace be on him and on his progeny) after the much suffering he faced, and after he was confronted by mighty men, the Arab beasts, and the insolent, mutinous men of the people of the Book (the Jews).Whenever they ignited the fire of war, Allah (swt) extinguished it, and whenever the thorn of the devil appeared (the Satan's followers revolted), or a mouth of the polytheists opened wide in defiance, he would send his brother (Alee (a.s)) into its flames, who did not come back until he trod its head with the sole of his foot, and extinguished its flames with his sword. He (Alee (a.s)) tired himself for the sake of Allah (swt), and overworked to fulfill the command of Allah (swt), near to the Messenger of Allah (saw), a master among Allah's (swt) devotees, sincere in his advice, earnest and exerting himself (for Islam), paying no attention, in the way of Allah (swt), to any blame, while you were at ease, luxury, and feeling safe in your comfortable lives, waiting for us to meet disasters, awaiting the spread of our news, and you fell back during battles, and ran away at times of fighting. And when Allah (swt) chose for His Prophet (saw) the abode of His prophets, and the residence of His choices, the rage of hypocrisy appeared on  you, the garment of faith became worn out, the silent one of the deviants spoke out, the sluggish ignorant came to the top and brayed, the camel of the falsifiers wiggled his tail in your courtyards, and the Satan put his head out of his socket crying out to, and he found you responsive to his invitation, and observing his deceits, then he aroused you and found you quick (in responding to him), and invited you to anger and found you angry (to his anger); therefore, you branded other than your camels and proceeded to other than your drinking places. You did so, and the age (of the Prophet (saw)) was still recent, the wound was still wide and not yet healed, and the Prophet  (saw) was not yet buried. Did you so quickly claim the fear of sedition? Surely into sedition have they already tumbled down, and most surely hell encompasses the unbelievers.

How far to you, what is the matter with you, and what a falsehood! Allah's (swt) Book is still among you, its affairs are clear, its rules are manifest, its signs are bright, its restrictions are visible, and its commands are evident. Yet, indeed you have thrown it behind your backs! Do you want to turn away from it? Or according to something else you want to rule? Evil would be the exchange for the wrongdoers! And if anyone desires a religion other than Islam, it will never be accepted from him, and in the hereafter, he will be in the ranks of those who have lost. Then you have not waited until its rush would calm down, and it became obedient. You then began arousing its flames, instigating its brand, responding to the call of the misguiding Satan, putting out the lights of the manifest religion, and annulling the Sunnah of the sincere Prophet (saw). You conceal sips on foam and march towards his (the Prophet (saw)) family and children in thickets and forests, but we are patient with you as if we are being nicked with daggers and stung by spearheads in our abdomens, and now you claim that there is no inheritance for us! Is it then the judgment of (the times of) ignorance that they desire? And who is better than Allah (swt) to judge for a people who are sure? Do you not know? Yes, indeed it is obvious to you like the sun of the forenoon that I am his daughter.

O Muslims! Is my inheritance usurped? O son of Aboo Quhafa! Is it in the Book of Allah (swt) that you inherit your father and I do not inherit my father? Surely you have done a strange thing! Did you intendedly desert the Book of Allah (swt) and turn your back on it? Allah (swt) said: (And Sulaiman was Dawood's heir. 27:16) and said about Yahya bin Zachariah: (Grant me from Thyself an heir, who should inherit me and inherit from the children of Yaqoub. 19:5-6) and said: (And the possessors of relationships are nearer to each other in the ordinance of Allah. 8:75), and He said: (Allah enjoins you concerning your children: The male shall have the equal of the portion of two females. 4:11), and He said: (Bequest is prescribed for you when death approaches one of you, if he leaves behind wealth for parents and near relatives. 2:180).

You claimed that I have no position, and no inheritance from my father, and there is no kinship between us. So did Allah (swt) distinguish you with a verse, from which He excluded my father? Or do you say: people of two religions do not inherit each other? Am I and my father not of one religion? Or are you more aware of the Holy Qur'aan than my father and my cousin?

So, here it is before you! Take it (ready with) with its noseband and saddle! It shall dispute with you on the Day of Punishment; what a fair judge Allah (swt) is, the master is Muhammad (saw), and the appointment is the Day of Resurrection. At the time of the Hour the wrongdoers shall lose, and it shall not benefit you to regret then! For every Message, there is a time limit, and ye shall know to whom a punishment that will confound him comes, and upon whom a lasting doom will fall.

Faatima (s.a) then turned towards the Ansar and said,

"O you people of magnanimity, the supporters of the nation, and the defenders of Islam, what is this short-coming in defending my right? And what is this slumber before the wrong done to me? Did not the Messenger of Allah (saw), my father, say: 'A man is observed through his children?' How quick have you violated (his orders), and how soon have you let down? Though you still are able to help me in my attempt, and powerful to assist what I request.

Do you say: 'Muhammad has died?' Surely, this is a great calamity that its damage is great, its injury is wide, and its wound is much torn. The earth became dark with his departure, the sun and the moon eclipsed, the stars scattered for his calamity, hopes were skimped, mountains submitted, sanctity was violated, and holiness was encroached after his death. This, by Allah (swt), is the great affliction, and the impressive calamity that there is no an affliction, nor is there a sudden misfortune like it. The Book of Allah (swt), the Most Praised, announced in your courtyards, in your evenings and mornings in calling, crying, recitation, and intonation; and before him what had happened to the prophets and messengers of Allah (swt); a final decree, and a determined predestination: (Muhammad is not but an Apostle; many were the apostles that passed away before him. If he died or was killed, will you then turn back on your heels? If any did turn back on his heels, not the least harm will he do to Allah; but Allah will reward those who are grateful. 3:144).

Ah people of Qaylah (the tribes of Ouss and Khazraj)! Is the inheritance of my father usurped while you hear and see me?! And you are in your meetings and gatherings around me? You hear my call, and the affair includes you though you are numerous and well equipped with power and good shield?! The call reaches you but you do not respond and the cry comes to you but you do not help? You do this while you are qualified by struggle, known for goodness and welfare, and are the choice that were chosen, and the best selection that were selected for us, Ahlulbayt (a.s).

You fought the Arabs, bore tire and exhaustion, struggled against the nations, and resisted their mutinous ones. We were still…we ordered you and you obeyed, until when Islam became triumphant, the accomplishment of the days was at hand, the nose of polytheism was subjected, the outburst of falsehood was calmed, the fires of infidelity were put out, the call of commotion was quelled, and the system of religion was well-ordered, then why have you become confused after lucidity, concealed after the openness, receded after daring, became polytheists after faith? Will you not fight a people who broke their oaths and aimed at expelling the Messenger (saw), and they attacked you first; do you fear them? But Allah is most deserving that you should fear Him, if you are believers. (9:13)

Surely, I see that you have inclined to ease, dismissed one who is worthier of giving and preventing, secluded yourselves with easiness, escaped from narrowness to abundance, so you spat out what you had contained, and vomited what you had drunk; If you are ungrateful, you and those on earth all together, most surely Allah (swt) is Self-sufficient, Praised.

Surely, I have said all that which I said with knowing of the disappointment that preoccupied you, and the betrayal that your hearts felt, but it is the inners of the soul, the emitting of rage, the weakness of spears, the diffusion of (what is in) the chest, and the awarding of the proof. And so, here it is! Carry it on a pussy back (of a camel), which has a thin slipper, with everlasting disgrace, marked with the wrath of Allah (swt), and eternal dishonour, attached to the burning fire of Allah (swt), which rises above the hearts. It is in the eye of Allah (swt) that which you do (and those who do wrong will come to know by what a (great) reverse they will be overturned!) And I am the daughter of a warner (the Prophet (saw)) to you against a severe punishment. So, act and we are acting, and wait and we are waiting!"

Aboo Bakr, Abdullah ibn Uthman replied: "O daughter of the Messenger of Allah (saw)! Your father was, for the believers, affectionate and honourable, and was considered kind and great; and for the disbelievers, there is punishment and great retribution; if we go forth to investigate, we will find that he is only your father to the exclusion of the rest of the women, and he is the brother of your husband to the exclusion of all the rest of his friends; he preferred your husband to the rest of all his close companions, and your husband helped him (the Prophet (saw)) in every great affair; no-one loves you but he who is fortunate, and no one else hates you but he who is wretched; you are the Holy family of the Prophet (saw) of Allah (swt), and the best of all the chosen persons; you are our guide towards all that is good and prosperous and through you we will find our way to Paradise; you are the best of all women, and the daughter of the best of all the Prophets (a.s); you are truthful and rightful in all your statements, and you are foremost in the abundance of your wisdom and brain; you will never be turned away from what is yours by your right, and you will not be barred from the truth that you have spoken. By Allah (swt)! I have taken no step against the opinion of the Holy Prophet of Allah (saw), and I have not acted except by his permission? (What a lie! He disobeyed Allah (swt) and his Messenger (saw)) and the one who is being sent as pioneer shall not lie to his people, and I make Allah (swt) my witness, and He is the most sufficient of all the witnesses. I heard the Prophet (saw) state: 'We group of Prophets (a.s) have no-one who would inherit from us either gold or silver or house or pasture; only what is inherited is wisdom, knowledge and Prophethood, and whatever is left behind by us, in the forms of any source of nourishment, is for the one ruling the affairs of the Muslims; it is for him to decide and judge in its regard.' (What a great lie he fabricated! This statement contradicts the principle teachings of the Holy Qur'aan.) And what you have asked for, we have already spent it on the buying of animals for transport and weapons for the Muslims to use for fighting; and they struggle against the non- believers, and they use it to fight against the rebellious evil-doers; and this was done on the basis of the consensus of the Muslims; (again a nonsense) I have not decided singly myself, and I have not acted in a despotic manner in the opinion that I hold; and this is my situation, and my personal wealth; this is for you and is presented to you; no-one will grudge it to you, and it will not be amassed for anyone else but you; you are the leader of all your father's followers, and you are the holy tree for your children (source of comfort and security); what is yours, by your excellence, shall not be denied, and no-one can humiliate your dear origin or your branches or your roots; your decision and your order will be enforced in whatever is in my hands; would you wish that I oppose, in this matter, your father, the Praise of Allah (swt) be upon him and his household?"

Faatima (s.a) replied, saying:

"SubhanAllah! Praise be to Allah (swt)! The Messenger of Allah (saw) never turned away from the Book of Allah (swt), and neither was he ever opposed to the Commandments mentioned in the Holy Qur'aan, he always followed what was indicated in the Holy Qur'aan, and always pursued what was indicated in its chapters; have you all combined to betray him by ascribing to him what is untrue and deceptive? And all this, after his death, is similar to what was plotted against him during his lifetime; this Book of Allah (swt) is the most just of all judges and let it be judging between me and you, and is the most rationally articulate in deciding between good and evil, truth and falsehood; the Holy Qur'aan states: (the prophet of Allah (swt)) "Zakariyya said, 'Grant me one who will inherit me and inherit from the descendants of Yaqoub.' 'And Sulaiman inherited from Dawood.' The Most Glorified and the Most Honoured Allah (swt) has clarified how the instalments will be divided, and has laid down laws and rules for obligation and inheritance, and He has made valid what is to be the share of the males and the females, and He has removed from the path the efforts of those who are false, and He has also swept away all possibility of surmise and conjecture, as well as doubts and scepticism; no, but it is your own selves which have tempted you in this matter; therefore, patience and endurance is well and good, and Allah i(swt) is my best Helping what false you have said."

Aboo Bakr replied:

Allah (swt) has spoken truthfully and so has His Messenger; also, the Prophet's (saw) daughter has also spoken justly; you are the source of wisdom and you are the source of guidance and mercy, and you are the support of Religion and Allah's (swt) witness of His arguments; I do not repudiate the truthfulness of your opinion, and neither do I deny your speech; these Muslims are the judge between you and me."

Faatima (s.a) said:

"The Holy Qur'aan, the law of Allah (swt) is the judge between you and me."

While the so-called caliphate replied:

"These Muslims are the judge between you and me?! I have put on this garb that they have put on me (Caliphate), and through this consensus I have grasped what I have grasped, without being arrogant or despotic. And neither have I placed myself above the rest, and they are all witnesses to that." (The judgement left to the wise and faithful Muslims.)
Faatima (s.a) turned to the people and, addressing them, said:

"O people! You have hastened to listen to the false statements; you are ignoring an action that is ugly to do and will lead to losses; do you not study the Holy Qur'aan in depth, or is that your hearts are sealed off? No! But what evil actions you have performed have darkened your hearts, by denying and refusing orders of Allah (swt) and His Messenger (saw) who appointed Imam Alee (a.s) the successor and leader of the Muslims after Muhammad (saw), but they became polytheist and have deprived you of hearing and seeing well; how badly have you deduced (from the Holy Qur'aan), and how bad it is that you have ascribed to it, and how evil is what you have gained from it (change and adopted to your liking); and by Allah (swt)! You will surely find that the burden of it will be very heavy, and the consequences of it will be disastrous for you; when the veil will be removed from before you, and what losses are beyond it will become evident, and from Allah (swt) it will be revealed what you had not taken into account, and there it is where those who follow falsehood will surely be losers!"

Bibi Faatima (s.a) returned home; she was denied any sympathy. Imam Alee (a.s) was awaiting her return, as someone who awaits for the rising sun; and when she had retired and relaxed in her home, she said to her husband: "O Son of Aboo Talib! You are seated at home just like the foetus in it's mother's womb and you are sitting in the house like a suspect, you were able to break wings of ghoul falcons and now these featherless flies have betrayed you; this is ibn Abi Quhafa (meaning the so-called caliph) who has snatched from me what my father has given to me, by order of Almighty Allah (swt), and what was my source of sustenance for my children; he has openly become hostile to me, and I found him harshly opposing me in what I stated; all Ansaars (the Muslims of Madinah), have refrained their assistance, as well as the Muhajireen (the immigrated Muslims from Makkah), did not help me at all; there is neither anyone who can defend, nor anyone that can prevent. Therefore I have no support and no defender that could help to retain me from oppression and cruelty. I had gone out, controlling my anger, but I was obliged to return as someone who has been opposed and without attaining anything; the day you showed humbleness not to take control of your rights, you were humiliated.

You used to hunt down Arab-Wolves, and now you are lying in the dust; you have not been able to ward off anyone who spoke against me, and neither have you been able to help me against anyone who was false; and I have no choice; I wish I had died before my quietus, and before my humiliation."

Bibi Faatima (s.a), faced Ameer ul-Mo'mineen and said:

"O ibn Abi Talib (a.s)! You have twisted yourself in your garment and sit in a corner of the room. Like a bird that can't fly. You are bound to stay at home, because you lost your great wings and the weak wings can't help you. This is the son of Abi Quhafa who usurped the gift of my father and the sustenance of my children. He reached the extreme in his enmity towards and insist in it. To the extent that the tribes of Ansaar refused to help me and the Muhajireen refused to offer me their support. People put a blind eye on his wrongdoing, so there remained no helper and defender. I went to them controlling my anger, but left them came back hopeless. You left yourself in humility, when you left your position to them. You used to hunt the wolves and now you are sitting on dust. You did not prevent them from talking nonsense and you did not destroy their falsehood. I have no strength; I wish I died before this humility. Allah (swt) will ask me about you, and He is my support and He will ask you about me. Woe to me in the east and woe to me in the west. My support died and my arm became weak. I shall take my complaint to my Lord, and I only seek help from Allah (swt)! O my Deity, the All-Powerful and the Most Potent, and Thou art The Keenest of all in meting out infliction, punishment and retribution."

Imam Alee (a.s) said to her in reply:

"There is no woe on to you, but woe is to your enemy; hold yourself back from sorrow and anger, O daughter of the Chosen One, and the remnant of Prophethood; I have never weakened in my religion, and I have not erred in what was calculated for me to do; and if you desire it's sustenance, then your sustenance and nourishment are guaranteed and secured (with Allah (swt)), and your Guardian and Surety is the One Trusted (Allah (swt)), and what has been provided for you (by Allah (swt)) in the Hereafter is better than what has been denied to you here (and confiscated from you); therefore seek support only from Allah (swt)."

And Bibi Faatima (s.a) said: "My support is my Allah (swt)." She then fell silent.

Source: Al-Ihtijaaj. Vol. 1, Pg. # 126 - 138.



This sermon has also been narrated by some of the so-called 'Ahl ul Sunnah' scholars and hence we shall mention some of those scholars. The content is rather similar to that in the book of Al-Ihtijaaj as shown above, but with either more or less text.

Lady Fatimah al Zahra (s.a) suffered a great injustice. She was denied her rightful inheritance by the usurper Aboo Bakr. In order to readdress the injustice that she was subjected to she went to the court of Aboo Bakr to plead her case. Wearing a long veil to preserve her high modesty she spoke behind a screen, in a court very hostile to her and her family, no condolences were given to her, for the pain her and her family were going through instead she was put through a stressful ordeal, an ordeal she should never have made to go through. She made a strong compassionate plea backed by strong Islamic evidence that she had been denied what was rightfully hers. She quoted Allah’s (swt) laws direct from the Holy Qur'aan and mentioned the sacrifices that her father (saw) made in order to show us this perfect religion.

How quickly had the court of Aboo Bakr forgotten about our Prophet (saw) and that his only beloved daughter was speaking before them asking them why they had indeed turned their backs on the words of the Qur'aan? Her impassioned speech caused some companions in the court to cry, such was the emotion she displayed in her speech. She mentioned how cowardly they were in fighting for the name of Islam, abandoning the Prophet (saw) in his time of great need, whilst Mola Alee (a.s) the true heir to the Prophet (saw) stood by him. She showed them how contemptuous they were in their hypocrisy and deceit the lack of respect that they had shown to the Prophet (saw) after his death and indeed the lack of respect they were showing to his remaining family.

She demanded to know why she, had been denied her inheritance? Why was she denied the basic rights of all Muslims? Why were the rest of them allowed to inherit, yet she wasn’t? She again quoted directly from the Qur'aan, which talks about how much inheritance is allowed for males and females, as a Muslim female was she not allowed her rightful share? What faith were these hypocrites following? For surely it is not the faith of Islam? She demanded to know the reason why?

She wanted to know why they claimed that there was no kinship between her and the Prophet (saw) thus she was unable to inherit, she questioned this bizarre theory and asked why? She questioned if they were suggesting that they had more knowledge of the Qur'aan than the Prophet (saw) did, which is what they were suggesting by denying her basic rights, something the Prophet (saw) and Imam Alee (a.s) would have disagreed with.

Then to finish addressing Aboo Bakr she told him, what he could do with it. And that she would argue her case on the Day of judgment – as Allah (swt) is a fair Judge and that he wrongdoers on that day shall lose (ie him) and be in everlasting torment.

Lady Faatimah Al Zahra (s.a) then addressed the rest of the court and asked why they were not supporting her? How quickly they had forgotten the pledge of loyalty that they had given to her father (saw)? Their cowardliness was breath taking. Here she was, the only daughter of the Prophet (saw) yet they stood by, quietly without supporting her, nay these people have no loyalty or love for the Prophet (saw).

Aboo Bakr, Abdullah ibn Uthman then responded to her speech. He praised her father (saw) and Alhulbayt (a.s) as a token gesture, more for the crowd’s sake than for anything. The usurper then proceeded to say he had in no way gone against the opinion of the Holy Prophet (saw) which was a bare faced lie and he actually said that he had heard the Prophet (saw) say that, as Prophets nobody shall inherit anything from them. Such audacity! Lying about the words of the Prophet (saw) Astagfirullah. His statement clearly contradicts the Holy Qur'aan, not that the hypocrite cared. He then went on to say, that her inheritance, what was rightfully hers had already been spent against the struggle against non-believers, which according to this particular usurper was done by general consensus of all Muslims. Although no evidence was shown to prove this, of course. He denied acting like a despot (which of course he clearly was) and that it was not his decision. To add insult to injury he then suggested that she was asking him to oppose her father the Prophet (saw)! Such was his trickery and lies.

Lady Fatimah Al Zahra (s.a) then responded by saying how her father (saw) never turned away from the Book of Allah (swt) and he was never opposed to the commandments mentioned in the holy Qur'aan and that Aboo Bakr was betraying him by lying about him. She told him that Allah (swt) would be the judge between the two of them. This magnificent lady kept her composure even though she as being told lies about her father (saw) such was her dignity.

Aboo Bakr then responded, patronisingly by saying that he did not deny her right to speech, and Muslims were to be the judge between the two of them (interestingly he didn’t say Allah would be the judge of them...)

Lady Fatimah then responded by saying "The Holy Qur'aan, the law of Allah (swt) is the judge between you and me."

To which the lying, hypocritical unsurper replied angrily that only the Muslims are to be the judge of him and her and that again he was no despot.

Lady Fatimah Al Zahra (a.s) once again turned to the people, addressing them and warning them not to listen to falsehoods said about her father (saw) and to obey the commands of the Holy Qur'aan and not to allow their hearts to be sealed off and by not obeying the Qur'aan they became polytheist and surely those people will be amongst the losers on the Day of Recompense.

To conclude it was clear that a great injustice has been done to Lady Fatimah Al Zahra (s.a). She was denied what was hers by Islam, by the unsurper Aboo Bakr. To make things worse he lied about the words of her father (s.a) putting through a humiliating ordeal, an ordeal no Lady, especially one of her station should ever have to endure. It was an act of disrespect towards her father (saw) of course one suspects that by denying her inheritance, he was trying to delegitimise any claim Ahlulbayt (a.s) had to caliphate, thus he denied the words of the Qur'aan by denying her inheritance. Then he had the audacity to say it was the will of Muslims and that the money had already been spent, in the name of fighting the unbelievers (paying Khalid ibn Walid to rape other men’s wives etc). But regardless, this shows the hatred Aboo Bakr had for Ahlubayt (a.s) and the lies that he told about the Prophet (saw) and the contradiction he made about the Qur'aan shows his deep contempt and his lust for power.

Ibn Tayfour (died 280 A.H):

Abul Fadhl said I mentioned to Abul Hussain, Zayd ibn Alee ibn Al-Hussain ibn Alee ibn Abi Talib, may Allah be please with them, about the sermon of Faatima (s.a) when Aboo Bakr confiscated Fadak from her. I said to him that people claim that this sermon is fabricated and that it is from Abil Aynaa, because it is very eloquent. He said: I saw the old men of the family of Abi Talib who narrated it from their fathers and taught it to their children, and my father has narrated it to me from my grandfather who was told this sermon through Faatima (s.a) and its story, the narrators of Shi'a have narrated and taught it to each other before even the grandfather of Abil Aynaa was born. And narrated it to Al-Hassan ibn Alwaan from Atiya Al-Awfi that he has heard from Abdullah ibn Al-Hassan narrating it from his father. Then Abul Hussain said: "How do they reject this sermon of Faatima (s.a) while they narrate the narration of A'isha near her death from his father, which is even more controversial than the sermon of Faatima (s.a)? They rather authenticate it. If it is not due to their enmity towards us the Ahlulbayt (a.s), then what is it?" Then he mentioned the hadeeth by saying:  "When Aboo Bakr confiscated Fadak from Faatima (s.a), the daughter of the Messenger of Allah (saw)…"

Source: Balaghaat Al-Nisa. Pg. # 16 - 25.  


Ibn Athir, the author of the famous book of history, "Al-Kamil Fi Tarikh" narrates the sermon in his book Manaal Al-Talib wherein its content is similar to the previous sources.

Ibn Athir:

Ibn Athir then says: This hadeeth has been narrated mostly through Ahlulbayt (a.s), even though it has been narrated through other chains too. The scholars of hadeeth say that it is a fabricated hadeeth which has been attributed to Faatima (s.a). Ibn Qutayba says: I used to write it and believed that it has a basis and I asked about it to the scholars of hadeeth, so some of them told me that: I am older than this hadeeth and I know who has fabricated it. I say: even though this hadith is fabricated as they have said, but it is a very eloquent sermon and has a very beautiful origin (in eloquence) and a very good way of argument and maybe the eloquence of its fabricator is not any less than Hajjaj ibn Yusuf Al-Thaqafi, which the books of hadeeth are filled with his speeches and sermons. So there is no problem in dealing with this hadeeth like we deal with those in explaining its meanings and rare expressions. And this is actually true about almost all of the unknown lengthy narrations about them being fabricated. And Allah (swt) knows best.

Source: Manaal Al-Talib. Pg. # 501 - 508. 




Conclusion 

We have in this final chapter sought to evidence the events which took place outside the house of Sayeda Faatima (s.a) following the event of Saqifah. The so-called 'Ahl ul Sunnah' may try and dress up events in a pretty manner, but the fact is, it is clear that following the shenanigans of Saqifah that led to Aboo Bakr becoming the Head of State, there was a body of opposition which refused to accept the leadership of Aboo Bakr, and that body had gathered around Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s). The purpose of the gathering was to formulate a response to the decision that had been made at Saqifah. It is for this reason that Umar ibn Al-Khattab, the right hand man of the newly crowned Caliph went to the home of Sayeda Faatima (s.a) to make it clear that he "meant business." If we bring the Sunni and Shi'a narratives together, we can see that what started out as a veiled threat of violence towards those residing in the house of Sayeda Faatima (s.a) at the time, culminated in a physical entry and violent confrontation, which caused Sayeda Faatima (s.a) to miscarry her unborn child Al-Mohsin (a.s).

The defenders of Aboo Bakr will of course seek to dismiss the Shiee narratives as nonsense, concocted to vilify Umar ibn Al-Khattab, thus making him the villain of the piece. At this point, it is important to ask a key question, would such horrendous violence not rest in line with the character of Umar? This is a very important, relative question. If a person is standing trial for the offence of violence, the prosecuting authority will seek to bring to the attention of the trial judge the criminal history of the accused, and point to convictions for physical violence, since by citing such examples they can show that violence is second nature to him, it forms part of his modus operandi. Now when we look at the events that transpired outside the home of Sayeda Faatima (s.a), we see that two things are unambiguous:

1. Umar's violence towards women

2. Umar's willingness to use arson to terrorise his opponents

Employment of arson to terrorise the opponents was nothing new in the nature of the Sheikhayn (Aboo Bakr and Umar). We have also learnt that on other occasions they either threaten to burn the house down over someone or they went ahead and did just that!


Umar Attacks The Houses Of The Wives Of The Prophet (saw)


يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تَدْخُلُواْ بُيُوتَ النَّبِىِّ إِلاَّ أَن يُؤْذَنَ لَكُمْ إِلَى طَعَامٍ غَيْرَ نَـظِرِينَ إِنَـهُ وَلَـكِنْ إِذَا دُعِيتُمْ فَادْخُلُواْ فَإِذَا طَعِمْتُمْ فَانْتَشِرُواْ وَلاَ مُسْتَأْنِسِينَ لِحَدِيثٍ إِنَّ ذَلِكُمْ كَانَ يُؤْذِى النَّبِىِّ فَيَسْتَحْيِى مِنكُمْ وَاللَّهُ لاَ يَسْتَحْىِ مِنَ الْحَقِّ وَإِذَا سَأَلْتُمُوهُنَّ مَتَـعاً فَاسْـَلُوهُنَّ مِن وَرَآءِ حِجَابٍ 

O you who believe! Enter not the Prophets houses, unless permission is given to you for a meal, (and then) not (so early as) to wait for its preparation. But when you are invited, enter, and when you have taken your meal, disperse without sitting for a talk. Verily, such (behaviour) annoys the Prophet, and he is shy of (asking) you (to go); but Allah is not shy of (telling you) the truth. And when you ask (his wives) for anything you want, ask them from behind a screen.


[Holy Qur'aan 33:53]


Ibn Hajar Asqalani:

The quotation of Bukhari says that Umar brought out the sister of Abi Bakr when she mourned). It has been narrated by ibn Sa'd through a 'Saheeh' (Authentic) chain from Al-Zuhri from Sa'eed ibn Mosayyib who said: When Aboo Bakr died, A'isha held a gathering in which eulogies had been read for him. Umar was informed of it, so he forbid them from doing so and ordered Hisham ibn Al-Walid: "Bring Umme Farwa  out for me!" Then he lashed her when the news reached the mourners they escaped. And Ishaq ibn Rahwaih quoted this in his Musnad in another form from Al-Zuhri and it is reported in it, "He brought out the women one by one and beat them with his whip."

Source: Fathul Bari Sharh Sahih Al-Bukhari. Vol. 6, Pg. # 225.



Muhammad Ibn Sa’d:

Narrated Uthman ibn Umar from Younis ibn Yazid from Al-Zuhri from Sa'eed ibn Mosayyib who said: When Aboo Bakr died, A'isha held a mourning gathering in which eulogies had been read for him, Umar was informed of it, so he forbid them [the mourners] from doing so. They refused, so he said to Hisham ibn Al-Walid: "Bring out for me the daughter of Abi Qohafa (sister of Abi Bakr)!" Then he lashed her, and when the mourners heard this they escaped, and he said: "Do they want to punish Aboo Bakr by their weeping?" The Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "The dead man suffers when his family weep for him."

Source: Al-Tabaqat Al-Kabir. Vol. 3, Pg. # 191.



Al-Tabari:

Narrated Younis from ibn Wahab from Younis ibn Yazid from Al-Zuhri from Sa'eed ibn Mosayyib who said: When Aboo Bakr died, A'isha held a mourning gathering for him in which eulogies had been read, Umar was informed of it, so he came to her door and forbade them from mourning on Aboo Bakr. They (the women) refused, so he (Umar) said to Hisham ibn Al-Walid: "Enter and bring out for me the daughter of Abi Qohafa sister of Abi Bakr." When A'isha heard this she said to Hisham: "I forbid you from entering into my house!" Umar said to Hisham: "Enter, I allow you to do that!" So Hisham entered and brought out Umme Farwa sister of Abi Bakr to Umar, whereupon Umar started beating her with his whip for a while, when the mourners heard this they escaped.

Source: Tarikh Al-Tabari. Vol. 3, Pg. # 423.



Analysis Of The Chain Of Narrators:

The status of these five narrators in the books of Rijal:

1 - Younus ibn Abd Al-A'laa
2 - Abdullah ibn Wahab
3 - Younus ibn Yazid
4 - Ibn Shahab Al-Zuhri
5 - Sa'eed ibn Mosayyib

1 - Younus ibn Abd Al-A'laa

Ibn Maysara Al-Sadafi, Aboo Musa Al-Misri, 'Thiqh' (Trustworthy), one of the narrators of 10th generation...he has narrated in Saheeh Muslim, Al-Nisa'i and ibn Majah.

Source: Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Pg. # 542, Person # 7907.


2 - Abdullah ibn Wahab

Ibn Muslim Al-Qorashi their slave, Aboo Muhammad Al-Misri, the Jurist, 'Thiqh' (Trustworthy), Hafiz, a good worshipper...has narrated in the 'Saheeh Al-Sittah.'

Source: Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Pg. # 271, Person # 3694.


3 - Younis ibn Yazid

Ibn Abi Al-Najad Al-Iaylee, Aboo Yazid Mawla Aal Abi Sufyan: 'Thiqh' (Trustworthy) when it is through Al-Zuhri, and they are few, but through other than Al-Zuhri it is false...narrated in the Saheeh Al-Sittah.

Source: Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Pg. # 543, Person # 7919.


4 - Ibn Shahab Al-Zuhri

Muhammad ibn Muslim Ibn Ubaydullah ibn Abdullah ibn Shahab ibn Zuhra ibn Kilaab Al-Qorashi Al-Zuhri, Aboo Bakr, Al-Faqih, 'Narrator of Hadeeth, 'Al-Hafiz,' 'Jurist': All agreed upon his superiority and truthfulness, narrated in the Saheeh Sittah.

Source: Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Pg. # 440, Person # 6296.


5 - Sa'eed ibn Mosayyib

Ibn Hazn ibn Abi Wahab ibn Amr ibn Hahiz ibn Mehran ibn Makhzoom Al-Qorashi Al-Makhzoomi, one of the trustworthy scholars and of the great Fuqaha, all are agreed over his Mursal (hurried) that are the most authentic, ibn Al-Madini said: "There is no one among Al-Tabi'een to the extent of his knowledge narrated in the Saheeh Al-Sittah."

Source: Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Pg. # 181, Person # 2396.


Ibn Al-Jawzi:

... (after narrating this hadeeth) I say: "Daughter of Abi Qohafa is Umme Farwa sister of Abi Bakr, because Umar could not rebuke A'isha due to fear and respect for her, so he punished sister of Aboo Bakr!"

Source: Kashf Al-Mushkil Min Hadeeth Al-Sahihain. Vol. 1, Pg. # 59 - 60.


Abdul Razzaq Al-San'ani:

Abdul Razzaq from ibn Oyaina from Amr ibn Dinaar who said: When Khalid bin Al-Waleed died, the women gathered in the house of Maymoona (wife of the Messenger of Allah (saw)) and were crying, so Umar came and ibn Abbas was with him and Umar had his whip (Darrah) with him, so he said: "O Aba Abdullah! Enter the house of the mother of believers and tell her to take her veil, and bring out the women for me," he said: Then he brought them out and Umar was hitting them with his whip, so the veil of one of those woman fell, whereupon the people said to Umar: "O Amir Al-Momineen! Her veil!" So he said: "So be it! She has no honour!" And Mo'ammar was astonished by his saying: "She has no honour!"

Source: Al-Musannaf Al-San'ani. Vol. 3, Pg. # 557, H. # 6681.


Status of the narrators of this Hadeeth in Al-Kashaf of Al-Dhahabi:

1 - Abdul Razzaq
2 - Ibn Oyaina
3- Amr ibn Dinaar

1 - Abdul Razzaq

Abdul Razzaq ibn Hamam ibn Rafeh Al-Hafez Ab00 Bakr Al-San'ani, 'One of the great scholars,' narrated from ibn Joraij and Mo'ammar and Thawr and from him Ahmad and Ishaq and Al-Ramaadi and Al-Dabari, owner of many books, died in 221 A.H, narrated in the Saheeh Al-Sittah.

Source: Al-Kashaf. Vol. 1, Pg. # 651, Person # 3362.


2 - Ibn Oyaina

Sufyan ibn Oyaina Aboo Muhammad Al-Hilali their slave, Al-Kufi Al-A'war, 'One of the great scholars,' narrated from Al-Zuhri and Amr ibn Dinaar, and from him Ahmad, Alee and Al-Za'farani and Al-A'mash and ibn Joraij are his teachers, he is 'Trustworthy steady Hafiz and Imam,' died in Rajab of 198. Narrated in the Saheeh al-Sittah.

Source: Al-Kashaf. Vol. 1, Pg. # 449, Person 2002.


3 - Amr ibn Dinaar

Aboo Muhammad slave of Quraish, Makki and Imam, narrated from ibn Abbas and ibn Umar and Jaber and from him Sho'ba and the two Sufyans and Malik, died in the year 126 A.H at the age of 80. He has narrated from Aboo Huraira one hadeeth in Sunan ibn Majah, narrated in the Saheeh Al-Sittah.

Source: Al-Kashaf. Vol. 2, Pg. # 75, Person 4152.


  • What kind of respect did Umar exhibit when breaking in to the house of A'isha despite the fact this mob were prohibited from entering therein?
  • What form of Shari'ah were Umar and his cohorts seeking to implement by breaking in to the house of A'isha frightening the women residing therein and whipping the sister of Aboo Bakr and thus hurting and humiliating her? 
  • What kind of respect did Umar show when ordering Abbas to enter the home of Maymoona (r.a) who allowed her home to be used for a mourning gathering and requested her to bring out the women so they be punished? 


The Holy Qur'aan prohibits believers from entering the homes of the wives of the Prophet (saw) UNLESS their consent is obtained beforehand. This all goes back to respecting the sanctity of the wives of the Prophet (saw). An obligation was set to observe purdah outside, but the wives were at least entitled to a lesser restriction within the confines of their own homes, one in which they could feel relaxed without having any concern of outsiders entering unannounced and hence casting a glance at them.  

Umar Threatens To Burn His Sons House Down



Abi Shaybah:

Narrated Aboo Bakr from Ya'laa ibn Ubayd from Fudhayl ibn Ghazwan from Nafi' from ibn Umar who said: Umar was informed that one of his sons has covered the walls of his house with cloth, so he said: "By Allah (swt!) If that is true, I will burn his house."

Narration is Saheeh (Authentic).

Source: Musannaf ibn Abi Shaybah. Vol. 8, Pg. # 360, H. # 25744.



Umar Burns The House Of A Companion Of The Prophet (saw)



Abd Al-Razzaq:

Abd Al-Razzaq narrated Ubaydullah ibn Umar and Ma'mar from Nafi narrated Safiyyah ibn Abi Ubayd: Umar discovered alcohol in the house of a man from (the tribe of) Thaqif. He (the man) had already been lashed for alcohol consumption in the past. Therefore, he (Umar) burnt his house, and asked, "What is your name?" He (the man) replied, "Ruwayshid." He (Umar) retorted, "Rather, you are Fuwaysiq (an abusive word)."

Source: Al-Musannaf Abd Al-Razzaq. Vol. 6, Pg. # 77, H. # 10051.



Analysis Of The Chain Of Narrators

1 - Abd Al-Razzaq
2 - Ubaydullah ibn Umar Al-Umari
3 - Ma'mar ibn Rashed Al-Azdi 
4 - Nafi' 
5 - Safiyyah bint Abi Ubayd 


 
1 - Abd Al-Razzaq

Ibn Hajar:


Abd Al-Razzaq ibn Hammam ibn Nafi Al-Humayri, their freed slave, Aboo Bakr Al-San'ani: Thiqa (trustworthy), Hafiz (a hadeeth scientist).

Source: Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Pg. # 296, Person # 4064.



2 -  Ubaydullah ibn Umar Al-Umari

Al-Dhahabi:

Ubaydullah ibn Umar (Bukhari, Muslim and the four Sunan have narrated his narrations). Ibn Hafs ibn Aseem ibn Ameerul mo'minin Abi Hafs Umar ibn Al-Khattab. The generous Imam, the Hafiz, Aboo Uthman Al-Qurashi, Al-Adawi then Al-Umari Al-Madani. He was born around the year 70 A.H or alike, and joined Umm Khalid Bint Khalid Al-Sahabiyya, and he has heard narrations from her, and he is of the late Tabi'ee. He has heard from Salim ibn Abdullah, Al-Qasim ibn Muhammad and Nafi and Aboo Hatam says: "I asked Ahmad ibn Hanbal about Malik, Ayoob and Ubaydullah ibn Umar: which one them is more trusted in his narrations from Nafi?" He said: "Ubaydullah is the most authentic and the most correct memoriser of them, and he has the most narrations from Nafi." And Yahya ibn Mo'een said: "Ubaydullah is of the trustworthy narrators." Uthman ibn Sa'eed said: "I said to ibn Mo'een, 'are the narrations of Malik from Nafi dearer to you or Ubaydullah from Nafi?'" He said: "Both of them, and he did not make one superior over the other."

Source: Siyar A'lam An-Nu'bala. Vol. 6, Pg. # 304 - 305.



3 - Ma'mar ibn Rashed Al-Azdi

Ibn Hajar:
Ma'mar ibn Rashed Al-Azdi, their servant, Aboo Urwa Al-Basri, lived in Yemen. He is learned, firm in narrations and trustworthy. Except that there is something in his narrations from Thabit, Al-A'mash and Hisham ibn Urwa, and what he has narrated in Basra. He is of the significant narrators of the seventh generation. He died in 154 A.H at the age of 58. The Jama'a (i.e. Bukhari, Muslim, and the four) have narrated from him.

Source: Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Pg. # 473, Person. # 6809.




4 - Nafi the slave of Abdullah ibn

Al-Dhahabi:

Nafi (Bukhari, Muslim and the four Sunan have narrated his narrations). The Imam, the trusted Mufti, scholar of Madinah, Aboo Abdullah Al-Qurashi, then Al-Adawi Al-Umari, slave of ibn Umar. He has narrated from ibn Umar, A'isha, Abi Huraira, Rafi ibn Khudaij, Abi Sa'eed Al-Khudri, Umm Salama, Abi Lubabat ibn Abdul-Munzir…Narrated from him, Al-Zuhri, Ayoob Al-Sukhtiyani, Ubaydullah ibn Umar...

Source: Siyar A'lam An-Nu'bala. Vol. 5, Pg. # 95, Person 34.




Ibn Hajar:

5 - Safiyyah bint Abi Ubayd 

Safiyyah bint Abi Ubayd ibn Masoud Al-Thaqafiyya, wife of ibn Umar. It is said that she has seen the time of the  Prophet (saw), Al-Daraqutni rejects this opinion. Al-Ijli says: She is trustworthy and she is of the second  generation. Al-Bukhari in his Tarikh, Muslim, Abi Dawood, Al-Nasa'i and ibn Majah have narrated from her.

Source: Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb Pg. # 666, Person # 8623.



The Attestation of Al-Albani:

Al-Dawlabi reported in Al-Kuni on the authority of Ibraheem ibn Abd Al-Rahman ibn Auf that he said: "I saw Umar burning the house of Ruwayshid Al-Thaqafi until it became like firebrand or a hot spring. He was our neighbour who sold alcohol." Its chain is Saheeh (Authentic). Abd Al-Razzaq also narrated on the authority of Safiyyah bint Abi Ubayd, as stated in Al-Jami Al-Kabirah (3/204/1) as well as Aboo Ubayd in Al-Amwal (Pg. # 103) on the authority of ibn Umar, and its chain is Saheeh (Authentic) too.

Source: Tahzir Al-Sajid min Itikhaz Al-Qubur Masajid. Pg. # 35.


Ibn Hajar:

Ruwayshid Al-Thaqafi, Aboo Alaj Al-Ta'ifi Al-Madani: He met the Prophet (saw). He also had a story with Umar due to his selling of alcoholic drinks. Ibn Abi Dhaib said: Sa'd ibn Ibraheem ibn Abd Al-Rahman ibn Auf narrated to us from his father that Umar ordered that the house of Ruwayshid be burnt down. He used to sell alcoholic drinks in it. Umar had warned him to desist, but he never desisted.

Source: Ta'jil Munfa'at bi Zawaid Rijal Al-Aimah Al-Arba'at. Vol. 2, Pg. # 539, H. # 328.


Ibn Hajar:

Ruwayshid...Al-Thaqafi...He had a story with Umar concerning his consumption of alcohol...I have mentioned him among the companions only because whosoever was of that age (as Ruwayshid) during the time of Umar, must certainly have been matured during the time of the Prophet (saw). Also, there was no one from the tribes of Quraysh and Thaqif except that he had accepted Islam and had witnessed the Farewell Hajj with the Prophet (saw).


Source: Al-Isabah fi Tamyiz Al-Sahabah. Vol. 3, Pg. # 554 - 555, Person # 2708.



To summarise:

  • Ruwayshid was one of the Sahaba of the Prophet (saw), from the tribe of Thaqif.
  • He accepted Islam during the Prophet's (saw) lifetime, met the latter, and performed the Farewell Hajj with him.
  • During the rule of Umar, Ruwayshid was convicted for alcohol consumption and punished.
  • However, after his conviction and punishment, Ruwayshid went ahead to sell alcohol in his house.
  • Umar warned him to desist from selling alcohol, but he refused to stop.
  • So Umar burnt his house where he was selling the alcohol. 

Aboo Bakr Orders To Burn The House Of  The Wife Of The Prophet Muhammad (saw)





Ibn Athir:

Qutaylah is the daughter of Qays son of Ma'ad Yukrib Al-Kindya; sister of Ash'ath son of Qays. Messenger of Allah (saw) married her in the 10th year (of Hijra) but soon complained, he passed away; she wasn't brought to him and he never saw her neither did he enter her. It was said that he married her a month before his death. It is also narrated that the Prophet (saw) willed to let her choose, if she wanted she could wear the veil and so she becomes forbidden for the Muslims, or if she wants she can divorce him so she can choose who she wants to marry. She chose to be seperated, so she was given a divorce and Ikrimah ibn Abi Jahl married her. So Aboo Bakr was informed of this and he said: "I was urged to (thought of) burning the house over them." Umar in response said: "She is not the mother of believers, he didn't enter into her, or make her wear the veil." 

It was said that the Messenger of Allah (saw) did not will for her anything, but did not enter into her, she apostatised with her brother when he apostatised and so then Ikrimah ibn Abi Jahl married her. Aboo Bakr wanted to stone her but Umar said, "The Holy Prophet (saw) did not enter her and she isn't the Mother of the Believers, so Allah (swt) is innocent of the apostatised" so Aboo Bakr was silent.

With regards to her (Qutaylah) and other wives of the Holy Prophet (saw) whom were not entered there is great debate and skepticism, that has not resulted in any further benefit to the validation of the issue, and we have mentioned about every wife what has been narrated about her. And Allah (swt) knows best. Narrated by Aboo Na'im and Aboo Umar and Aboo Musa.



Source: Usud ul-Ghaybah. Pg. # 234 - 235, Person # 7219. 












    We have proven in previous chapters that Umar was a misogynist and we have examples of his violence towards women, both during Jahiliyyah and after his supposed conversion to Islam. He cared little about the feelings for women, beating servants, sexually humiliating them in public, and physically assaulting them, even the daughter of Aboo Bakr was unable to escape from his violence. Umar had no inhibitions when it came to threatening women and using fire to scare them. If Sayeda Faatima (s.a) faced such conduct at the hands of Umar, then it was because Umar was a man that had a propensity to let his anger get the better of him, thus causing him to break out into such violent conduct, which is precisely why Shams Al-Hindi Allamah Shibli Nomani, an ardent supporter of Umar, whilst discussing the incident of the door states the following:

    Shibli Nomani:

    The learned Tabari in his Tareekh Kabir has narrated a tradition to the effect that Umar, standing at the door of Faatima's (s.a) house, exclaimed, "O daughter of the Prophet (saw)! I swear by God that we love you best of all, but if your house continues any longer to be a rendezvous for conspiracy I will set fire to it on account of this!"

    The authority of this tradition is doubtful having not been able to glean particulars regarding its narrators, but there is no reason to deny the occurrence of this incident in the light of rationalisation. Umar was a man of hot and irrational temper and such an act would not have been inconsistent with his nature. 

    Source: Al-Farooq The Life Of Omar The Great. Vol. 1, Pg. # 94 - 95.



    This is a major admission. If Umar did this, then it was in keeping with his character, his past record pointed to just that, and that is precisely what Shibli Nomani was alluding to when he said, "Umar was a man of hot and irrational temper and such an act would not have been inconsistent with his nature."

    Even if our opponents dismiss the Shi'a narrative, they cannot escape the fact that at a minimum, Umar ibn Al-Khattab stood outside the house of Sayeda Faatima (s.a) threatening to set fire to her home, and in doing so killing her, and in effect, her husband, blessed children and their supporters at once. We appeal to justice, is such behaviour respectable? The cultural norm in societies is to attend the home of bereaved relatives to offer condolences, yet we see no example of Umar offering such condolences to Sayeda Faatima (s.a). All he offered was a threat to subject her and her loved ones to violence. Is this conduct acceptable? Is this how the blessed daughter of the Prophet (saw) should be treated? In this day and age, Muslims bombard social media with condemning human rights violations against Muslim women in Burma, occupied Palestine and Kashmir. They will share photos of soldiers intimidating women, threatening to shoot them, frightening them, and there will be aunified revulsion towards such acts. By doing so, they are seeking to highlight the fact that the enemy are so shameless that they do not even spare women folk from humiliation. Such images create a unified revulsion amongst Muslims.

    We appeal to justice, was Sayeda Faatima (s.a) not just as entitled, nay, more entitled to respect, honour and dignity? How was Umar's conduct any different to that of an Indian / Israeli soldier humiliating a Muslim woman? Why should he escape any form of condemnation for his actions? The fact is, Umar had no care and respect for Sayeda Faatima (s.a) the blessed daughter of the Prophet (saw), he approached her home, with one objective, to extract the pledge by any means possible, and threats and violence fell within his definition of "by any means." By bringing fire to the door, Umar set a precedent, that the Ahlulbayt (a.s) are common folk that should not be afforded any form of respect and honour, and this is what encouraged his successors to continue a campaign of oppression towards them. Indeed the fire brought to the door on that day left a trail which was used to light the tents of the house of Imam Hussain (a.s) on the eve of the 10th of Muharram.

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