Wednesday, 28 May 2014

What Does 'Bakri' Mean?

In this article we shall define the term 'Bakri,' and why the followers of the Ahlulbayt (a.s) use this term for our opponents who claim to be adhering to the Sunnah of the Prophet (saw). Bakri is a term used by (classical) Shi'a and Sunni scholars to describe those who believe in Aboo Bakr's appointment by textual sources (Nass), so one can not claim that the Shi'a use of it is bigoted. Strangely, Shi'as over the years have become apologetic over this term despite the fact the use of this term can be located in a plethora of ancient works from the Muslims and those of other sects. Usually a group that attaches fidelity to a specific individual is commonly named after him; i.e.  Aboo Hanifah (Hanafis), Al-Shafi'i (Shafi'is), Ahmad ibn Hanbal (Hanbalis) and so forth. Sunnis refer to the Shi'a as the Rafidhi; a title we unhesitatingly embrace given our rejection of the caliphate of Aboo Bakr. If Sunnis do not have a problem categorizing themselves as Hanafis, Shaifi'is or Hanbalis, then adopting the title of Bakris should hold no opposition.

Sheikh Al-Sadooq:

The author shall be told that the Al-Bakriyya and the Baziya sects have claimed that the Holy Prophet (saw) has issued statement of appointment (Nass) on the caliphate of Aboo Bakr and you refuted this claim of theirs like we refuted your claim that Aboo Abdillah Ja'far Sadiq (a.s) had made a bequest regarding the Imamate of those two. So you must present your evidence and clarify the difference between yourself and the Bakariyya and the Baziya sects so that we may inform you what the difference is between us and those you mentioned.

Source: Kamaaluddin wa Tamaamun Ni'ma. Pg. # 107.


Sheikh Al-Mufid:

The issue number four: (I shall respond) about the claim of consensus on other things that we mentioned, taking into consideration the opposition of Al-Bakriyya, Al-Uthmaniyya and the Khawarij and what they believe of taking away the merits of the Commander of the Faithful (a.s).

Source:  Al-Ifsaah. Pg. # 35.


Al-Dhahabi:

Aboo Ja'far Al-Azdi Al-Dawoodi Al-Maliki, the jurist. he was in Tarabolos of Al-Maghrib and there he taught his book "Sharh Al-Muwatta," then he went to Tilmisaan. He was skillful in eloquency and debates. He has a book called "Al-Idhaah Fi Al-Radd Alal Bakriyya." Learned from him: Aboo Abdul-Malik Al-Barqi and Aboo Bakr ibn Al-Shaikh. He died in Tilmisaan.

Source: Tarikh Al-Islam. Vol. 28, Pg. # 57.


Al-Karajaki:

Chapter 9

Errors of Bakriyya

It is strange from them and an obvious error that they claim that the Messenger of Allah (saw) sent ahead Aboo Bakr to lead the prayers for the people, and so they think that it proves he was worthy of general leadership more than any other creature after the Prophet (saw), even though they believe that prayers behind every good and obscene person is allowed, and they simultaneously believe that an obscene person can not become the leader of the community.

And it is strange that they put the general leadership which is the successorship, the same as that particular leadership which is leading the prayers, this is completely upside down. And it is obvious that the Messenger of Allah (saw) when he appoints someone as the leader in absolute terms, that person should also lead the prayers, because his leadership in prayers is one of his duties. And it is not the opposite way, i.e. when he orders someone to lead the prayers on some occasions, therefore he has given him the right to issue orders as a leader and govern the masses, because these issues are not part of the prayers.

Source: Al-Ta'ajjub. Pg. # 76.


Mahmood Aboo Riyya:

And among those narrations that the Bakriyya have fabricated is what Ibn Asakir narrates from Aboo Huraira that: "The angels became happy in the day of Badr, so they said: Don't you see the Siddique with the Messenger of Allah (saw) on the throne." 

And Al-Khateeb narrates from Ibn Abbas from the Prophet (saw): "Jibra'eel came down to me, he was wearing fancy garments, so I asked: O Jibra'eel what is this? he said: Allah Almighty ordered the angels to wear fancy garments in the heaven as Aboo Bakr has worn on Earth."

And Aboo Ya'laa has narrated from Abi Huraira who said: The Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "When I was ascended to the heavens, I did not pass a heaven unless that I found my name: (Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah (saw) and Aboo Bakr Al-Siddique is the successor)."

And Aboo Ya'laa has narrated also from Ibn Umar who said: "The angels are ashamed of Uthman as they are ashamed of Allah (swt) and His Messenger (saw)."

And another narration that the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "The superiority of A'isha to other women is like the superiority of Tharid (soup of meat) to other kinds of food."

And another narration which says that her face came down to the Prophet (saw) covered in a silk cloth with Jibra'eel and he said to him: "This is your wife in this world and Hereafter."

And another narration: "Take half of your religion from this Humaira."

And another narration: "Take part of your religion ..."

And this issue is very wide and it is not possible to count all of those narrations.

Source: Al-Idhwah Alaa Sunnah Al-Muhammadiyyah. Pg. # 100.


Allamah Al-Amini: 

As for the hadeeth of the Door and the Khawkha (of Aboo Bakr), it is fabricated in contrast to this Hadeeth (of the Door of Alee (a.s)), as Ibn Abil Hadeed says in his Sharh. Vol. 3 Pg. # 17: "Hadeeth of closing the doors, all of them were about Alee (a.s), but then the Bakriyya flipped it to Aboo Bakr and the signs of distortion and fabrication is obvious in it, it is not hidden from those who research."

Source: Al-Ghadeer. Vol. 3, Pg. # 263.



Ibn Abi Al-Hadid:

A Chapter About Shi'a And Bakriyya [group of Bakris] made (Invented) narrations

And you must know that the origin of lies in the narrations about virtues came from the Shi'a side. That at the beginning of issues they put different narrations about their companion [the one they support], that the enmity of their adversaries brought them to put the narration of (the pail) and the narration of (the pomegranate) and the narration of the raid of the well where there were Satans, and it is known as (the (battle) of the flag) as they claimed, and the narration of the 'Ghusl' (lavation) of Salman Al-Farsi and the pleating of lands (when the land pleats for a walker so that he travels faster) and the narration of the skull and other narrations. And when the Bakri witnessed what the Shi'a did, then they put for their companion (the one they support) narrations against the mentioned narrations, as the narration (if I was to take an intimate friend) that they put against the narration of 'fraternity' and the 'closing of doors' that was originally for Alee (a.s) then Bakriyya turned it to the favour of Aboo Bakr. And the narration (bring me a pen and a paper that I write Aboo Bakr a note that no two persons would disagree about) then he said (Allah (swt) the Most High and Muslims accept no one but Aboo bakr) that they put against the narration narrating the Prophet (saw) during his sickness (bring me a pen and a paper that I write you something that you would never go astray afterwards), then they disagreed about it at his (the Prophet (saw)) presence. And some of them said that 'pain overcame him (the Prophet (saw))' and 'The book of Allah (swt) is sufficient for us' and the narration saying (I am pleased with you but are you pleased with me?) and similar narrations. And when Shi'a witnessed what Bakris made up or tried to make up, then they put some narrations as the narration of the iron band that they claim that he has twisted around the neck of Khalid, and the narration of the plank that they claim its presence in the tresses of Al-Hanafiya (her title), Umme (the mother of) Muhammad (son of Imam Alee (a.s)), and the narration (Khalid will not do what I command), and the narration of the sheet that was attached to Al-Kabba on the year of Al-Fath, and the narration of the sheikh who went to the pulpit on the day of giving allegiance to Aboo Bakr and was the first to give allegiance to him, and many other false narrations that declare the hypocrisy of many great companions and prime followers, and their apostasy, and it was extended to the low classes of companions too, then Bakriyya put many libels (contestations) against Alee (a.s) and his two sons (a.s) and they ascribed it to failure in reasoning at times and failure in politics at other times and attachment to Dunya [low life] and devotion to it at other times. And both groups were not in need of what they performed and committed, and there was enough evidence in the true certain virtues of Alee peace be upon him, and the known true virtues of Aboo Bakr to spare fanaticism for both, that fanaticism took both of the groups from mentioning virtues to mentioning vices, and from advantages enumeration to disadvantages and drawbacks enumeration, and we ask Allah (swt) the Most High to protect us against leaning towards bias and the inclination to fanaticism, and that He guides us to what He made us used to of loving the right anywhere it was found, may this displease the displeased ones and please the pleased ones with the grace of Allah (swt) and his kindness.

Source: Sharh Nahj Al-Balagha. Vol. 11, Pg. # 48 - 50.

 

Aboo Bakr ibn Al-Arabi:

Among them are the Bakriyya, the Umariyya, the Uthmaniyya, the Alawiyya, the Abbasiyya. Everyone of them claims that the truth is with them and the person they attribute themselves to, and all others are misguided, wrong, which contain no truth and is out of any goodness. This is not a religion, but just ignorance and foolishness, or deceit and misguidance to destroy the religion and to let the atheists to make a mockery of the religion and let the Satan to play with them and they turned into other than the way of religion and Madh'hab.

The Bakriyya say: The Messenger of Allah (saw) appointed Aboo Bakr by Nass (explicit text) and the Ummah were happy with him in Dunya and he had a high status in the eyes of the Prophet (saw) and he had a particular love about him. He ruled and he was just in it and what he did was good, except that he erred himself about appointing Umar, because he was a violent person and his anger overcame him and then they mention some of his flaws.

The Umariyya say: The claim that Aboo Bakr was superior is something weak, but Umar was a just and strong leader based on the fact that the Prophet (saw) praised him in the narration of the dream and the bucket and the narration about his seniority as mentioned before. But Uthman deviated from the path in choosing governers and that there was no right for others in it, and he used to not choose except from among his relatives and he didn't follow the Sunnah of those before him. As about Alee (a.s) the believe that he caused bloodshed. I heard in Majalis that Ibn Juraij believed that Umar was superior to Aboo Bakr. and I heard Al-Tartushi saying: If anyone says that Umar was superior I will follow him. And the Uthmaniyya say: Uthman has a good profile and merits, both in wealth and in his own nature and he was killed innocently.

And the Alawiyya say: Alee (a.s) is the cousin of the Prophet (saw) and his son-in-law and the father of the two grandsons of the Prophet (saw) and as a son for the Prophet (saw) and he raised him.

And the Abbasiyya say: He is like the father of the Prophet (saw) and he has more right to be the leader after him. and they exaggerate in this and there is no need to mention it, because it is stupid. And they narrate narrations that I don't want to mention, due to the greatness of its lies and the stupidity of its narrators.

Source: Al-Awasim Min Al-Qawasim. Pg. # 258.



Al-Dhahabi:

In this year (i.e. year 700) died Sheikh Isma'eel ibn Ibraheem ibn Suneh, the pious, Sheikh of Bakriyya, he used to ask forgiveness for Aboo Bakr, there was goodness in him and peace, he died at an old age.

Source: Al-Ibar Fi Khabar Man Ghabar. Vol. 3, Pg. # 406.


Al-Baqulani:

We act upon solitary reports in Shari'ah when other hadeeth do not contradict it, and this report (i.e. Nass on Alee (a.s)) that the Shi'a claim contradicts the reports of the Bakriyya and the Rawandiyya, who report the Nass on Aboo Bakr and Al-Abbas. And their narration on that is more obvious and firm. And actions of the head of the Ummah (i.e. the companions) is in accordance with the Nass on Aboo Bakr, thus it is more obvious and firm. Therefore it becomes obligatory to reject the weak report by the strong one. If we do not do that, we should at least believe that these reports contradict each other, so there would be an excuse to not act upon them, then we shall go back to our original position that there is no Nass, until it is proven so, then we might return to it. And I am one of those who believes this and whatever makes a solitary report to be void, exists in this report, and some of them are enough to nullify the claim of Nass and when Nass has been proven to be void, then election will be proven in a way that its rejection will not be possible and cannot be denied.

Footnote: (The Bakriyya) are the followers of Bakr, the nephew of Abdul-Wahid ibn Zayd, who lived during the time of Al-Nadham.

Source: Tamheed Al-Awa'il Wa Talkhees Al-Dala'il of Al-Baqlani. Pg. # 450.


Al-Tabari Al-Imami:

The Bakriyya claim that conversion to Islam of Alee (a.s) was conversion of a child, it is not like the conversion of someone who is a true believer, wise who can discern. 

We say to them: Did Alee (a.s) embrace Islam and its rule or not? They have to say yes, then we would ask them: Then what is the meaning of saying: Conversion of Alee (a.s)? Did you say it metaphorically or actually? If they say that they said it actually, then their claim is void and if they say it was metaphorical, they have actually mocked the statement of the Messenger of Allah (saw) that he has invited someone to Islam who was not able to think and the obligation of Allah (swt) was not upon him. 

Then it should be said to them: So did Alee (a.s) know and he confessed to it, or did he not know and did not confess to it? If they say: He knew and he confessed to it, then their claim would be void, if they say: He confessed, but he did not know. It should be said to them: Then how do you call him a Muslim when he did not submit to Islam actually? If it is considered a sin, then is someone who carries this name not to be punished for it? For which they have to answer.

Source: Al-Mustarshid. Pg. # 479 - 480.

 

Al-Nabati Al-A'amili:

The Bakriyya say: "The conversion of Alee (a.s) was not based on knowledge and thinking, but rather based on inculcation, so it was not like the conversion of adults, because he was only seven years old." 

We say: It is clear that he accompanied the Prophet (saw) for 23 years, 10 years of which was before Hijrah and he died in the year 40 A.H, so it is obvious that his age when the Prophet (saw) was appointed as the Messenger, was more than seven years. It is famous that he aged 63 or 65 years, and the other opinions are odd and unlikely, no one would believe that if he has a heart and can hear and see. He said in Siffeen when he was informed of what his enemies used to say, that he did not know much about wars: "May Allah (swt) kill them! Is there anyone more knowledgeable about it than me? I started it when I was not even 20 years old and now I age more than 60, but it is because there is no power for someone if he is not obeyed." So he informed that he aged more than 60 and he lived after that some more years.

Source: Sirat Al-Mustaqeem. Vol. 1, Pg. # 237-238.

 


Bakris And Bakrism: Does The Shoe Fit The Charge?

  

It is a wonder as to why it would be unethical to categorise those who adhere to the belief of Aboo Bakr being the first, foremost and rightful Caliph to be termed, 'Bakris?' After all, this should not pose as an insult or be taken as anything derogatory. It is but confirming the so-called 'Ahl ul Sunnah's' allegiance to their much loved idol, in contrary to that of the Shi'a in regards to the position of Alee (a.s). It should by no means be or become a troublesome matter for them, rather it should be one which they should happily embrace and be honoured to hold such a title. We shall take now take a look at the so-called 'Ahl ul Sunnah' favour and close attachment to Aboo Bakr above that of anyone else.


Ibn Taymiyyah:

"The people disagreed about who accepted Islam first. It is said that Aboo Bakr was the first to accept Islam, and therefore accepted Islam before Alee (a.s). It is (also) said that Alee (a.s) accepted Islam before him. However, Alee (a.s) was a child, and the acceptance of Islam by a child, there is disagreement over it (i.e. its validity) among the scholars..."

Source: Minhaj Al-Sunnah Al-Nabawiyyah. Vol. 8, Pg. # 155.


Ibn Taymiyyah:

Therefore the conversion of the three (i.e. Aboo Bakr, Umar and Uthman) brought them out of Kufr, according to the consensus of the Muslims, but did the conversion of Alee (a.s) bring him out of Kufr? According to two famous opinions and the Madh'hab of Al-Shafi'i, the conversion of a child does not bring him out of Kufr.

Source: Minhaj Al-Sunnah Al-Nabawiyyah. Vol. 8, Pg. # 286.


Al-Nawawi:

In this narration there is proof that the Prophet (saw) did not appoint his successor by Nass, and this is the consensus of Ahl As-Sunnah and others, Al-Qadhi says: And opposes this consensus, Bakr nephew of Abdul-Wahid, he claims that he (saw) appointed Aboo Bakr by Nass, and ibn Al-Rawandi says that he (saw) appointed Al-Abbas by Nass, the Shi'a and the Rafidha say that he (saw) appointed Alee (a.s) by Nass, and these claims are void and boldness in lying and rudeness in stubbornness. 

Source: Saheeh Muslim Sharh Al-Nawawi. Vol. 12, Pg. # 205 - 206.


Ibn Hajar:

There is proof in this against those who insist that the Prophet (saw) appointed Aba Bakr as his successor, like Tabari, and Bakr nephew of Abdul-Wahid and after him ibn Hazm.

Source: Fath ul-Bari fi Sharh Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Vol. 17, Pg. # 60.






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