Saturday, 13 December 2014

Imam Al-Mahdi (ajf) Part IV

The Concept Of Twelve Imams (a.s) From The Earliest Shi'a Sources

"Kitab Sulaym ibn Qays"







In this part of the article we shall cover: 



  • The Compilation Of Hadeeth Literature 
  • Saheeh Hadeeth According To Early Shi'a Scholars
  • Why The Methodology Of Early Scholars Is Preferable
  • Collection Of Hadeeth In Books
  • Presentation Of Books To The Imams (a.s)
  • The Book Of Sulaym ibn Qays Al-Hilali
  • Attestation of Al-Nu'mani for the Book of Sulaym
  • Who was Al-Nu'mani?
  • Sulaym - A Companion Of Imam Alee (a.s)
  • Sulaym's Book Passed On From Aban's Hands To Umar ibn Uzaina
  • Narrators Of The Book Of Sulaym
  • As'haab Ijmaa' Among The Narrators Of The Book Of Sulaym
  • Attesting Aban ibn Abi Ayyash
  • Chains Of The Manuscripts Of The Book Of Sulaym
  • Chains Of The Manuscript Of Allamah Al-Majlisi II
  • Attestation Of Scholars For The Book of Sulaym
  • The Book Of Sulaym Is The Alphabet Of The Shi'a
  • Objections Against The Book
  • Objections Of ibn Al-Ghazairi
  • Is ibn Al-Ghazairi's Book Of Rijal Reliable?
  • Scholarly Discussions On ibn Al-Ghazairi's Objections
  • Miracles Performed By Other Than The Prophets' (a.s)
  • The Imams (a.s) Are Twelve And Not Thirteen
  • Some Additional Points About The Two Above Mentioned Objections
  • Authenticity Of The Book Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal
  • The fame Of A Book Obviates The Need For A Chain
  • Narrations On The Twelve Imams (a.s) From Sulaym Through Early Shi'a Scholars
  • Attestation Of Ahlulbayt (a.s) For The Book Of Sulaym
  • Summary On The Authenticity Of The Book Of Sulaym
  • Hadeeth Of The Twelve Imams (a.s) And Imam Al-Mahdi (ajf) Is The Last Of Them

Prior to the birth of Imam Al-Mahdi (ajf) [255 A.H], eminent scholars and companions of the Imams (a.s) compiled numerous books containing traditions regarding the glad-tidings of the birth and the reappearance of Imam Al-Mahdi (ajf).

The followers of the Ahlulbayt (a.s) began to record Hadeeth from a very early period of Islam which is in direct contrast to the so-called 'Ahl Al-Sunnah,' who allowed hadeeth to be orally transmitted, but disallowed the actual written record of them. Inevitably, this could explain the many inaccuracies and contradictions in their books which occurred later.

This seemingly bizarre tradition was based on the notion that written words would somehow become confused with the Holy Qur'aan. They continued with the oral transmissions only until the period of Umar ibn Abdul-Aziz (717 - 720 A.D) who demanded that they should be written down as documentary evidence. By the turn of the third century, the number of narrations rose by a significant number and with this came the idea of Jarh Wa Ta'dil, which in it's essence means discussing the narrators of the Hadeeth and surmising who is a trustworthy or not. 

The first individual among the Sunni's who discussed concerning Rijal (i.e. narrators) was a man named Shu'ba ibn Hajjaj. Subsequently, other scholars began to discuss the reliability and trustworthiness of narrators. Scholars such as Yahya ibn Ma'een, Ahmad ibn Hanbal and Alee ibn Al-Madini and later Al-Bukhari and others. These scholars examined the various narrators despite having no actual connection between them. This rather haphazard approach resulted in scholars favouring those they personally liked themselves and rejecting those they disliked. As any academic can testify, this approach lacks any kind of validity and reliability thus putting into question many of the so-called 'Ahl Al-Sunnah's' hadeeth and how they authenticate a narrator.

Furthermore, they compiled collections directly based on those 'judgements' about narrators and classed these as Saheeh (Authentic) suggesting that these collections consisted of only authentic narrations. Therefore, those narrations that highlighted the positive attributes of Ahlulbayt (a.s) were classed as weak, and those who wrote such narrations were dismissed. These narrators were falsely accused of being Shi'a simply because they discussed the magnificence of the Ahlulbayt (a.s). For example, when ibn Ma'een heard the narration "Hussain (a.s) is from me and I am from Hussain (a.s)," he instantly attacked certain narrators of that narration simply because his heart could not accept it. However, later scholars such as Dar Qutni discovered that this narration had been narrated through completely different chains than those whom ibn Ma'een accused and weakened. This example shows flaws of this pick and choose methodology that forms the entire school of our opponents. 

Another common rather disingenuous tactic was to label those narrators as "Rafidhi" for having the audacity to expose the despicable natures of their idols Aboo Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Mu'awiyah and all the other tyrannical so-called companions and role models. 

Shi'a Islam has always been ahead of academically recording and passing on hadeeth. Our collections are based on sound valid hadeeth not only based on their narrators, rather too many other factors that will be discussed later In Shah Allah, not picking and choosing them based on personal and individual preference. The method of our Shi'a scholars were more sophisticated and empirically based. This is because from the earliest point of Islamic history, our scholars learned about the accuracy of hadeeth and the method of collection from the brilliant guidance of Ahlulbayt (a.s) themselves. Our Shi'a scholars thus used this valid technique long before Sunnis managed to comprehend the very basics of hadeeth collection. 

Our collections have strong validity thanks to Ahlulbayt (a.s) as they used to motivate and inspire their companions to collect narrations and write them down from an early age. It is these original sources that were directly narrated by the companions of our Imams (a.s) verbatim, or through one or perhaps at maximum two intermediaries, these original written books are called 'Asl' (Usool in plural). 

The reason these have high reliability is that these were original documents which were not duplicated from other texts or collections and were either narrated directly from the Imams(a.s) or had very short chain of narrators from the Imams (a.s). These Usool (original sources) are listed in the books of Fehrist. These books of Fehrist contain documented list of the books that the scholars had received from each of the companions of the Imams (a.s) and their chains up to those companions such as the Fehrist of Sheikh Al-Tusi, Sheikh Al-Najashi, ibn Nadeem, Al-Razi, Muntajab Al-Deen and many other books of Fehrist that still exist. These books of Fehrist contain the chains of each scholar to those Usool. The number of those Usool were very high but those which were reliable were 400, thus known as "Usool Al-Arba' Miha" i.e. 400 original sources. 

The companions of the Imams (a.s) in addition were given the Usool of the previous generations and so on. Some of these books were then presented to the Imam (a.s) of their time as an added validation in order to establish authenticity. Of course, in times where Taqiyyah was essential, the Shi'a scholars and companions of Imams (a.s) took more care, thus only passing the books to their descendants or to their trusted people in order for those books not to end up in the wrong hands which could put the lives of the Imams (a.s), their companions and their followers in severe danger from the tyrannical leaders of the time. 

To conclude, we can safely ascertain that the Shi'a method of recording hadeeth and establishing reliable narrators is superior to the way the so-called 'Ahl Al-Sunnah' create their hadeeth. If one were to examine this in an impartial way, it is clear that the Sunni method of hadeeth collection has many flaws which lead to inaccuracies which results in questioning the validity of their books, besides the fact that they have abandoned the source of knowledge that the Messenger of Allah (saw) has left for his Ummah; the Holy Qur'an and Ahlulbayt (a.s). So how can reliability be assured using such haphazard methodology? 


The Compilation Of Hadeeth Literature 


The Hadeeth by our early scholars was either categorized as Saheeh (Authentic) or Dha'eef (Weak). But then later Allamah Al-Hilli introduced two new levels of authenticity, Hasan (Good) and Muwathaq (Reliable). 

Hence, the four levels of the authenticity of Hadeeth after Allamah Al-Hilli are the following:  

1 - Saheeh (Authentic): All the narrators are upright, trustworthy, twelver Imami people up to the Infallibles (a.s).

2 - Hasan (Good): One or more narrators has/have not been explicitly mentioned as Thiqa (trustworthy) by the scholars of Rijal, but he/they are praised twelver Imami people up to the Infallibles (a.s).

3 - Muwathaq (Reliable): All the narrators are trustworthy up to the Infallibles (a.s), but one or more narrators in the chains might not be a twelver Imami.

4- Dha'eef (Weak): One or more narrators have been weakened by the scholars of Rijal, or might be Majhool (i.e. Unknown).


However, the above degrees are usually only applied in the field of jurisprudence for a thorough differentiation between contradicting narrations. As for narrations in other fields such as Aqeeda and so on, we find that the scholars of the later generations rely mostly on the method of the early scholars. The scholars from the Akhbari school act upon the method of the early scholars in all fields, however, the Usooli scholars use the four new introduced degrees by Allamah Al-Hilli at least in the field of Fiqh.  

Saheeh (Authentic) Hadeeth According To Early Shi'a Scholars:


Sayyed Alee Hussaini Al-Sadr:

As it is known, the Saheeh (Authentic) Hadeeth among the later generation of scholars is that which has been narrated through a Twelver Imami, upright and trustworthy narrator from his likes in every generation of the chain until it ends to Infallibles (a.s).

On the other hand, Saheeh (Authentic) narrations among the early generation of scholars are all those narrations that are proven for them to an extent that they can trust it, rely on it and act upon it. Those signs that help them about the authenticity of narrations are the following:

1 - Existence of the Hadeeth in many of the four hundred Usool (i.e. the original books of the companions of the Imams (a.s)), that will be mentioned in the third Lesson of this book.

2 - Existence of the Hadeeth in one Asl of those Usool which has been narrated through several chains.

3 - Existence of the Hadeeth in one Asl of one of those companions of Imams (a.s) upon the authenticity of whose narrations there is consensus, like Zurara ibn Ayun, Muhammad ibn Muslim and Al-Fudhayl ibn Yasaar.

4 - Existence of the Hadeeth in one Asl of those companions upon the authenticity of whom there is consensus, if the narration has been narrated through a reliable chain from them, which will be mentioned in detail in the seventh Lesson.

5 - Existence of the Hadeeth among the narrations of those companions that the scholars have consensus upon acting on their narrations, like Ammar Al-Sabati and others that Sheikh Al-Tusi has mentioned in his book Al-Udda.

6 - Existence of the Hadeeth in one of the books that have been presented to the pure Imams (a.s), like the Book of Sulaym ibn Qays Al-Hilali which was presented to Imam Al-Sajjad (a.s), Book of Ubaydallah ibn Alee Al-Halabi which was presented to Imam Al-Sadiq (a.s), the two Books of Yunus ibn Abdur Rahman Al-Yaqtini and Book of Al-Fadhl ibn Shazaan Al-Nisaburi which were presented to Imam Al-Askari (a.s).

7 - Existence of the Hadeeth in the reliable and trusted upon books among our Imamiyyah scholars, like the books of Al-Hassan and Al-Hussain the sons of Sa'eed Al-Ahwazi, Alee ibn Mahziyar, Hafs ibn Ghiyath, Al-Hussain ibn Ubaydallah Al-Sa'di and Alee ibn Al-Hassan Al-Tatari.

8 - The authenticity of the Hadeeth up to a narrator who does not narrate except from an upright and trusted upon person, like when the narrator is Muhammad ibn Abi Umayr Al-Azdi or Safwan ibn Yahya Al-Bajali or Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Nasr Al-Bazanti, as will be mentioned in detail in the fifth and twentieth Lesson.

So the Hadeeth which had one of the above supporting factors was considered Saheeh (Authentic) among the early scholars.

And it should be counted as a reliable Hadeeth among the scholars of the later generations too, because of the reliability of its issuance (from the Infallibles (a.s)), which is the criterion for the validity of the narration indeed.

So its acceptance is necessary because of the existence of the factor of reliability and its association with certainty which is a strong argument for the acceptance of the narration.

Its rejection is not correct, because it would be considered rejection of a proof and rejection of Sunnah, which is strictly prohibited in our noble narrations, as the following narrations state that Allamah Al-Majlisi has narrated…

Source: Fawahid Al-Rijaliyyah. Pg. # 27 - 29.


Why The Methodology Of Early Scholars Is Preferable


Sheikh Hurr Al-Amili mentions twenty reasons why Saheeh (Authentic) Hadeeth according to our early scholars is more correct than the new methodology. We shall only mention some of his arguments related to this topic.  


Al-Hurr Al-Amili:

Presentation of some of the of arguments about the authenticity of the mentioned books (i.e. the four major books) and their likes and the arguments against the weakness of the new method of authenticating narrations and the division of Hadeeth in four categories (i.e. Saheeh, Hasan, Muwathaq and Dha'eef), among the arguments are:

1 - We know for sure through Tawatur of reports that these narrations were collected and gathered by the command of A'immah (a.s) and that was their aim and the aim of their companions to preserve the narrations and memorize them in a time scale of more than three hundred years and they were copied from the books of the previous generations in to the books of the later generations and that all by the command of the Imams (a.s), so that their Shi'a act upon it till the Day of Judgment, and this process continued till the time of the Minor Occultation.

2 - We know for sure through Tawatur of reports that the Shi'a had authentic and reliable books that they used to act upon by the command of the A'immah (a.s). These books remained till the time of the three leading scholars (i.e. Al-Kulayni, Al-Sadooq and Al-Tusi), the authors of the four major books. And they were able to distinguish between the reliable books and not reliable books and they knew for certain that it is not allowed to act upon other than those books, and we are sure that they did not fail in it, if it was so, they would not have testified upon the authenticity of those narrations. Even the scholars of history if they were able to narrate from those reliable books, they did not used to narrate from other than those books. So how can one doubt about the Thiqatul Islam (i.e. Al-Kulayni) and the chief of the traditionalists (i.e. Al-Sadooq) and the chief of the sect (i.e. Al-Tusi) and their likes?  

3 - The divine wisdom necessitates and also the compassion of the Prophet (saw) and the A'immah (a.s) about their Shi'a, that people in the seeds of men and the wombs of the women till the Day of Judgment do not cease to exist, possessing reliable books that they can act upon during the time of Occultation and the confirmation of this is the existence of these books and the permissibility of acting upon them.

4 - The narrations are too many that point to the fact that the Imams (a.s) used to command their companions to write down the narrations and collect them in books and act upon them during the time of their presence as well as during the time of the Occultation. And it is known that many of the books that were written during their lifetime, are available now, and they are in accordance to what has been written during the time of Occulation, so acting upon them is in accordance to their command about it and the impermissibility of acting upon other than them is Mutawatir, as it was mentioned in the introduction and in the about the verdicts.

5 - The narrations are too many about the authenticity of those books and the fact that they were presented to the A'immah (a.s) generally or in particular and most of those books were available for Al-Kulayni, Al-Sadooq and Sheikh Al-Tusi and some of them exist even today.

6 - Verily most of our narrations were present in the books of the As'hab Al-Ijmaa and in the books of those who were attested by the A'immah (a.s) and the evidences for this are too many in the four major books and in other books.

7 - If our narrations were not taken from those authentic books and attested by Tawatur and other evidences, then most of our narrations were not reliable and it was proper to reject them, and the fact that the A'immah (a.s) and the scholars of Imamiyyah would tolerate the misguidance in the matters of religion to this extent and they would have never be ok with the misguidance of the Shi'a till the Day of Judgment...

Source: Hidayatul Umma Fi Ahkaam Al-A'immah. Vol. 8, Pg. # 579 - 580.




Collection Of Hadeeth In Books:


Sheikh Al-Kulayni:


It is narrated from him from Ahmad ibn Umar Al-Hallal who said the following: "Once I said to (Imam) Aboo Al-Hassan Al-Ridha (a.s), 'One of our companions gives me a book but he does not say whether I can narrate anything from it or not. Can I narrate from it?' The Imam (a.s), said, 'Yes, you can narrate if you know it is from his book.'"


Alee ibn Ibraheem has narrated from his father from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid from Al-Nawfali from Al-Sakuni from Imam Al-Sadiq (a.s), who has said the following: "Amir ul Mo'mineen (a.s) has said, 'When you narrate a Hadeeth you must say who its narrator is. If it is true it will be for you and if it is false it will be his (the narrator's) responsibility.'"


Alee ibn Muhammad ibn Abd Allah has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Aboo Ayyub Al-Madani from ibn Aboo Umayr from Hussain Al-Ahmasi from Imam Al-Sadiq (a.s), who has said the following: "The heart relies on writing." 


Al-Hussain ibn Muhammad has narrated from Mu'alla ibn Muhammad from Al-Hassan ibn Alee Al-Washsha from Asim ibn Humayd from Aboo Basir who has said the following: "Once I heard (Imam) Ja'far Al-Sadiq (a.s), saying, 'You must write it down; you will not memorize until you write it down.'"


Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Isa from Al-Hassan ibn Alee ibn Faddal from ibn Bukayr from Ubayd ibn Zurara who has said the following: "Once Imam Ja'far Al-Sadiq (a.s), said, 'You must preserve your books; you will soon need them.'"


A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid Al-Barqi from certain persons of his people from Aboo Sa'eed Al-Khaybari from Al-Mufaddal ibn Umar who has said the following: "Imam Ja'far Al-Sadiq (a.s), has said, 'You must write down (Hadeeth) and spread your knowledge among your brethren. If you die your children will inherit your books. A time will come when people will face chaos and they will find no comfort except in their books.'"


Source: Al-Kafi. Vol. 1, Pg. # 30, H. # 6 - 11.




Presentation Of Books To Imams (a.s):


The companions of the Imams (a.s) would present and ask questions in regards to the books they received to the Imams of their time.

Sheikh Al-Kulayni:

A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Muhammad ibn Al-Hassan ibn Aboo Khalid Shaynula who has said the following: "Once I said to Aboo Ja'far Al-Thani, the second, 'May Allah (swt) keep my soul in your service, our Shaykhs have narrated Hadeeth from Imam Aboo Ja'far (a.s) and from Imam Aboo Abd Allah (a.s) at that time Taqiyyah (fear) was severe. They concealed their books and did not narrate from them. When they died their books came to us.' The Imam (a.s) said, 'You may narrate from them; they contain the truth.'"

Source: Al-Kafi. Vol. 1, Pg. # 31, H. # 15.


Sheikh Al-Hurr Al-Amili:

From him (i.e. Alee ibn Ibraheem) from his father from ibn Fadhaal and also from Muhammad ibn Isa from Yunus, both said: We presented the book of Al-Farahidh from the Commander of the Faithful (a.s) to Abil Hassan Al-Ridha (a.s), so he said: "It is authentic." 

And from a group of our people from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Al-Hassan ibn Zarif from Zarif ibn Naseh from Abdullah ibn Ayyoub from Abi Amr Al-Mutabbib who said: I presented the book of Diyaat to Abi Abdullah (a.s).

And Al-Sadooq and Sheikh (Al-Tusi) have narrated through their chains that he presented the book to Abi Abdullah (a.s) and to Al-Ridha (a.s).

Source: Wasa'il ush-Shi'a. Vol. 27, Pg. # 85, H. # 33276 - 33277.


Sheikh Al-Hurr Al-Amili:

Narrated Ja'far ibn Ma'ruf from Sahl ibn Bahr from Al-Fadhl ibn Shazaan from his father from Ahmad ibn Abi Khalaf who said: I was sick, then Abi Ja'far (a.s) visited me, the book of Yawm Wa Laila was near my pillow, so he (a.s) started to look into it page by page, until he read from the beginning to the end and started saying: "May Allah (swt) have mercy on Yunus, May Allah (swt) have mercy on Yunus, May Allah (swt) have mercy on Yunus."

And narrated Abi Baseer Hammad ibn Ubaydallah ibn Asyad Al-Hirawi from Dawood ibn Al-Qasim Al-Ja'fari who said: I brought the book of Yawm Wa Laila authored by Yunus ibn Abdul Rahman to Abil Hassan Al-Askari (a.s), so he looked into it and read all of it and then said: "This is my Religion and the Religion of my forefathers, and it is the truth, all of it."

Ibraheem ibn Mukhtar from Muhammad ibn Al-Abbas from Alee ibn Al-Hassan ibn Fadhaal from his father narrated it similarly from Abi Ja'far (a.s).

And narrated Sa'eed ibn Janah Al-Kashi from Muhammad ibn Ibraheem Al-Warraq from Buraq Al-Bushanji, he said that he was of our companions, famous in truthfulness, piety, self-restraint and goodness, who said: I went to Surra Man Ra'aa and the book of Yawm Wa Laila was with me, so I entered upon Abi Muhammad (a.s) and showed him that book, and said: "If you would look into this and check it page by page." So he said: "This is authentic, and it should be acted upon." 

And narrated Muhammad ibn Al-Hussain Al-Hirawi from Hamid ibn Muhammad, known as Qura, who said that Fadhl ibn Shazaan sent him to Iraq to Aboo Muhammad Al-Hassan ibn Alee (a.s), so he mentioned that he entered upon Abi Muhammad (a.s), when he wanted to leave, a book which was under his arm fell down, Aboo Muhammad (a.s) took it and looked into it, the book was written by Fadhl, so he sent blessing upon him and said: "The people of Khorasan, envy the position of Al-Fadhl ibn Shazaan and that he is among them."

And narrated Muhammad ibn Al-Hassan Al-Barai from Al-Hassan ibn Alee ibn Kaysan from Ibraheem ibn Umar Al-Yamani from ibn Uzaina from Aban ibn Abi Ayyash who said: This is a manuscript of the book of Sulaym ibn Qays Al-Amiri, Al-Hilali, he gave it to Aban ibn Abi Ayyash and recited it to him, and Aban claims that he recited it to Alee ibn Al-Hussain (a.s), so he said: "Sulaym has said the truth, we know these narrations."

And narrated Muhammad ibn Al-Hassan in the book Al-Ghaybah, from Abil Hussain ibn Tamam from Abdullah Al-Kufi, the servant of Al-Hussain ibn Rouh, from Al-Hussain ibn Rouh from Abi Muhammad Al-Hassan ibn Alee (a.s), he asked him about the books of the children of Fadhaal, he said: "Take what they have narrated, but leave what they say of their own opinion."

Source: Wasa'il ush-Shi'a. Vol. 27, Pg. # 100 - 102, H. # 33319 - 33324.


Sheikh Al-Barqi:

From him, from ibn Fazaal, from ibn Bakeyr, from Hamza ibn Al-Tayyar who presented to Aboo Abdullah (a.s) some of the sermons of his father, until he reached a subject from it, he said: "Pause!" Aboo Abdullah (a.s) said to him: "Write!" So he dictated to him: "It would not benefit you all with regards to what befalls you from what you do not know except for the restraint from it, and the verification regarding it, and referring it to the Imams of Guidance, until it carries you with regards to it, upon the intended way."

Source: Al-Mahasin. Vol. 1, Pg. # 341, H. # 703.




The Book Of Sulaym ibn Qays Al-Hilali


Attestation of Al-Nu'mani for the Book of Sulaym:


Muhammad bin Ibraheem bin Ja'far Al-Nu'mani (Died. 360 A.H.):

There is no dispute among the Shi'a that the book of Sulaym bin Qays Al-Hilali is considered as one of the biggest books of Usool of the doctrine of the Shi'a that has been narrated by scholars and the carriers of the narrations of Ahlulbayt(a.s) and one of the oldest of those Usool. All that is mentioned in this Asl has been narrated from the Prophet (saw), Imam Alee (a.s), Al-Miqdad (r.a), Salman Al-Farsi (r.a), Aboo Dharr (r.a) and their likes, who have accompanied the Prophet (saw) and Amir ul Mo'mineen (a.s). It is one of the Usool that the Shi'a have depended on and referred to.
However we have narrated from this book and other books some of what has been mentioned from the Messenger of Allah (saw) that the Imams are twelve and his (saw) nomination of them and repetition of mentioning their number and his(saw) statement: "verily the Imams are from the descendants of Al-Husain(a.s), they are nine and the ninth one of them is their Qa'im (atfj) and he is their manifestation and secret and their superior." and this ends every argument and destroys every objection and nullifies the false claim of every falsifier and exposes every innovator and shows the deviancy of every liar and it is an explicit proof about the authenticity of this number, no one of those false claimants, who claim to be Shia and Shia are innocent of them, are not able to present for the authenticity of their claims something like this(i.e. the Book of Sulaym) and they can't find it in any of the book of Usool that Shia refer to and neither in other authentic narrations, And praise be to Allah the Lord of the Worlds.

Beside that we see that the scholars of Hadeeth of Aammah (i.e. the so called Ahl As-Sunnah) have also narrated through different chains that the Imams are twelve. We mention them in the following chapter as they have reached us for further emphasis and as an argument over our opponents and the doubters, to say that we have not limited ourselves in this regard to the narrations of Shia only, so that someone of the people who reads this book who has a brain and can distinguish, may recognize the truth and follow it.

Source: Al-Ghaybah Al-Nu'mani. Pg. # 64 - 65.




Attestion Of Sheikh Al-Nu'mani


Al-Nu'mani is of the great early scholars among Shi'a who was the student of Al-Kulayni and his writer. He died twenty years before Sheikh Al-Sadooq in the year 360 A.H.

Al-Najashi:

Muhammad ibn Ibraheem ibn Ja'far, Aboo Abdullah Al-Katib, known as ibn (Abi) Zaynab, Sheikh of our scholars, of huge esteem and noble position, with correct beliefs, he has narrated many narrations. He came to Baghdad and then moved to Shaam and he died there.

He has written books, among them: Book of Al-Ghaybah, Book of Al-Farahidh...

Source: Rijal Al-Najashi. Pg. # 367.



Sheikh Al-Mufid points to Al-Nu'manis book Al-Ghaybah and introduces it as a reference for the topic of Al-Ghaybah:

Sheikh Al-Mufid:

This is an extract which comes from the reports handed down concerning the nominations of the twelfth of the Imams, peace be on them. The narrations about that are numerous. The scholars of Hadeeth from this group (i.e. Shi'a scholars) have written them and confirmed them in the books which they have compiled. Among those who have presented them with explanation and detail is Muammad ibn Ibraheem, nicknamed Aboo Abdullah Al-Nu'mani, in the book which he compiled on the occultation (Al-Ghaybah). There is no need for us, in view of what we have mentioned, to present them in detail in this place.

Source: Al-Irshaad. Vol. 2, Pg. # 350.



Sulaym - A Companion Of Imam Alee (a.s)

From those books of Usool which were presented to the Imams (a.s) is the book of Sulaym ibn Qays Al-Hilali. This young man lived in dangerous times, where it was not allowed to narrate hadeeth. Regardless, this tenacious young man continued in his collection of hadeeth. His Hadeeth collection began during the period when Umar was the Caliph, a time of oppression and persecution for the followers of Ahlulbayt (a.s). He completed his extensive collection before he passed away after the year 70 A.H. Sulaym was a loyal companion of Mola Alee (a.s) and was given the status of Awliya (close friends) of the Commander of the Faithful (a.s). Sulaym partook in numerous battles such as (Jamal, Siffeen and Nahrawan). 

Al-Barqi:


Companions of Amir ul Mo'mineen (a.s):


From among the companions of the Prophet (saw): The companions, then the devotees, then the close friends, the army of special forces (i.e. Shurtatul Khamis).


The devotees from among the companions of the Prophet (saw): Salman Al-Farsi, Al-Miqdad, Aboo Dhar, Ammar, Aboo Layla, Shubayr, Aboo Sanan, Aboo Umra, Aboo Sa'eed Al-Khudri Al-Arabi Ansari, Aboo Barza, Jabir ibn Abdullah, Al-Baraa ibn Azib Ansari, Arafa Al-Azdi and the Messenger of Allah (saw) prayed for him and said: "O Allah (swt)! Bless him in his allegiance."


And the companions of the Commander of the Faithful (a.s) who were in his special forces (i.e. Shurtatul Khamis) were six thousand men, and Alee ibn Al-Hakam: The companions of the Commander of the Faithful (a.s) to whom he said: "Keep your covenant with me and I will keep my covenant with you upon achieving paradise. I am not making covenant with you upon gold and silver, verily our Prophet (saw) said to his companions in the past: 'I am not making covenant with you except in exchange for paradise.'" 


And the Commander of the Faithful (a.s) said to Abdullah ibn Yahya Al-Hadhrami on the day of the battle of Jamal: "Glad tidings O Yahya! For you and your father are of the Shurtatul Khamis (i.e. special forces), verily the Messenger of Allah (saw) informed me about your name and the name of your father among the Shurtatul Khamis." By Allah (swt)! He called Shurtatul Khamis in the heavens through the tongue of His Prophet (saw), Salman, Al-Miqdad, Aboo Dhar, Ammar, Aboo Sanan, Aboo Umra, Jabir ibn Abdullah, Sahl and Uthman sons of Aba Hunayf from the Ansar.


And of the companions of the Commander of the Faithful (a.s): Amr ibn Hamiq Arabi Khuza'i, Maitham ibn Yahya Al-Tammar Mawla, Rushyd Al-Hijri, Habib ibn Mudhahir Al-Asadi, Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr.


And of the close friends (i.e. Al-Awliya): A'lam Al-Azdi, Suwayd ibn Ghafla Al-Ju'fi, Al-Harith Al-A'war Hamdani, Aboo Abdullah Al-Jadali, Aboo Yahya Halim ibn Sa'eed Al-Hanafi and of the Shurtatul Khamis, Aboo Ridha Abdullah ibn Yahya Al-Hadhrami, Sulaym ibn Qays Al-Hilali, Ubayda Al-Salmani Arabi.


Source: Rijal Al-Barqi. Pg. # 3 - 4.



Sayyed Al-Khoei:

First: Sulaym ibn Qays himself is an esteemed trustworthy person of high position, and the testimony of Al-Barqi is enough that he was of the Awliya (i.e. very special companions) of the Commander of the Faithful (a.s), it is also supported with what Al-Nu'mani says about his book, and Al-Allamah (i.e. Al-Hilli) has mentioned him in the first part of his book and attests his uprightness, as for ibn Dawood, he mentions him in both parts of his book (i.e. trustworthy and not trustworthy people) and we do not see it to be correct in any way.

Second: The Book of Sulaym as Al-Nu'mani mentions is of the reliable Usool, rather of the biggest Usool and all of what is in it, is Saheeh (Authentic) and its narrations have been issued from the Infallibles (a.s) or from those who are attested and their narrations are accepted, and the author of Al-Wasa'il mentions it in the Fourth Lesson, among reliable books that the evidences confirm their authenticity and they have been narrated in Mutawatir form from their authors or the correctness of attribution to their authors is established in a way that it remains no doubt.  


Source: Mu'jam Rijal Al-Hadeeth. Vol. 9, Pg. # 230.



Sulaym lived a relatively peaceful life after that for a while, that is until a harsh evil tyrant by the name of Al- Hajjaj was on a mission to murder as many Shi'as and companions of Mola Alee (a.s) as possible. This brutal man specifically requested the murder of Sulaym, so Sulaym escaped to the land of Persia. It was in Persia where he met Aban bin Abi Ayash who was at the time fourteen years old. Sulaym taught the young Aban all about Islam and the hadeeth that he had documented in his book. By this time Sulaym was an old man and his health was failing, with this in mind he gave his book to Aban.


As we have discussed earlier, due to the persecution of the followers of Ahlulbayt (a.s), hadeeths were not distributed openly amongst people and were therefore kept secret. They were only passed on from trustworthy companions to their descendants or very close trusted companions. The penalties for being exposed and caught with such books were harsh and brutal so precautions had to be made. Sulaym's book was no exception, thus he entrusted it to somebody trustworthy shortly before his death. This became a profound moment in the life of Aban. He read the book to which each page and each word of the Ahlulbayt (a.s) unlocked the key to divine revelations. He had a spiritual awakening and he needed to meet with other people, thus he travelled to meet with the remaining companions of the Prophet (saw) so he could confirm the contents of Sulyam's book. Aban did get the opportunity to meet some of the companions of the Prophet (saw) such as Abil Tufayl. Following the tragic events of Karbala, Sulaym met Imam Sajjid (a.s) and Imam Baqir (a.s), who was a young boy at the time. It is not clear whether Imam Baqir (a.s) participated in the battle of Karbala, but it is highly likely that he was imprisoned with other Shi'as of Alee (a.s) by Ubaydullah bin Ziyad. 

It is worth mentioning that there is no evidence, neither oral and written to suggest that Ahlulbayt (a.s) were critical of any of the hadeeth in that book. We know that the Imams (a.s) were very particular in regards to accuracy in hadeeth. Indeed, many of the narrations in Sulaym's book were also included in later Hadeeth collections that have reached us from various routes (chain of narrators).

Sulaym's Book Passed On From Aban's Hands To Umar ibn Uzaina



After the death of Sulaym, Aban travelled to different places to meet as many people as possible (including Imam Sajjad (a.s)) in an attempt to authenticate the book's contents, and finally, he took Basra as a residence place for himself where he became a renown Islamic narrator whose narrations can be found in both Shi'a and Sunni sources, although Sunnis weaken him.


When Aban reached the age of 76, he saw Sulaym in a dream informing him that he will die very soon and that he must pass on the book to a trustworthy Shi'a man. So Aban then went to Umar bin Uzaina, the head of Shi'as in Basra, who was one of the great companions of Imam Sadiq (a.s) and Imam Kadhim (a.s).

One important fact is that Aban passed the original manuscript that he had received from Sulaym to Umar Ibn Uzaina, he didn't give him just a copy of the original manuscript. This fact is important, because Aban is the main person who has been attacked for narrating this book and has been accused of fabricating it himself, which will be discussed later in detail.

Narrators Of The Book Of Sulaym:



The following chart shows the tree of the narrators of this book and how it has reached each scholar. This tree shows that the book has been transferred through famous, trustworthy companions of Imams (a.s). It includes Umar ibn Uzaina and Ibraheem ibn Umar Al-Yamani who were the companions of Imam Al-Baqir (a.s) and Imam Al-Sadiq (a.s), Hammad ibn Isa Muhammad ibn Abi Umayr, who were the companions of Imam Al-Sadiq (a.s), Imam Al-Kadhim (a.s) and Imam Al-Ridha (a.s) and so on. 




The chart also assures us of the existence of the book during the time of Imam Al-Sadiq (a.s), Imam Al-Kadhim (a.s) and Imam Al-Ridha (a.s), because of the existence of so many different chains for it up to those companions of Imams (a.s). Thus it aids us with the authenticity of the book, since those companions would have undoubtedly presented the book to the Imams (a.s) and inquired about its authenticity, as it was part of their methodology and habit to present the older Usool to the Imams of their time for confirmation of their content, as will be mentioned later. Being aware of this, the objection on the book of Sulaym ibn Qays and its fabrication by Aban ibn Abi Ayyash is thus removed. 



As the chart shows, after the death of Aban, the book came in to the hands of twelve people. However, the main significant narrators of the book from Aban are the following:



  • Umar ibn Uzaina
  • Ibraheem ibn Umar Al-Yamani
  • Abdullah ibn Maskan
  • Ma'mar ibn Rashid Al-Basri
  • Homam ibn Nafi Al-Sana'ani



The narrators who have received the book from the first generation are many, however among the significant narrators of the next generation who have received the book from the above narrators, are the following four scholars:


  • Hammad ibn Isa
  • Muhammad ibn Abi Umayr
  • Uthman ibn Isa
  • Abdur Razzaq ibn Homam Al-Sana'ani



The next generation of the narrators who have received the book are too many, but the most famous among them are the following scholars:


  • Ibraheem ibn Hashim
  • Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Isa
  • Al-Hussain ibn Sa'eed
  • Muhammad ibn Al-Husaain ibn Abil Khattab
  • Ya'qoub ibn Yazeed
  • Muhammad ibn Isa ibn Ubayd
  • Al-Hassan ibn Alee ibn Fadhaal
  • Abdul Rahman ibn Abi Najran
  • Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid Al-Barqi
  • Fadhl ibn Shazaan
  • Muhammad ibn Alee Al-Sirafi
  • Alee ibn Maziyaar
  • Ahmad ibn Hilal



The next generation of the narrators who have received the book are too many, but the most famous among them are the following scholars:


  • Alee ibn Ibraheem
  • Muhammad ibn Al-Hassan Al-Saffar
  • Sa'd ibn Abdullah
  • Abdullah ibn Ja'far Al-Himyari
  • Alee ibn Al-Hussain Al-Sa'd Abadi
  • Muhammad ibn Yahya Al-Attar
  • Muhammad ibn Homam
  • Alee ibn Muhammad ibn Bandaar
  • Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Sa'eed ibn Uqda
  • Muhammad ibn Abil Qasim Majilawayh



The next generation of the narrators who have received the book are too many, but the most famous among them are the following scholars:


  • Al-Kulayni
  • Alee ibn Babawayh (father of Sadooq)
  • Muhammad ibn Al-Hassan ibn Al-Walid
  • Muhammad ibn Musa ibn Al-Mutawakkil
  • Muhammad ibn Jarir Al-Tabari



Then the following significant scholars:


  • Al-Sadooq
  • Al-Nu'mani
  • Al-Tal'ukburi
  • Al-Kash'shi
  • Ibn Juhaam

Then the scholars of the generation of Al-Mufid, Al-Ghazairi, ibn Abi Jayyid and after them to Sheikh Al-Tusi, Al-Najashi and the scholars of their generation and so on up to our time.

The list of the above scholars only include the most famous narrators of the book of Sulaym in every generation and not all of them. From the above listing, it can easily be recognised that the book was widespread among the famous, trustworthy companions of the Imams (a.s); five of whom are of the As'haab Al-Ijmaa. These companions of the Imams (a.s) whose narrations are considered authentic, if the chains up to them are reliable, because they were trustworthy, great scholars and they were the jurists of their time who used to present their books and teachings to the Imams (a.s) who would then check their authenticity.

As'haab Ijmaa' Among The Narrators Of The Book Of Sulaym:


Among the above scholars, there are those who are of the As'hab Al-Ijmaa. The As'hab Al-Ijmaa are those companions of the Imams (a.s) whose narrations and verdicts have been given authentication through the consensus of scholars and those of them whose names appear among the scholars who have narrated the Book of Sulaym, are the following five scholars and companions of Imams (a.s):


  • Abdullah ibn Muskan
  • Hammad ibn Isa
  • Muhammad ibn Abi Umayr
  • Abdullah ibn Al-Mughira
  • Al-Hassan ibn Alee ibn Fadhaal
We find that it is these five companions of the Imams (a.s) who are among the main narrators of the book of Sulaym. This in itself is enough to prove the validity and authenticity of the book. It will be also mentioned later that most of the main chains of the existing manuscripts end to two of the above mentioned companions of Imams (a.s), i.e. to Muhammad ibn Abi Umayr and to Hammad ibn Isa.


Sheikh Noori Al-Tabarsi:

Sheikh Aboo Umar Al-Kash'shi says in his book of Rijal where he mentions the jurisprudents among the companions of Abi Ja'far Al-Baqir (a.s) and Abi Abdullah Al-Sadiq (a.s):

The scholars are in consensus over attesting these of close companions of Abi Ja'far (a.s) and Abi Abdullah (a.s) and they affirm their knowledge in jurisprudence. They say: The most knowledgeable of the first group are the following six people:

Zurara, Ma'ruf ibn Kharbuz, Barid, Aboo Baseer Al-Asadi, Fudhayl ibn Yasaar and Muhammad ibn Muslim Al-Tahifi. They say: The most of knowledgeable among these is Zurara.

Some of them say: Aboo Baseer Al-Muradi instead of Aboo Baseer Al-Asadi and he is Layth ibn Al-Bakhtari.

The jurisprundent from among the companions of Abi Abdullah (a.s):

The scholars are in consensus about the authenticity of whatever is authentic up to them and they attest their sayings and affirm their knowledge in jurisprudence other than those six people of the above generation which were mentioned.

And these are: Jamil ibn Darraj, Abdullah ibn Muskan, Abdullah ibn Bukayr, Hammad ibn Isa, Hammad ibn Uthman and Aban ibn Uthman.

They say: Aboo Is'haq Al-Faqih Tha'laba ibn Maymoon says: "The most knowledgeable among these is Jamil ibn Darraj and they are all among the young companions of Abi Abdullah (a.s)."

The mention of jurisprudents among the companions of Abi Ibraheem Abil Hassan (a.s).

The scholars are in consensus about the authenticity of whatever is authentic up to them and they attest them and affirm their jurisprudence and knowledge. And they are the following six people, other than the ones who were mentioned among the companions of Abi Abdullah (a.s):

Yunus ibn Abdur Rahman, Safwan ibn Yahya Bayyaa Al-Sabiri, Muhammad ibn Abi UmayrAbdullah ibn Al-Mughira, Al-Hassan ibn Mahboub and Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Nasr.

Some of the scholars mention Al-Hassan ibn Alee ibn Fadhaal and Fadhala ibn Ayyoub instead of Al-Hassan ibn Mahboub. And the most knowledgeable of this group are Yunus ibn Abdur Rahman and Safwan ibn Yahya.

Source: Khatimatul Mustadrak. Vol. 7, Pg. # 7 - 9.



Attesting Aban ibn Abi Ayyash

Ibn Adi:

Aban ibn Abi Ayyash, the name of Abi Ayyash was Firuz or Dinar, and Aban is nicknamed Aba Isma'eel Al-Basri.

Narrated to us Khalid ibn Nadhr from Amr ibn Alee from Aban ibn Abi Ayyash, he is Aban ibn Firuz, servant of Anas, Mawla of the Abdul-Qays. In the narration of Khalid; he is Matrook Al-Hadeeth and he was a righteous man who was nicknamed Aba Isma'eel.

Narrated to us Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Shayb from Ahmad ibn Asad Aboo Ja'far from Shu'ayb ibn Harb who said: I heard Shu'ba saying: "Drinking the urine of a donkey is dearer to me than saying that Aban ibn Abi Ayyash has narrated to me."

Muhamamd ibn Ayyoub from Al-Hussain ibn Shu'ayb from Yazid ibn Harun who said: Shu'ba said: "Fornicating seventy times is dearer to me than narrating from Aban ibn Abi Ayyash."

Narrated to us from Al-Hassan ibn Sufyan from Abdul-Aziz ibn Salam from Rafi from Abdullah ibn Idrees who said: I heard Shu'ba saying: "If a person fornicates, it would be better for him than narrating from Aban."

Sheikh (i.e. ibn Adi) said: Aban Abi Ayyash has other narrations that I haven't mentioned, most of what he narrates has not been narrated by others. His weakness is obvious. However, I mentioned Al-Thawri, Ma'mar; ibn Jarij; Isma'eel and Hammad ibn Salama and others have narrated from him that I have not mentioned. I think he did not intend to lie, it is more likely that he has confused some narrations and mistaken. Most of it is because of the narrators from him, not he himself, because from Aban narrate a group of unknown people, who are weak. He is closer to weakness than truthfulness as Shu'ba has said.

Source: Al-Kamil Fi Dhu'afa. Vol. 2, Pg. # 57 / 67.


Al-Dhahabi:

Ibn Idrees and others have narrated from Shu'ba that he said: "If I fornicate it is better than narrating from Aban."

Hammad ibn Zayd narrated from Salm Al-Alawi who said: "I saw Aban ibn Abi Ayyash writing from Anas in the presence of Al-Sarraj in Subruja, then Salm said to me: 'O son, learn from Aban' then I mentioned this to Ayyoub Al-Sukhtiyani who said: 'We have always known him for goodness since he has been here.'"

Yazid ibn Harun said: Shu'ba said: "My house and my donkey shall be charity for poor people if Aban ibn Abi Ayyash is not lying in Hadeeth." I said: "Then why do you hear narrations from him?" He said: "Who can be patient in not listening to the owner of Hadeeth." i.e. His narration from Ibraheem from Al-Qama from Abdullah from his mother who said: "I saw the Messenger of Allah (saw) doing Qunut in Witr before going to Ruku" and Khallad ibn Yahya has narrated it from Al-Thawri from Aban. And Abdaan has narrated from his father from Shu'ba who said: "If it wasn't for the shame from people, I would have not prayed over Aban." 

Mu'aaz ibn Mu'aaz said: I said to Shu'ba: "Your degradation of Aban, is it due to something that has been proven to you or something else?" He said: "It is a conjecture that resembles certainty."

 Source: Mizan Al-I'tidal. Vol. 1, Pg. # 125 - 126.


Here we see that the attacks on Aban ibn Abi Ayyash originates from Shu'ba, who believed that it would be better and dearer to him to drink the urine of donkeys and to commit fornication seventy times rather than to narrate from Aban, yet he himself narrates from Aban and listens to his narrations!!! He then goes on to confess that his attacks on Aban are based on conjecture and adds that his conjecture resembles certainty!!! Here we find the term, 'oxymoron' fitting in nicely.

In effect, what Shu'ba is actually suggesting is that those who did narrate from Aban such as, Aboo Hanifa, Sufyan Al-Thawri, Ma'mar ibn Rashid, ibn Juraij and other prominent scholars of the so-called 'Ahl Al-Sunnah' is that they would have all been better off fornicating seventy times and drinking the urine of donkeys than narrating from Aban. 
Yes, we can agree with him that what he says is based on conjecture and most likely envy towards Aban, for Allah (swt) says: "Assuredly conjecture can by no means take the place of truth." Holy Qur'aan {10:36}


Let us now go on to examine who Shu'ba is, as it was he who initiated attacking Aban ibn Abi Ayyash while others followed suit.

Ibn Hajar:

Shu'ba ibn Hajjaj ibn Ward Al-Ataki, their servant, Aboo Bastam Al-Wasiti, Al-Basri: He was trustworthy and a trusted Hafidh, Al-Thawri used to say: He is commander of the faithful in Hadeeth and he is the first one who talked about Rijal in Iraq and defended the Sunnah. He was a worshiper from the seventh generation, he died in the year 160 A.H. the Jama'a (Al-Bukhari, Muslim and the four Sunan) have narrated from him.

Source: Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Pg. # 208.



Ahmad ibn Hanbal:

Narrated to me Muhammad ibn Abdullah from Aboo Dawood from Shu'ba who said: "Verily Al-Hakam narrated to us from Abdul Rahman ibn Abi Layli from Alee (a.s) he narrated things that if I narrate them to you, you will dance (i.e. Lataraqqastum), but by Allah (swt) I will never narrate them to you."

And narrated to us Mahmoud ibn Ghilan likewise, and he said instead: "You will become Rafidhi (i.e. Lataraffadhtum)."

Source: Ilal Wa Ma'rifatul Rijal. Pg. # 354.


It is obvious that the version narrated by Mahmoud ibn Ghilan, "You will become Rafidhi" is the correct one because "you will dance" as how Shu'ba narrates makes no sense in the context to what the hadeeth is directed towards. Why would it be that Alee (a.s) would narrate things to make others dance? It is clear to anyone who is sincere to themselves that Shu'ba was aware of things which he narrated from the great trustworthy Tabi'ee Abdur Rahman ibn Abi Layli who narrated from Alee (a.s) and that if people should hear those things then it would make them become Rafidhis and hence swears by Allah (swt) that he will never disclose those narrations. So who is it that we find hiding truth from the people?! This Shu'ba is he, who has become the Amir ul-Mo'mineen of Hadeeth among the so-called 'Ahl Al-Sunnah,' because he quite clearly used to conceal truth from people, defend their Sunnah, attack the Shi'a narrators and degrade them for revealing the truth! What ever happened to a narrator having to possess the characteristic of being 'trustworthy/honest' whilst considering authenticity of a hadeeth in the field of the 'Science of Hadeeth?'

Al-Mamaqani:

I say: Assertion about him(i.e. Aban Ibn Abi Ayyash) being weak is difficult, especially after someone like Sulaym ibn Qays passes over his book to him, and he calls him "O nephew." Anyone who checks the position of Sulaym ibn Qays, he will incline towards the opinion that the man (i.e. Aban) was a praiseworthy person who converted to Shi'a, and the attribution of the fabrication of the Book of Sulaym to him has no basis to it. If we add to this the statement of Sheikh Abi Alee in Al-Muntaha where he says: "I came to the conclusion that the origin of degrading him is through Mukhalifeen (i.e. the so-called 'Ahl Al-Sunnah'), because of him being Shi'a" which strengthens it. Allah (swt) knows best. Rather after the trustworthiness of Sulaym is established, as it will come later Insha'Allah, the trustworthiness of Aban will be proven too, due to him handing over his famous book to him. 

Source: Tanqih Al-Maqaal. Vol. 3, Pg. # 69 - 71.



Ibn Qutaybah:

And Abd Al-Qays was proud that Salih Al-Murri was one of his friends. And that Husan bin Abi Sinan Al-Qinnad was one of his friends. And that Aban bin Abi Ayyash, the faqeeh, was one of his friends.

Source: Al-Ma'arif. Pg. # 420 - 421.


 

Al-Dhahabi:

And Hamad bin Zayd said: Salm Al-Alawi narrated to us, he said: "I saw Aban bin Abi Ayyash writing something from Anas." Then Salm said to me: "My son, you have to narrate from Aban." So I mentioned that to Ayoob Al-Sakhtani, and he said: "We have known him to be good since the day he was." Ibn Hibban said: "Aban was one of the worshipers that spent his nights in prayer and his days by fasting."

Source: Mizan Al-I'tidal. Vol. 1, Pg. # 10 / 12, Person # 15.



Sheikh Al-Mamaqani:

As for Aban ibn Abi Ayyash: We have given preference to him being a praiseworthy Imami and his narrations as Hasan (Reliable) and Hasan is proof according to the famous opinion. So it became evident that the man (i.e. Sulaym) is praiseworthy and his book is authentic.

Source: Tanqih Al-Maqaal. Vol. 32, Pg. # 405.



Chains Of The Manuscripts Of The Book Of Sulaym


Sheikh Al-Zanjani Al-Khohini:


The number of the chains that end to the book of Sulaym:


For the book of Sulaym there are twenty one chains, that can be relied on, because the book has reached us through many ways that exceed twenty one chains. And that is that the existing chains in the beginning of the type "A" of the manuscripts of the book, that in itself consists of sixteen chains and the narrators of it in all generations are of the great scholars of the Shi'a, in addition to other chains that I will mention later, and the chains are the following in detail:


1 - 16: And these chains are mentioned in the beginning of the type "A" of the manuscripts in the following form:

The chains that connect to Al-Sheikh Al-Tusi are the following four chains:

1 -  Habbatullah from Al-Miqdadi from ibn Al-Sheikh from Al-Sheikh Al-Tusi.
2 - Al-Hassan ibn Habbatullah from ibn Al-Sheikh from Sheikh Al-Tusi.
3 - Ibn Al-Kaal from Al-Aridhi from ibn Sharyar Al-Khazin from Al-Sheikh Al-Tusi.
4 - Ibn Shahr Ashoub from his grandfather from Al-Sheikh Al-Tusi.

And the chains that connect Al-Sheikh Al-Tusi to Sulaym are four chains:

1 - Sheikh Al-Tusi from ibn Abi Jayyid from ibn Al-Walid and Majilawayh from Al-Sirafi from Hammad ibn Isa from Aban from Sulaym.

2 - Al-Ghazairi from Al-Tal'ukburi from Abi Alee ibn Homam from Al-Himyari from Ya'qoub ibn Yazid from ibn Abi Umayr from ibn Uzaina from Aban from Sulaym.

3 - Al-Ghazairi from Al-Tal'ukburi from Abi Alee ibn Homam from Al-Himyari from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Isa from ibn Abi Umayr from ibn Uzaina from Aban from Sulaym.

4 - Al-Ghazairi from Al-Tal'ukburi from Abi Alee ibn Homam from Al-Himyari from ibn Abil Khattab from ibn Abi Umayr from ibn Uzaina from Aban from Sulaym.

According to this from the multiplication of the four chains which end to Al-Sheikh Al-Tusi with the four chains that end from Sheikh Al-Tusi up to Sulaym, it will form sixteen chains and all of them are Saheeh (Authentic) and Reliable as will be mentioned.

17 - The chain that exists in the type "B" of the manuscripts of the book and they are Saheeh (Authentic) chains from the narrators of the Aamma (i.e. the so-called Sunnis), and this is the chain: "Muhammad ibn Sabih from Asama Al-Bukhari from Ahmad ibn Al-Mundhir from Abdur Razzaq from Ma'mar from Aban from Sulaym." And we will mention later that the intermediary person between Ma'mar and Aban is Umar ibn Uzaina where the manuscripts of the book will be analyzed.

18 - The chain that exists in the type "D" of the manuscripts of the book and in the head of some of the narrations of the type "B" of the manuscripts and it has been mentioned in Al-Dhari'a too by removing the head of it and this is the text of it: "Al-Hassan Al-Dinawari from Ibraheem ibn Umar from Abdur Razzaq from his father from Aban from Sulaym."

19 - The chain has been mentioned in Al-Dhari'a in the following form: "Ibraheem ibn Umar from Abdur Razzaq from Ma'mar from Aban from Sulaym."

20 - The chains that have been mentioned in the Fehrist of Al-Sheikh Al-Tusi and Al-Najashi and that consists of two chains, the first one is in this form: "Ibn Abi Jayyid from ibn Al-Walid from Majilawayh from Al-Sirafi from Hammad and Uthman ibn Isa from Aban from Sulaym" and the second one: "Ibn Abi Jayyid from ibn Al-Walid from Majilawayh from Al-Sirafi from Hammad from Ibraheem ibn Umar from Sulaym."

21 - The chain that has been mentioned in the book of Rijal Al-Kash'shi: "Muhammad ibn Al-Hassan from Al-Hassan ibn Alee from Is'haq ibn Ibraheem ibn Umar from ibn Uzaina from Aban from Sulaym."

Source: The Introduction of the Book of Sulaym. Pg. # 207 - 209.



Sheikh Al-Zanjani Al-Khohini:

[BISMILLAHIR RAHMANIR RAHEEM]

In The Name of Allah, The Most Beneficent, The Most Merciful

[Wa Sallallahu Ala Muhammad Wa Alahit Tayyabin Al-Muntakhabin]

And May Allah (swt) shower His blessings on the Holy Prophet (saw) and his holy progeny (a.s) who are pure and chosen ones.

Narrated the chief, the chaste, Abul Baqaa Habbatullah ibn Nama ibn Alee ibn Hamdoon, may Allah (swt) be pleased with him, in the form of Qara'a (i.e. dictating) in his house in the month of Hullat Al-Jami'een in Jamadi Al-Ulaa in the year 565 A.H. who said: Narrated to me Al-Sheikh, the trusted of scholars Aboo Abdullah Al-Hussain ibn Ahmad ibn Tahal Al-Miqdadi Al-Mujawir, in the form of Qara'a in the shrine of our master the Commander of the Faithful (a.s) in the year 520 A.H. He said: Narrated to us Al-Sheikh Al-Mufid Aboo Alee Al-Hassan ibn Muhammad Al-Tusi, may Allah (swt) be pleased with him, in the month of Rajab of the year 490 A.H.

And Narrated also Al-Sheikh the jurist Aboo Abdullah Al-Hassan ibn Habbatullah ibn Rutba from Al-Sheikh Al-Mufid Abi Alee from his father (i.e. Sheikh Al-Tusi), I heard him dictating in the shrine of our master the Martyred Grandson Abi Abdullah Al-Hussain ibn Alee (a.s) in the month of Muharram of the year 560 A.H.

And narrated Al-Sheikh Al-Muqri Aboo Abdullah Muhammad ibn Al-Kaal from the noble and eminent Sheikh Nadhaam Al-Sharaf Abil Hassan Al-Aridhi from ibn Sharyar Al-Khazin from Al-Sheikh Abi Ja'far Al-Tusi.

And narrated Al-Sheikh, the jurist, Aboo Abdullah Muhammad ibn Alee ibn Shar Ashoub, in the form of Qara'a in Hullat Al-Jami'een in the months of the year 567 A.H. from his grandfather Shar Ashoub from Al-Sheikh Al-Sa'eed Abi Ja'far Muhammad ibn Al-Hassan Al-Tusi, may Allah (swt) be pleased with him: Who said: Narrated to us ibn Abi Jayyid from Muhammad ibn Al-Hassan ibn Ahamd ibn Al-Walid and Muhammad ibn Abil Qasim, known as Majilawayh from Muhammad ibn Alee Al-Sirafi from Hammad ibn Isa from Aban ibn Abi Ayyash from Sulaym ibn Qays Al-Hilali.

He said: Al-Sheikh Aboo Ja'far (Al-Tusi) said: And narrated to us Aboo Abdullah Al-Hussain ibn Ubaydallah Al-Ghazairi who said: Narrated to us Aboo Muhammad Harun ibn Musa ibn Ahmad Al-Tal'ukburi, may Allah (swt) have mercy on him, who said: Narrated to us Aboo Alee ibn Homam ibn Suhayl who said: Narrated to us Abdullah ibn Ja'far Al-Himyari from Ya'qoub ibn Yazeed and Muhammad ibn Al-Hussain ibn Abil Khattab and Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Isa from Muhammad ibn Abi Umayr from Umar ibn Uzaina from Aban ibn Abi Ayyash from Sulaym ibn Qays Al-Hilali. 

Umar ibn Uzaina said: "I was called by Aban ibn Ayyash a month before he died and he told me that he saw a dream the night before that he was soon going to die. Then he saw me and he was pleased to see me, and the night after that he saw Sulaym ibn Qays Hilali in his dream. Sulaym said to Aban: "O Aban you are going to die in these days. Fear God as far as my amanat (that which is held in custody for safe keeping) is concerned, and you do not destroy it and what you promised to hide, fulfill it. And only give it to that person who loves Alee (a.s) and has religion and reputation."

Aban then said that when he saw me he was very pleased and remembered the dream that he had about Sulaym ibn Qays. He (Aban) said: "When Hajjaj ibn Yusuf came he asked for Sulaym ibn Qays. Sulaym ran away and he came to my house. I have not seen anyone except Sulaym who had such a concern for his reputation, and Sulaym always performed best deeds and feared God very much. He did not like to mingle with everybody, he preferred to remain isolated. He did not like to be famous and found publicity bad. I was 14 years at the time and had completed reciting Qur'aan. I used to question him and he used to tell me about Ahlulbayt (a.s).

I have heard a lot of ahadeeth from Sulaym which he narrated from Umar ibn Abi Salamah, who was the son of Janabe Umme Salamah, the lady who was one of the wives of the Holy Prophet (saw).

Sulaym also narrated to me ahadeeth from Ma'adh ibn Jabal (a companion of the Holy Prophet (saw), and also from Salman Farsi who narrated from Aboo Talib (a.s), and Aboo Dharr, Miqdad, Ammar, Bara ibn Adhib. Then Sulaym requested me to keep these ahadeeth to myself but he did not take an oath from me in this matter.

Then after a few days Sulaym passed away. He called me and, in private, he said to me: 'O Aban! I have spent a lot of time with you and I did not see anything in you which I did not like. I have some books that I have heard from authentic narrators and I have written them with my own hands. These books contain a lot of ahadeeth that I do not want you to let people know, because they will deny them and will be surprised, although they are all true
and that I have heard them from people who are trustworthy. Possess knowledge about Jurisprudence who do not tell lies and who do good deeds only and who have narrated from Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s) and Salman Farsi (r.a), Aboo Dharr Ghaffari (r.a), Miqdad ibn Aswad (r.a).

And when I heard a hadeeth from one person I also asked another person regarding the same hadeeth until all of them agreed the same to be true. Then I accepted the hadeeth. There are certain things that I have not heard from people who never lied, and when I fell ill, I thought I should burn them but fearing that to be a sin, I did not want to burn them. If you promise me and take an oath that you will not show it to anyone except those whom you believe to be as trustworthy as yourself. If you face an incident then you will give it to someone from the Shi'a of Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s) whom you trust and who is religious and reputable.'"

Aban continued: "I promised Sulaym, so Sulaym gave me everything and also read them all to me and after a few days Sulaym passed away. After Sulaym died, I read the ahadith and had confidence in them to be true and found them to be of the highest degree because they contained annihilation of the whole Ummah of the Holy Prophet (saw), be they from Muhajireen, Ansar or Tabi'een except Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s) and his Ahlulbayt (a.s) and their Shi'a.


Then I came to Basra and the first person that I met was Hassan ibn Abul Hassan Basari, who at the time was hiding from Hajjaj ibn Yusuf. Hassan ibn Abul Hassan Basari used to declare himself as one of the very devoted Shi'a of those times of Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s) and used to show regret that he could not participate and help Alee (a.s) in the Battle of Jamal, so I met him alone in the east part of the house of Aboo Khalifa Al-Hajjaj ibn Aboo Itab Ad-Delami and read the ahadeeth that Sulaym had given me. Hassan cried and said:

'Whatever is in these ahadeeth is true. I have myself heard them from the trustworthy Shi'a of Alee (a.s) and also from others.' I went for Hajj in that year, and after that I went to see Hadhrat Alee ibnul Hussain (a.s). At that time Aboo Tufayl Aamil ibn Waasila, a companion of the Holy Prophet (saw) was with him and Aboo Tufayl was amongst the best of companions of Alee (a.s). Umar ibn Abi Salamah, the son of Janabe Umme Salamah was also there. I presented these ahadeeth to him (Umar), Aboo Tufayl and Hadhrat Alee Ibnul Hussain (a.s) for three days and also, at night Umar and Aboo Tufayl used to come to Hadhrat Alee ibnul Hussains (a.s) house to listen.


I read for three days and also at night. So Hadhrat Alee (a.s) told me, 'Sulaym has said truth. These are all our ahadeeth which we know.' Aboo Tufayl and Umar ibn Abi Salamah said: 'We have heard these ahadeeth from Alee (a.s) O brother of Abul Qays, do you not know that the Holy Prophet (saw) has said: 'The example of my Ahlulbayt (a.s) in my Ummah is like the example of the boat of Noah (a.s) in his community. Those who embarked the boat were saved and those who refused drowned. And it is like the door of Hittah in Bani Israel.' I said: 'Yes, I know.' Alee ibn Hussain (a.s) asked: 'Who told you this hadeeth?' I replied: 'I have heard this hadeeth from more than 100 jurists.' Alee ibnul Hussain (a.s) asked: 'From which people?' I replied: 'From Hanash ibnil Mo'atamar, who said he had heard it from Aboo Dharr when Aboo Dharr was in Ka'ba and he was holding the chains of the door of Ka'ba and was loudly saying this hadeeth that he had heard from the Holy Prophet (saw).'

He asked: 'Who else did you hear it from?' I replied: 'From Hassan ibn Aboo Hassan Basri who had heard from Aboo Dharr, Miqdad and from Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s).' He asked: 'And who else from?' I replied: 'From Sa'eed ibnul Musayyib and Al-Qamah ibn Qays and Aboo Dhabiyan Al-Jambi, and Abdul Rahman ibn Abi Layla, and these were all in Hajj. They informed that they had heard from Aboo Dharr.'

Aboo Tufayl and Umar Abi Salamah said: 'By God, we have heard it from Aboo Dharr and Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s), Salman Farsi and Miqdad.' After that Umar Abi Salamah said: 'By God, I have heard it from some one who is better than all these. I have heard it from the Holy Prophet (saw) himself. My two ears heard it and my heart has remembered it.'"

Aban continued: "Alee ibnul Hussain (a.s) turned to me and asked: 'Does this one hadeeth not contain all those things that have frightened you, and with all these hadeeth there is a burden in your heart? O brother, fear God. If the matter is clear for you then accept it, otherwise keep quiet, you will be safe and leave its knowledge to Allah (swt), because then you will have broad space, a space which is between the sky and the earth.'" Aban said: "I asked him concerning all those matters about which I knew and about which I did not know. He replied to me what he wanted."

[Then Umar ibn Uzaina narrates what he has heard from Aboo Tufayl in his house about Raj'ah]

Umar ibn Uzaina said: Then Aban handed over the book of Sulaym ibn Qays Al-Hilali Al-Ameri and Aban did not live after that more than one month. This is the manuscript of the book of Sulaym ibn Qays Al-Ameri Al-Hilali that Aban ibn Abi Ayyash handed over to me and he recited it to me. And Aban mentioned that he has presented the book to Alee ibn Al-Hussain (a.s), he (a.s) said: "Sulaym has said the truth, these are our narrations, we know them."

Source: Kitab Sulaym ibn Qays. Pg. # 555 - 564.




Chains Of The Manuscript Of Allamah Al-Majlisi


The above manuscript belongs to Allamah Al-Majlisi that he has received it through his several Ijazaat from our scholars and ends up apparently to Sheikh Muhammad ibn Ja'far Al-Mash'hadi the author of the famous book Al-Mazaar Al-Kabir. He then narrates through four chains from Sheikh Al-Tusi and then Sheikh Al-Tusi narrates the book through four chains from Sulaym, which gives us a total of sixteen chains. Sheikh Al-Tusi gives however only two chains for the book in his Fehrist, this is not surprising because most of the time, he does not give all his chains in Al-Fehrist, the two chains in Al-Fehrist are through Muhammad ibn Alee Al-Sirafi from Hammad ibn Isa. Al-Sirafi is generally weak however in this case it does not matter, because there are several other chains from Hammad ibn Isa which makes the book Mustafidh (i.e. one degree lower than Tawatur) through him. We will Insha'Allah mention this fact when analyzing the chains to Hammad ibn Isa. The other chains all of them go through Muhammad ibn Abi Umayr and all of them are completely Saheeh (Authentic).



Chains 1 - 3:

2 - Umar ibn Uzaina:

Allamah Al-Hilli:

Umar ibn Muhammad ibn Abdur Rahman ibn Uzaina, the Sheikh of our Basri scholars and esteemed among them. He has narrated from Abi Abdullah (a.s) his letters and the book Al-Farahidh, He was trustworthy and authentic.

Al-Kash'shi says: Hamdawayh said: I heard my Sheikhs, among them Al-Ubaydi and others saying that ibn Uzaina was Kufi and he fled from Al-Mahdi (i.e. the Abbasid Caliph), he died in Yemen, that is why they have not narrated so much from him. It is said that his name was Muhammad ibn Umar ibn Uzaina, but he was called often by the name of his father. He was Kufi Mawla of Abdul Qays.

Source: Khulasatul Aqwaal. Pg. # 211.


3 - Muhammad ibn Abi Umayr:

Allamah Al-Hilli:

Muhammad ibn Abi Umayr, nichnamed Aba Ahmad, Mawla of Azd, from the Mawali of Al-Muhallab ibn Abi Sufra, it is also said: Mawla of of Bani Umayya, the first opinion is more authentic.

His origin was Baghdadi. He has met Abal Hassan Musa (a.s) and he has heard narrations from him, he (a.s) has nicknamed him in some of those narrations by "O Aba Ahmad," and he has narrated from Al-Ridha (a.s), he was owner of a high esteem and great position among us and the opponents.

Al-Kash'shi says: He was of those about who our scholars are in consensus that whatever is authentic up to them is considered authentic and they have confessed to him being knowledgeable and owner of jurisprudence.

Sheikh Al-Tusi says: He was of the most trustworthy people among us and Aammah (i.e. the so called Ahl As-Sunnah), and the most devout man among people and the most abstinent among them and the most devout person in worship, he has met three Imams: Aba Ibraheem Musa ibn Ja'far, he has not narrated from him and he has narrated from Abil Hassan Al-Ridha (a.s).

Aboo Umar Al-Kash'shi says: Muhammad ibn Mas'oud narrated from Alee ibn Al-Hassan who said: Ibn Abi Umayr was more knowledgeable than Yunus ibn Abdur Rahman and more pious and superior. He has a story that we have mentioned in the large book, he died in the year 217 A.H., may Allah (swt) bless his soul.

Source: Khulasatul Aqwaal. Pg. # 239 - 240.


Allamah Al-Majlisi:

Muhammad ibn Abi Umayr Al-Azdi, he is trustworthy and the scholars have consensus about the authenticity of his narrations and even his Marasil (i.e. disconnected chains) are counted as Masanid (i.e. connected chains). 

[Sayyed Al-Khoei: He is trustworthy and Imami].

Source: Rijal Al-Majlisi. Pg. # 289.


4 - Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Isa:

Allamah Al-Hilli:

Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Isa ibn Abdullah ibn Sa'd ibn Malik ibn Al-Ahwas ibn Al-Sahib ibn Malik ibn Amer Al-Ash'ari, from Bani Zukhraan ibn Awf ibn Al-Jamaher ibn Al-Ash'ath, nicknamed Aba Ja'far Al-Qummi, he was the first one of the descendants of Sa'd ibn Malik ibn Al-Ahwas who resided in Qom.

Aboo Ja'far was Sheikh of Qom and esteemed among them and their jurisprudent, he was of the highest position among them. He was also their chief whom the governor used to visit. He has met Abal Hassan Al-Ridha (a.s) and Aba Ja'far the second (a.s) and Abal Al-Hassan Al-Askari (a.s), he was trustworthy, and he has books that we have mentioned in our large book.  

Source: Khulasatul Aqwaal. Pg. # 61 - 62.


5 - Abdullah ibn Ja'far Al-Himyari:

Allamah Al-Hilli:

Abdullah ibn Ja'far ibn Al-Hussain ibn Malik ibn Jame Al-Himyari, Abul Abbas Al-Qummi.
Sheikh of the scholars of Qom and esteemed among them. He came to Kufa after the year 290 A.H. He was trustworthy of the companions Abi Muhammad Al-Askari (a.s).

Source: Khulasatul Aqwaal. Pg. # 193 - 194.


6 - Muhammad ibn Homam ibn Suhayl:

Allamah Al-Hilli:

Muhammad ibn Homam ibn Suhayl, Homam was nicknamed Aba Bakr, and Muhammad was nicknamed Aba Alee Al-Baghdadi, he was the writer of Al-Iskafi. He was Sheikh of our scholars and prominent among them. He has a great postion, he has narrated many narrations. He was the owner of high esteem and was trustworthy.

Aboo Muhammad Harun ibn Musa said: Aboo Alee Muhammad ibn Homam said: My father wrote to Abi Muhammad Al-Hassan Al-Askari (a.s) and informed him that his children miscarry and told him that his wife is pregnant and asked him to pray for this baby and its health and that Allah (swt) make him a noble son of their followers. So he (a.s) wrote with his hand that he prayed, so the fetus remained healthy. Harun ibn Musa said: Aboo Alee ibn Homam showed me the letter and the handwriting and it was correct.

Aboo Alee ibn Homam died on the Thursday 11th of the month Jamadi Al-Akhira of the year 336 A.H. He was born on the Monday the 24th of Dhil Hijjah of the year 258 A.H.

Source: Khulasatul Aqwaal. Pg. # 246 - 247.


7 - Harun ibn Musa Al-Tal'ukburi:

Allamah Al-Hilli:

Harun ibn Musa ibn Ahmad ibn Sa'eed ibn Sa'eed, of Bani Shayban, Al-Tal'ukburi, nicknamed Aba Muhammad. Owner of high esteem and great position. Owner of too many narrations, matchless, trustworthy, esteemed among our scholars, trusted upon, there is no critic against him in anything. He died in the year 385 A.H. May Allah (swt) bless his soul.

Source: Khulasatul Aqwaal. Pg. # 290.


8 - Al-Hussain ibn Ubaydallah Al-Ghazairi:

Allamah Al-Hilli:

Al-Hussain ibn Ubaydallah ibn Ibraheem Al-Ghazairi, nicknamed Aba Abdullah, he has heard too many narrations. He was knowledgeable about Rijal, he has written books that we have mentioned in our large book. Sheikh Al-Tusi, Allah (swt) bless him, has heard from him and received permission of narrating all his narrations, he died in the mid Safar of the year 411 A.H. and he has also allowed Al-Najashi to narrate his narrations.

Source: Khulasatul Aqwaal. Pg. # 116.


Allamah Al-Majlisi:

Al-Hussain ibn Ubaydallah Al-Ghazairi, he was of the Sheikhs of Ijaza (i.e. intermediary Sheikhs of narrating the books), and Ibn Tawoos has authenticated him. 

[Sayyed Al-Khoei: He is trustworthy and Imami. ]

Source: Rijal Al-Majlisi. Pg. # 195.


9 - Sheikh Al-Tusi:

Sheikh Al-Najashi:

Muhammad ibn Al-Hassan ibn Alee Al-Tusi, Aboo Ja'far, He is one of our great scholars, trustworthy, owner of high esteem, he is one of the students of our Sheikh Abi Abdullah (Al-Mufid).

He has books, among them: Tahdheeb Al-Ahkaam and that is a large book, Al-Istibsaar, Al-Nihaya, Al-Mufassah Fi Imamah, Ma La Yasa Al-Mukallaf Al-Ikhlaal Bihi, Al-Udda Fi Usool Al-Fiqh, Book of Rijal who have narrated from the Prophet (saw) and A'immah (a.s) and book of Fehrist of the books of Shi'a and the names of the authors. Book of Al-Mabsut Fil Fiqh, Muqaddamatun Fil Madkhal Ilaa Ilm Al-Kalaam, Al-Ijaaz Fil Farahidh, Mas'alatun Fil Amal Bil Khabar Al-Wahid, book of Ma Yu'allal Wa Ma Laa Ya'allal, book of Al-Jumal Wal Uqood, book of Talkhis Al-Shafi Fil Imamah, Mas'alatun Fil Ahwaal, Al-Tibyan Fil Tafseer Al-Qur'an, Sharh Al-Muqaddima and that is Riyaadh Al-Uqool, book of Tamhid Al-Usool and that is the Sharh Jumal Al-Ilm Wal Amal, Mas'alatun…

Source: Rijal Al-Najashi. Pg. # 385, Person # 1068.

                    
10 - Muhammad ibn Al-Hussain ibn Abil Khattab:

Allamah Al-Hilli:

Muhammad ibn Al-Hussain ibn Abil Khattab, the name of Abal Khattab was Zayd, Muhammad was nicknamed Abi Ja'far Al-Zayyaat Al-Hamdani. He was one of our respectable scholars, owner of high position. He has narrated many narrations. He was trustworthy and of high esteem. He has written good books,  his narrations are very useful. He has written books that we have mentioned in our large book, he was of the companions of Al-Jawad (a.s).

Source: Khulasatul Aqwaal. Pg. # 240 - 241.


11 - Ya'qoub ibn Yazid:

Allamah Al-Hilli:

Ya'qoub ibn Yazid ibn Hammad Al-Anbari Al-Salmi, Aboo Yusuf Al-Katib in the book Al-Muntasir.

Al-Kash'shi narrates from ibn Mas'oud from Al-Hassan ibn Alee ibn Fadhaal that he was a writer of Abi Dalf Al-Qasim.

Ya'qoub was of the companions of Al-Ridha (a.s) and Ya'qoub has narrated from Abi Ja'far the second (a.s) and he moved to Baghdad, he was trustworthy and truthful and his father Ya'qoub ibn Yaqteen was of the companions of Al-Ridha (a.s) also trustworthy.

Source: Khulasatul Aqwaal. Pg. # 298.



Chain # 4:

12 - Ibraheem ibn Umar Al-Yamani:

Sheikh Al-Najashi:

Ibraheem ibn Umar Al-Yamani Al-San'ani, Sheikh of our scholars, he was trustworthy. He has narrated from Abi Ja'far (a.s) and Abi Abdullah (a.s) Abul Abbas and others have said it.

He has a book that Hammad ibn Isa and others have narrated it from him; narrated his book to us Muhammad ibn Uthman from Abul Qasim Ja'far ibn Muhammad from Ubaydallah ibn Ahmad ibn Nahyak from ibn Abi Umayr from Hammad ibn Isa from Ibraheem ibn Umar.

Source: Rijal Al-Najashi. Pg. # 22.


13 - Hammad ibn Isa:

Allamah Al-Hilli:

Hammad ibn Isa, Aboo Muhammad Al-Juhani Al-Basri, Mawla, it is said that he was Arabi, his origin was Kufa and he resided in Al-Basra. He was very careful in narrating Hadeeth. He has narrated from Abi Abdullah (a.s) twenty narrations and from Abil Hassan (a.s) and Al-Ridha (a.s) and he died in the lifetime of Abi Ja'far the second (a.s) and he has not memorized Hadeeth from him. His narrations are from Al-Ridha (a.s), not from Abi Ja'far (a.s).

He was trustworthy in his narrations and truthful. He says: I heard from Abi Abdullah (a.s) seventy narrations, but then I doubted about the wordings of some of them, then I decreased the number to twenty from all of them (that I was sure about). Aboo Abdullah (a.s) prayed for him to do fifty Hajj, so he did fifty Hajj. He drowned after that and died in the year 209 A.H. It is also said: In the year 208 A.H.

He was of the Juhayna and he died in the valley of river in Madinah, which a valley that floods through branches to Madinah and he drowned in Juhfa at the age of higher than ninety, may Allah (swt) bless his soul. Al-Kash'shi says: The scholars are in consensus about the authenticity of what is authentic up to him and they confess that he was knowledgeable in jurisprudence among some others.

Source: Khulasatul Aqwaal. Pg. # 124 - 125.


14 - Muhammad ibn Alee Al-Sirafi:

Muhammad ibn Alee Al-Sirafi, nicknamed Aba Samina is a narrator and author who has been accused of Ghuluw (exaggerator) and has been weakened by some scholars. However, some new investigations of some scholars in Rijal believe that the accusations of Ghuluw on him are not relevant, rather his narrations are a sign of his sound beliefs and in brief he is trusted and praiseworthy.

Sheikh Al-Mahuzi:

The summary of the discussion about the condition of Aba Samina is that he is of the great scholars and the critic of Fadhl ibn Shazaan and Al-Najashi and others about him do not harm his own self and his status of being upright, rather the accusation of Ghuluw is actually a sign of his high, sound beliefs, it is actually a praise for him, not a dispraise.

Source: Fawahid Rijaliyyah. Pg. # 180.


In any case, existence of Al-Sirafi does not harm the chain of the book, because the chains for the book of Sulaym are Mustafidh from Hammad ibn Isa that Al-Sirafi also narrated as it is shown in the chart of the narrators of the Book at the beginning of the article.

15 - Muhammad ibn Abil Qasim Majilawayh:

Allamah Al-Majlisi:

Muhammad ibn Abil Qasim Ubaydallah ibn Imran, his title is Majilawayh. He was trustworthy.

[Sayyed Al-Khoei: He is trustworthy and Imami.]

Source: Rijal Al-Majlisi. Pg. # 289.



16 - Muhammad ibn Al-Hassan ibn Al-Walid:

Allamah Al-Hilli:

Muhammad ibn Al-Hassan ibn Ahmad ibn Al-Walid, Aboo Ja'far, Sheikh of Qom and their jurisprudent and prominent and owner of high esteem among them. It is said that he moved to Qom, he was not originally from Qom. He is highly trustworthy, owner of high position, his narrations are acted upon. Owner of high position, knowledgeable in Rijal, he was trusted upon. He narrates from Al-Saffar and Sa'd ibn Abdullah and Al-Tal'ukburi narrates from him, it is said that he has not met him, he has received the permission of narrating all his narrations through his companion Ja'far ibn Al-Hassan Al-Mumin.

Source: Khulasatul Aqwaal. Pg. # 247 - 248.


17 - Ibn Abi Jayyed:

Sayyed Al-Khoei:

Alee ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Jayyed: He is trustworthy, because he is of the Sheikhs of Al-Najashi, he has been mentioned before.

Source: Mu'jam Rijal Al-Hadeeth. Vol. 12, Pg. # 277, Person # 7912.


Sheikh Al-Noori Al-Tabarsi:

Alee ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Jayyed: Of the Sheikhs of Sheikh Al-Tusi and Al-Najashi, we have clarified his trustworthiness before.

Source: Khatimatul Mustadrak. Vol. 8, Pg. # 210, Person # 1814.


18 - Aboo Alee ibn Sheikh Al-Tusi:

Sayyed Al-Khoei:

Al-Hassan ibn Muhammad ibn Al-Hassan, Al-Hassan ibn Al-Sheikh; Sheikh Muntajabuddin says in his Fehrist: "The Eminent Sheikh Aboo Alee, Al-Hassan son of the Eminent Sheikh, the blessed Muhammad ibn Al-Hassan Al-Tusi; he was a jurisprudent and trustworthy and owner of high esteem, he has heard from his father all of his writings, our father narrated from him, may Allah (swt) bless his soul."

Sheikh Al-Hurr says in Tadhkiratul Mutabahireen: "He was a scholar, meritorious, jurisprudent, scholar of Hadeeth, owner of high position and trustworthy. He has books, among them are: Al-Amali, and Sharh Al-Nihaya and other books." Ibn Shahr Ashoub says in Ma'alim Al-Ulama: "He has written the book Al-Murshid Ilaa Sabil Al-Ta'abbud."

Source: Mu'jam Rijal Al-Hadeeth. Vol. 6, Pg. # 123, Person # 3103.



19 - Al-Hussain ibn Ahmad ibn Tahaal:

Sayyed Al-Khoei:

Al-Hussain ibn Muhammad ibn Al-Tahaal; Al-Hussain ibn Al-Tahaal; Sheikh Muntajabuddin says in his Fehrist: "Sheikh Aboo Abdullah Al-Hussain ibn Ahmad ibn Al-Tahaal Al-Miqdadi, he was a righteous jurisprudent, he has studied under Sheikh Abi Alee Al-Tusi." Sheikh Al-Hurr says in Tadhkiratul Mutabahireen: "He was a great scholar, ibn Shahr Ashoub narrates from him."

Source: Mu'jam Rijal Al-Hadeeth. Vol. 6, Pg. # 209, Person # 3298.


20 - Habbatullah ibn Nama:

Sayyed Al-Khoei:

Habbatullah ibn Nama; Sheikh Al-Hurr says in Tadhkiratul Mutabahireen: "Sheikh Abul Baqa Habbatullah ibn Nama Al-Hilli: He was a great and righteous scholar, his son Ja'far narrates from him."

Source: Mu'jam Rijal Al-Hadeeth. Vol. 20, Pg. # 278, Person # 13327.



21 - Al-Hassan ibn Habbatullah ibn Ratbah:

Sayyed Al-Khoei:

Al-Hassan ibn Habbatullah: Sheikh Al-Hurr says in Tadhkiratul Mutabahireen: "Sheikh Jamaluddin Al-Hassan ibn Habbatullah ibn Ratbah Al-Surari; he was a great jurisprudent and a devout worshipper. Ibn Idrees narrates from him, he has written some books."

Source: Mu'jam Rijal Al-Hadeeth. Vol. 6, Pg. # 167, Person # 3197.



22 - Ibn Shahryaar Al-Khazin:

Sayyed Al-Khoei:

Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Shahryaar: Sheikh Muntajabuddin says in his Fehrist: "Sheikh Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Shahryaar Al-Khazin in the shrine of Imam Hussain (a.s): He was a righteous jurisprudent."

Source: Mu'jam Rijal Al-Hadeeth. Vol. 15, Pg. # 350, Person # 10129.


23 - Abil Hassan Al-Aridhi:

Sayyed Al-Khoei:

Alee ibn Al-Aridhi: Sheikh Al-Hurr says in Tadhkiratul Mutabahireen: "Sheikh Majduddin Alee ibn Al-Aridhi: He was a great and righteous scholar, ibn Shahr Ashoub narrates from him."

Source: Mu'jam Rijal Al-Hadeeth. Vol. 13, Pg. # 99, Person # 8325.


24 - Muhammad ibn Kaal:

Sayyed Al-Khoei:

Muhammad ibn Harun, his father is known as Al-Kaal: Sheikh Al-Hurr says in Tadhkiratul Mutabahireen: "Sheikh Aboo Abdullah Muhammad ibn Harun, his father is known as Al-Kaal: He was a great, noble and righteous jurisprudent. He has books, among them are: Mukhtasar Al-Tibyan Fi Tafsir Al-Qur'aan, and book of Mutashabeh Al-Qur'aan and book of Al-Lahn Al-Khafi Wal Lahn Al-Jali and other than that."

Source: Mu'jam Rijal Al-Hadeeth. Vol. 18, Pg. # 337, Person # 11974.


25 - Shahr Ashoub:

Sayyed Al-Khoei:

Shahr Ashoub Al-Mazandarani: Sheikh Al-Hurr says in Tadhkiratul Mutabahireen: "Sheikh Shahr Ashoub Al-Mazandarani, he was a great scholar of Hadeeth, his son Alee and his grandson Muhammad ibn Alee narrate from him as he mentions in his book Al-Manaqib."


Source: Mu'jam Rijal Al-Hadeeth. Vol. 10, Pg. # 50, Person # 5769.







26 - Muhammad ibn Alee ibn Shahr Ashoub:

Sayyed Al-Khoei:

Muhammad ibn Alee ibn Shahr Ashoub: Sayyed Al-Tafrishi says in Al-Naqd: "Muhammad ibn Alee ibn Shahr Ashoub Al-Mazandarani, Rashiduddin: Sheikh of this creed and its jurisprudent, he was also a poet, he was eloquent and an originator. Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Zuhra has narrated from him and he has narrated from Muhammad and Alee the two sons of Abdul Samad. He has books, among them are: Book of Rijal, Ansaab Aal ibn Talib."

Sheikh Al-Hurr says in Tadhkiratul Mutabahireen: "Sheikh Rashiduddin Muhammad ibn Alee ibn Shahr Ashoub Al-Mazandarani Al-Sarawi: He was a great, trustworthy and knowledgeable scholar of Hadeeth. He was knowledgeable in Rijal and narrations, he was a writer and poet, and skillful in many fields, he has written books, among them: …"

Source: Mu'jam Rijal Al-Hadeeth. Vol. 17, Pg. # 354, Person # 11332.


27 - Muhammad ibn Ja'far Al-Mash'hadi:

Sayyed Al-Khoei:

Muhammad ibn Ja'far Al-Mash'hadi: Sheikh Al-Hurr says in Tadhkiratul Mutabahireen: "Sheikh Muhammad ibn Ja'far Al-Mash'hadi: He was a great and truthful scholar of Hadeeth. He was written books, he narrates from Shazaan ibn Jibra'eel Al-Qummi."

Source: Mu'jam Rijal Al-Hadeeth. Vol. 16, Pg. # 188, Person # 10434.


28 - Ijazaat:

The Ijazaat of Allamah Al-Majlisi are the permissions of narrations and the books that he has received through his teachers and Sheikhs from their teachers and so on up to Sheikh Al-Tusi and other scholars. He has too many chains that are famous and Mutawaatir that he has mentioned them in his book Bihar Al-Anwar, Vol. # 107, and we do not need to mention them here, first of all because they are too many and second because he has received all other books also through those chains and they are Mutawaatir.


29 - Allamah Al-Majlisi:

Sayyed Al-Khoei:

Muhammad Baqir ibn Muhammad Taqi: Sheikh Al-Hurr says in Tadhkiratul Mutabahireen: "Our great master Muhammad Baqir son of our master Muhammad Taqi Al-Majlisi: He is a scholar, a scrutinizer analyst, a very knowledgeable person and intelligent, jurisprudent, theologian, scholar of Hadeeth, very very trustworthy, all goodness and merits are collected in him, he is of high position and great esteem, may Allah (swt) prolong his life."

He has written many books, among them: The book Bihar Al-Anwar Fi Akhbar Al-A'immah Al-At'haar, he has collected in it all the books of Hadeeth, except the four major books and Nahjul Balagha, he narrates from these books very little, it has a good structure with the explanation of the difficult parts. It is 25 volumes. He has written also the book of Jala Al-Uyoon, Hayatul Qulub, Ain Al-Hayaat and Mishkaat Al-Anwar Fi Fadhl Qara'at Al-Qur'aan in Farsi, Hilyatul Muttaqeen, Tohfatuz Zahir, Malaaz Al-Akhyaar Fi Sharh Tahdheeb Al-Akhbaar, Mir'atul Uqool Fi Sharh Al-Kafi, Al-Fawahid Al-Tariqa Fi Sharh Al-Sahifa Al-Sharifa and Sharh Rawdhatul Kafi, Risalatun Fil Maqadir, Risalatun Fi Rijal, Risalatun Fi E'tiqadaat, Risalatun Fi Manasik Al-Haaj, Risalatun Fi Al-Sahw Wash Shak and other books, he is of the contemporary scholars, we narrated all his books and others writing with his permission (i.e. Ijaza).

Source: Mu'jam Rijal Al-Hadeeth. Vol. 15, Pg. # 221, Person # 9940.



Attestation Of Scholars For The Book of Sulaym



Sheikh Al-Zanjani Al-Khohini: 

The statements of the scholars about the book:


We have quoted the statements of the scholars by the order of their death:


1 - Umar ibn Abi Salama son of Umm Salama (r.a) who died in the year 83 A.H. He was a companion of the Messenger of Allah (saw) and he is one of those to whom the book of Sulaym was presented and also Abul Tufayl in the presence of Imam Al-Sajjad (a.s): He says about the book: "There is no Hadeeth in it, unless that I have heard it from Alee (a.s) and from Salman and from Abi Dharr and from Al-Miqdad." [Beginning of the book of Sulaym. Pg. # 560]

2 - Abul Tufayl Amer ibn Wathila Al-Kanani who died in the year 100 A.H. And he is a companion of the Messenger of Allah (saw) and he was of the noble companions of Alee (a.s) too: He says after reading the book entirely and knowing its content: "There is no Hadeeth in it, unless that I have heard it from Alee (a.s) and from Salman and from Abi Dharr and from Al-Miqdad." [Beginning of the book of Sulaym. Pg. # 560]


3 - The famous historian Abul Hassan Alee ibn Al-Hussain Al-Mas'oudi who died in the year 346 A.H.: He says in his book Al-Tanbih Wal Ishraaf: "Of those who limit the number of Imams are the Twelvers, whose source of limiting the number of Imams is what Sulaym ibn Qays Al-Hilali has mentioned in his book." [Al-Tanbih Wal Ishraaf. Pg. # 198]


I say: He points to the fact that the Book of Sulaym is the first book that contains the limitation of the numbers of Imams (a.s) in twelve and that is why it is known to be exclusive to Shi'a Al-Imamiyyah.

4 - The scholar Muhammad ibn Is'haq, known as ibn Nadim who died in the year 380 A.H. And he is the person whom Sheikh Al-Tusi and Al-Najashi have trusted in their books of Rijal: He says in his Al-Fehrist: "And the first book that appeared among Shi'a was the book of Sulaym ibn Qays Al-Hilali, …and that is the famous Book of Sulaym ibn Qays." [Al-Fehrist of ibn Nadim. Pg. # 275]


I say: His statement points to the fact that his book was famous in those ages, as the statement of ibn Al-Ghazairi points to this fact too, where he says: "And this famous book is attributed to him." [Khulasatul Aqwal. Pg. # 83]


5 - The Eminent Sheikh Abul Abbas Ahmad ibn Alee ibn Al-Abbas Al-Najashi who died in the year 450 A.H. He says in his book of Al-Fehrist: "Here I mention our righteous early scholars who have written books and they are a few…" and then he counts the first generation and one of them is Sulaym, he says: "Sulaym ibn Qays Al-Hilali, he has a book, he was nicknamed Aba Sadiq, narrated to me Alee ibn Ahmad…" [Al-Fehrist that is known as Rijal of Al-Najashi. Pg. # 6] until the end of his chain that we will mention in the chapter 8. [Pg. # 209 of the Introduction of the book of Sulaym]


6 - Sheikh Al-Ta'ifah (i.e. Sheikh of this creed) Aboo Ja'far Muhammad ibn Al-Hassan Al-Tusi who died in the year 460 A.H. He says in his Al-Fehrist: "Sulaym ibn Qays Al-Hilali, nicknamed Aba Sadiq, he has a book that narrated to us ibn Abi Jayyid…" [Al-Fehrist of Al-Tusi, Pg. 81 # 336] until the end of his chain that we will mention in the chapter 8. [Pg. # 209 of the Introduction of the book of Sulaym]


I say: the statements of the two Sheikhs, Al-Najashi and Al-Tusi emphasizes upon the correctness of the attribution of the book to its author and the way that the book ended in their hands. Specially the statement of Al-Najashi who counts him among the righteous early authors.


7 - The Eminent Sheikh Aboo Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ibraheem Al-Nu'mani who died in the year 462 A.H. (He actually died before Sheikh Al-Sadooq in the year 360 A.H. We have mentioned him at the beginning and his book Al-Ghaybah) and he was of the Sheikhs of Ijaza: He says in his book of Al-Ghaybah: "There is no dispute among the Shi'a that the book of Sulaym bin Qays Al-Hilali is considered as one of the biggest books of Usool of the doctrine of the Shi'a that has been narrated by scholars and the carriers of the narrations of Ahlulbayt (a.s) and the oldest of those Usool. All that is mentioned in the book has been narrated from the Prophet (saw), Imam Alee (a.s), Al-Miqdad (r.a), Salman Al-Farsi (r.a), Aboo Dharr (r.a) and their likes, who have accompanied the Prophet (saw) and Amir ul Mo'mineen (a.s). It is one of the original sources (i.e. Usool) that the Shi'a have depended on and referred to." [Al-Ghaybah of Al-Nu'mani. Pg. # 61]


I say: The statement of this Eminent scholar of Hadeeth emphasizes on the fact that there is no dispute in the great position of the book among all Shi'a traditionalists in those early ages that was near to the time of A'immah (a.s). His statement entails that whatever that book contains is from the Messenger of Allah (saw) and his successors (a.s) and their close companions, and at the end he insists that the book in his time was counted as a source for Shi'a and one of the sources that they used to refer to. And one knows the historical value of the testimony of this Sheikh in the firm ideology of the Shi'a creed.


8 - The famous Hafiz Muhammad ibn Shahr Ashoub Al-Mazandarani who died in the year 588 A.H. He says in his book Ma'aalim Al-Ulama: "Sulaym ibn Qays Al-Hilali the owner of narrations and he has a book." [Ma'aalim Al-Ulama. Pg. # 58 # 390]


9 - The Eminent scholar Al-Sayyed Jamaluddin Ahmad ibn Musa Aal Tawoos who died in the year 677 A.H. He says in his book Hall Al-Ishkaal in what quotes him the author of Al-Ma'aalim in Tahrir Al-Tawoosi: "The book itself attests to his great personality and the authenticity of his book." [Al-Tahrir Al-Tawoosi, Pg. # 136. #. 175 and also Tanqih Al-Maqaal. Vol. 2, Pg. # 52]


10 - Allamah Al-Mohaqqiq Al-Mawla Muhammad Taqi Al-Majlisi who died in the year 1070 A.H. He says in his book Rawdhatul Muttaqeen: "The two great Sheikhs have testified to the authenticity of his book, even though the content of the book in itself is a proof for its authenticity." [Rawdhatul Muttaqeen. Vol. 14, Pg. # 372]


And it has been reported from him too: "It is enough for its authenticity that the two truthful Sheikhs, Al-Kulayni and Al-Sadooq ibn Babawayh have trusted this book…and this Asl is with me and its content is a proof for its authenticity." [Tanqih Al-Maqaal. Vol. 2 Pg. # 53] 


I say: The finesse and elegance of this statement is not hidden to anyone and that is that a Shi'a scholar who is well educated about his religion, when he looks in the content of the book, it would suffice him to become certain about its authenticity.


11 - The great scholar of Hadeeth Al-Sheikh Muhammad ibn Al-Hassan Al-Hurr Al-Amili who died in the year 1104 A.H. He says in his book Wasa'il Al-Shia: "The fourth point in mentioning the reliable books that I have narrated from them the narrations of this collection and their authors and others have testified to their authenticity and other evidences point to their correctness and their Tawatur from their authors, or the authenticity of their attribution to their authors is known in a manner that remains no doubt about it, like the existence of the their manuscripts by the hand write of great scholars and the frequent mentioning of those books in their books and their testimony for the correctness of their attribution to their authors and the matching of their content with the narrations of other reliable books, or their narration through a single chain, but supported with other evidences and so on…" Then he mentions those books until he says: "And the book of Sulaym ibn Qays Al-Hilali." [Wasa'il Al-Shi'a. Vol. 20, Pg. # 36 & 42]


12 - Al-Allamah Al-Mohaqqiq Al-Sayyed Mustafa Al-Tafrishi from the scholars of the eleventh century: He says in the margin of his book Naqd Al-Rijal: "And the truth is evident in the content of the narrations of this book from its beginning to the end." [Naqd Al-Rijal. Pg. # 159]


13 - The learned scholar of Hadeeth Al-Sayyed Hashim Al-Bahrani who died in the year 1107 A.H. He says in his book Ghayatul Maram: "And it (i.e. the Book of Sulaym) is a famous and reliable book that the scholars have narrated from it in their books." [Ghayatul Maram. Pg. # 546 of the chapter 54 of the Merits of Amir ul-Mo'mineen (a.s)]


14 - Al-Allamah Al-Hujja Al-Mawla Muhammad Baqir Al-Majlisi who died in the year 1111 A.H: He has narrated the entire book of Sulaym in different volumes of his book Bihar Al-Anwar and he has counted the book among his sources at the introduction of his book Al-Bihar and says: "The Book of Sulaym ibn Qays Al-Hilali is extensively famous… and it is truly of the reliable Usool." And his student Al-Allamah Al-Sheikh Abdullah Al-Bahrani says the same in Awalim Al-Uloom. [Bihar Al-Anwar. Vol. 1, Pg. # 32 and Awalim Al-Uloom. Vol. 1, Pg. # 17]


He says in another position: "…The book is famous among the scholars of Hadeeth, Al-Kulayni and Al-Sadooq and other early scholars have trusted the book, and most of its narrations match with other narrations that have been narrated through Saheeh (Authentic) chains in reliable Usool." And Al-Sheikh Yusuf Al-Bahrani says the same in Al-Durar Al-Najafiyya. [Bihar Al-Anwar, Vol. 8 Pg. 198 and Al-Durar Al-Najafiyya, Pg. 281]


I say: For a learned person it is enough when the likes of Al-Sheikh Al-Hurr, Al-Sayyed Al-Bahrani, Al-Allamah Al-Majlisi and the two Bahrani Sheikhs say about the book of Sulaym, no one can inform us better than someone who is learned in the field.


15 - The learned Mohaqqiq Al-Mawla Haydar Alee Al-Shirawani (nephew of Allamah Al-Majlisi): He says at the end of Risalat called, "A Rislala about the method of extracting rulings from the sources during the time of Occultation." He says in it: "This way the authenticity of the Book of Sulaym ibn Qays Al-Hilali is known, because it has been narrated through several Hasan and Saheeh (Good and Authentic) chains from the trustworthy and significant companions of A'immah (a.s) like Umar ibn Uzaina and…the narrations are many in different topics and about very key issues, so how can those narrations be hidden from the A'immah (a.s) and that they have turned a blind eye to those narrations and did not prohibit those narrations and did not prohibit narrating it and the belief in its authenticity." [The end of the Manuscript of the Risala in the library of Sheikh Haydar in Qom.]


16 - Al-Allamah Al-Mohaqqiq Al-Mir Hamed Hussain Al-Kanhuhi Al-Hindi: He says in his book Abaqaat Al-Anwar, the Arabic translation of it is: "The Book of Sulaym ibn Qays, what we can say about it is that it is the oldest and superior to all books of Hadeeth of Al-Imamiyyah, as Al-Majlisi has confessed to it in the volume of Al-Fitan of his book Bihar." [Abaqaat Al-Anwar. Vol. 2, Pg. # 61]


And he says in Istiqsaa Al-Ifhaam: "Most of the narrations of the book of Sulaym are supported by other Saheeh (Authentic) and reliable narrations." [Istiqsaa Al-Ifhaam. Vol. 1, Pg. # 579]


17 - The learned Allamah Al-Sayyed Muhammad Baqir Al-Khwansari who died in the year 1313: He says In Rawdhaat Al-Jannaat, after he presents many proofs for the reliability of the book of Sulaym: "As about his book, it is the first book that has been written in Islam and narrations have been collected in it…and there are a large number of rare and original narrations in it." [Rawdhaat Al-Jannaat. Vol. 4, Pg. 67]


18 - The learned and skillful scholar of Hadeeth Al-Haaj Mirza Hussain Al-Noori who died in the year 1320 A.H. He says in his book Mustadrak Al-Wasa'il: "His book is of the famous Usool and our companions have many chains to that book." [Mustadrak Al-Wasa'il. Vol. 3, Pg. # 733]. And he says in his book Nafas Al-Rahman: "This book if very known and famous and the chiefs of the scholars of Hadeeth have narrated from it."


19 - The learned and trustworthy scholar of Islam Al-Mawla Muhammad Hashim Al-Khurasani who died in the year 1352 A.H. He says in his book Muntakhab Al-Tawarikh, this is the Arabic translation of it: "The book of Sulaym ibn Qays that he handed over to Aban ibn Abi Ayyash is famous." [Muntakhab Al-Tawarikh. Pg. # 210]


20 - The seal of the scholars of Hadeeth Al-Haaj Sheikh Abbas Al-Qummi who died in the year 1359. He says in his book Al-Kani Wal Al-Qaab: "That is the first book that appeared among Shi'a and it is famous among the scholars of Hadeeth. Sheikh Al-Kulayni and Al-Sadooq and other early scholars have trusted it, may Allah (swt) be pleased with them." [Al-Kani Wal Al-Qaab. Vol.3, Pg. # 243]


21 - The skillful Faqih Al-Sheikh Abdullah Al-Mamaqani: He says in Tanqih Al-Maqaal after mentioning proofs that support the greatness of the book: "Verily the Book of Sulaym ibn Qays is in highest position of reliability." [Tanqih Al-Maqaal. Vol. 2, Pg. # 54]. And he says in another position: "His book is Saheeh (Authentic)." [Tanqih Al-Maqaal. Vol. 2, Pg. # 52]


22 - The Mohaqqiq Al-Sayyed Hussain ibn Muhammad Ridha Al-Burujerdi who died in the year 1283 A.H. He says in his book Nukhbatul Maqaal in the form of poetry: "Sulaym ibn Qays Al-Hilali. He is of the trustworthy close friends of Imam Al-Alee (a.s) His book is of the Usool. Narrated from him the chiefs of the significant scholars."


23 - The learned scholar Al-Mirza Muhammad Al.Modarris Al-Khiyabani: He says in Rayhanatul Adab, the Arabic translation of it is: "His book is famous and it is of the famous Four Hundred Usool and that is the first book that appeared among Shi'a…and Al-Sadooq and Al-Kulayni and other great scholars of Hadeeth fully trust it." [Rayhanatul Adab. Vol. 6, Pg. # 369]


24 - The learned Allamah Al-Haaj Agha Bozorg Al-Tehrani: He says in Al-Dhari'a: "The Asl of Sulaym ibn Qays Al-Hilali and it is of the few Usool that have been written before the time of Imam Al-Sadiq (a.s)." [Al-Dhari'a. Vol. 2, Pg. # 152, H. # 590]. He says in another position: "This book of Sulaym is of the famous Usool known among Shi'a and Sunnis." [Al-Dhari'a. Vol. 2, Pg. # 153]


25 - The skillful Allamah Al-Sayyed Hassan Al-Sadr who died in the year 1354 A.H. He says in his book Al-Shi'a Wa Funun Al-Islam: "He (i.e. Sulaym) has a noble and great book, he has narrated from Alee (a.s) and Salman Al-Farsi (r.a) and Abi Dharr Al-Ghaffari (r.a) and Al-Miqdad (r.a) and Ammar ibn Yasir (r.a) and a group of the heads of companions." [Al-Shi'a Wa Funun Al-Islam. Pg. # 68]


26 - The Mohaqqiq Allamah Al-Sayyed Ahamd Al-Safai Al-Khwansari who died in the year 1359 A.H. He says in his book Kashf Al-Istaar: "His book is of the biggest and oldest Usool, which is authentic and has been presented to A'immah (a.s), so they have authenticated it and have authenticated its narrations." [Kashf Al-Istaar An Wajhal Kutub Wal Asfaar. Vol. 2, Pg. # 130]


27 - The great scholar and Hujjah (proof) Al-Sheikh Abdul-Hussain Al-Amini Al-Najafi: He says in his book Al-Ghadir: "The Book of Sulaym is of the famous Usool and in vogue in the early centuries, trusted upon among the scholars of Hadeeth of both sects and among the historians…and there are valuable statements about the book that we have collected them in a Risala, and we have mentioned this brief so that the reliability of the book among both sects becomes clear and that is what led us to quote his narrations in our book." [Al-Ghadir. Vol. 1, Pg. # 195]


28 - The learned Allamah Al-Sayyed Muhammad Sadiq Aal Bahr Al-Uloom: He says in his introduction for the printed book of Sulaym in Najaf, he says after he quotes the statements of great scholars about the book: "These great scholars have researched about the correctness of the attribution of the book to Sulaym and that it is reliable, in the highest levels of reliability and its narrations are Saheeh (Authentic) and reliable…so there is no doubt about the book and there is no relevant objection against it." [The printed Book of Sulaym in Najaf. Pg. # 15]


29 - The learned Allamah Al-Sayyed Shahabuddin Al-Mar'ashi who died in the year 1411 A.H. He says in his annotation on Ihqaaq Al-Haqq: "It is of the oldest books among Shi'a and the most authentic one of them, even some of the opponents have testified to its authenticity." [Ihqaaq Al-Haqq. Vol. 1, Pg. # 55]. And he says in another position: "It is a famous book, printed in many countries, trusted upon among our scholars and most of the opponents (i.e. Sunnis). It has been praised by our masters, the infallible A'immah (a.s)." [Ihqaaq Al-Haqq. Vol. 2, Pg. # 421]


These are parts of the attestations of the great scholars, may Allah (swt) be pleased with them, about the reliability of the book and the authenticity of its attribution to its author. We have summarized it to this much of their explicit words about the book, otherwise many of the great scholars have extensive discussions about the reliability of the book. However, because there were not short sentences through them about the book so that we can quote here, we will point at the end of this chapter to the names of those sources that the book of Sulaym has been mentioned in them and we will quote their words in the respected places in this introduction.


Source: The Introduction of the Book of Sulaym. Pg. # 106 - 114.











The Book of Sulaym Is The Alphabet Of The Shi'a


Sheikh Al-Zanjani Al-Khohini:

The Words Of Imam Al-Sadiq (a.s) About The Book (Sulaym ibn Qays):

Imam Ja'far ibn Muhammad Al-Sadiq (a.s) said: "Whoever of our Shi'a and Lovers does not have the Book of Sulaym ibn Qays Al-Hilali, he has nothing of our affairs and he does not know any of our events, and this book is the Alphabet of the Shi'a and a secret of the secrets of the family of Muhammad (saw)."

The sources that have mentioned this narration:

1 - Allamah Al-Majlisi found this narration written in an old manuscript of the book, which goes back to the year 609 A.H. He says about it: "I found an old manuscript of the Book of Sulaym ibn Qays through two chains with a little bit of difference, at the end of one of them, it is written: 'This book has been completed, praise be to Allah (swt) and with His help, in the month of Rabi Al-Akhar of the year 609 A.H. It has been written by Aboo Muhammad Al-Rammani, who praises Allah (swt) and sends blessings upon His Messenger (saw). Then he has written this narration: It has been narrated from Al-Sadiq (a.s) that he said: Whoever of our Shi'a…'" [manuscript # 28 of the manuscripts of the book on Pg. # 354 of this introduction]

2 - The Hadeeth exists in the exact form in manuscript # 32 that has been copied from the manuscript that goes back to the year 609 A.H. and that is by the command of Allamah Al-Majlisi. And Allamah Al-Majlisi has stamped it with his blessed ring and it is available in the library of Jami'at Tehran. [Refer to Pg. # 359 of this introduction]. And we will mention in the chapter that we discuss the manuscripts of the book and it is of the type "G" of the manuscript and it is of the most complete and most clear of the manuscripts. [Refer to Pg. # 322 of this introduction]

3 - It also exists in the exact form in manuscript # 33 which is available in the library of Malik in Tehran, and it is also copied from the manuscript which goes back to the year 609 A.H. [Refer to Pg. # 362 of this introduction]

4 - It exists also at the back of the manuscript of Sheikh Al-Hurr Al-Amili that has been written in the year 1087 from very old manuscripts, and it is the manuscript of # 1 that exists in the library of Ayatollah Al-Hakim in Al-Najaf. [Refer to Pg. # 330 of this introduction]

5 - The Hadeeth also exists in some other manuscripts of the book, like in manuscript # 15, 19, 30, 34, 35 and 39. [Refer to Pg. # 343, 347, 358, 363 and 370 of this introduction]

6 - Al-Allamah Al-Sheikh Abdul Nabi Al-Kadhimi has narrated it in Takmilatu Rijal, Vol. 1, Pg. # 467 quoting from Al-Allamah Al-Majlisi in the margins of Mir'atul Uqool.

7 -  Al-Allamah Al-Mamaqani has narrated it in Tanqih Al-Maqaal. Vol. 2, Pg. # 54.

8 - Muhaddith Al-Noori has narrated it in Mustadrak Al-Wasa'il. Vol. 3, Pg. # 183.

9 - Al-Allamah Al-Tehrani has mentioned it in Al-Dhari'a. Vol. 2, Pg. # 152.

I say: This narration is a report of the clear fact that there is no problem in mentioning it: We have mentioned that the Shi'a in those ages did not know their religion like they know it today, because the enemies concealed its teachings after it was apparent in the time of the Messenger of Allah (saw) and that is the fact that Tashayyu' is the divine religion and the Islam that the Messenger of Allah (saw) was given by Jibra'eel (a.s) from Allah Almighty and that is the religion of Ibraheem (a.s) the friend of Allah the Merciful. And there were often people who considered themselves to be Shi'a in those times or people count them as Shi'a, due to their ignorance about the Alphabet of the Shi'a and Tashayyu'.

And the statement of Imam Al-Sadiq (a.s) has been issued in those ages to draw a line for distinction between the truth and the falsehood and announcing to people in a general form that the disassociation from the enemies of Ahlulbayt (a.s) and the belief in the Imamate of the twelve Imams (a.s) after the Messenger of Allah (saw) and that they have more authority over people than themselves, all this is the core of Tashayyu' and no deed can be accepted without this creed.

And he (a.s) has said this in his pointing to the Book of Sulaym and that the Shi'a must look into it and read its content that serves the above mentioned aim. So Imam Al-Sadiq (a.s) says that whoever does not know the facts that the Book of Sulaym contains, and still claims to be the follower of Ahlulbayt (a.s), he has nothing of Tashayyu' except carrying its name and he is fooling himself by ignoring the teachings and basics of Tashayyu'. So everyone whose heart does not trust these basics of the Shi'a and finds doubts in his heart about it, he should not fool himself, and he should investigate the state of his heart, so that what is within it becomes manifest and he can distinguish between the people of truth and others.

Source: The Introduction of the Book of Sulaym. Pg. # 94 - 96.



Objections Against The Book


Sheikh Al-Mufid and the Book of Sulaym:

As for the tradition which Aboo Ja'far, may Allah (swt) have mercy upon him, relies on and which has been mentioned in the book attributed to Sulaym, on the authority of Aban ibn Abi Ayyash, the meaning of it is sound, yet none the less, the book is unauthoritative and most of it cannot be accepted as binding precedent, since it has suffered corruption and alteration; therefore the scrupulous not act upon all that it contains, and not rely on the greater part of it, or imitate its narrator, but enquire of the scholars, to distinguish for him the sound from the spurious in it. And Allah (swt) is He Who guides to the truth.

Source: Tas'hih Al-I'tiqadaat. Pg. # 149 - 150.


Firstly, Sheikh Al-Mufid confirms the content of the narration which Al-Sadooq has narrated (and that is, Hadeeth # 10 of the Book of Sulaym that will be presented later in detail), which is the same famous narration that has been narrated through many of our great scholars, like Fadhl ibn Shazaan, Al-Saffar, Al-Kulayni, Al-Nu'mani, Al-Tusi and many others, and the trust of all these great scholars of Hadeeth on this book refutes this general objection of Al-Mufid whose main expertise is not Hadeeth, but rather theology. Secondly, Sheikh Al-Mufid generalizes his objection saying that the book has been altered and changed, without giving any reference as to what has been altered or changed. If what he says is due to the narration of Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr, then Sheikh Al-Mufid himself has narrated this narration from him, and if it is due to the objection of the narration regarding the thirteen Imams, then that will be answered later in this section in detail. Henceforth, this kind of general statement is of no value in such matters, especially when he himself narrates from the same book and then states that we should refer to scholars in order to distinguish the sound narrations from the spurious, as to which we already mentioned the statements of scholars who authenticated the book and its narrations.

Nevertheless, we shall now present one more example:

Sheikh Hurr Al-Amili:

The manuscript that we have received of the book there is nothing corrupt in it and nothing that could show that the book is fabricated. Maybe the corrupt and fabricated was something else and that is why it has not become famous and has not reached us.

And indeed the trustworthy and truthful Sheikh Muhammad ibn Ibraheem Al-Nu'mani says in his book Al-Ghaybah: "There is no dispute among the Shi'a that the book of Sulaym bin Qays Al-Hilali is considered as one of the biggest books of Usool of the doctrine of the Shi'a that has been narrated by scholars and the carriers of the narrations of Ahlulbayt (a.s) and one of the oldest of those Usool. It is one of the original sources (i.e. Usool) that the Shi'a have depended on and referred to."

Source: Wasa'il ush Shia. Vol. 30, Pg. # 386.


Sheikh Al-Mufid himself narrates affirmative one of the most controversial narrations of the Book of Sulaym. However, the some more examples through him will be presented at the end of this part Insha'Allah Ta'Ala.

Sheikh Al-Mufid:

It has been narrated from Sulaym from Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr who said: When it was near the death of Aboo Bakr, he started restlessly crying and blaming himself, Umar was also present, so he said to us: "Keep it confidential from your father, because he is delirious and you are of that family in which to be delirious in illness is well known." A'isha then said: "You have said the truth." Then Umar went out and then Aboo Bakr died.

Source: Al-Kafiha Fi Ibtaal Tawbatil Khatiha. Pg. # 46.


We also find that Sheikh Al-Mufid narrates from the Book of Sulaym in his Fiq'hi book:

Sheikh Al-Mufid:

Aban ibn Abi Ayyash has narrated from Sulaym ibn Qays Al-Hilali who said: I heard the Commander of the Faithful (a.s) saying: "We are by Allah (swt), what Allah (swt) has mentioned as 'the near of kins' and puts them in the same line of Himself and His Prophet (saw), He says: 'Whatever Allah has restored to His Messenger from the people of the towns, it is for Allah and for the Messenger, and for the near of kin and the orphans and the needy and the wayfarer' {59:7}, it is about us in particular and He did not specify a share in the charity, Allah Almighty has honored His Prophet (saw) and honored us by denying us the impure that is in the hand of people."

Source: Al-Muqni'a. Pg. # 277.


Objections Of Ibn Al-Ghazairi

Allamah Al-Hilli:

Sulaym ibn Qays Al-Hilali; Al-Kash'shi has narrated some narrations that bear witness for him to be praiseworthy and authenticity of his book, there is some discussion about the chain though, that we have mentioned in our large book.

Al-Najashi says: Sulaym ibn Qays Al-Hilali, nicknamed Aba Sadiq, he has a book. Narrated to me Alee ibn Ahmad Al-Qummi from Muhammad ibn Al-Hassan ibn Al-Walid from Muhammad ibn Abil Qasim Majilawayh from Muhammad ibn Alee Al-Sirafi from Hammad ibn Isa and Uthman ibn Isa. Hammad ibn Isa says: and Ibraheem ibn Umar Al-Yamani has narrated the book to me from Sulaym ibn Qays too.

Al-Sayyed Alee ibn Ahmad Al-Aqiqi says: Sulaym ibn Qays was of the companions of the Commander of the Faithful (a.s). Al-Hajjaj ordered him to be arrested to kill him, but he fled and went to Aban ibn Abi Ayyash, when it was close to his death, he said to Aban: "Verily you have a right upon me and my death is near, O nephew! After the demise of the Messenger of Allah (saw) conflicts occurred in such and such manner" and then he handed over the book to him. This book has not been narrated from Sulaym ibn Qays by anyone except through Aban ibn Abi Ayyash and Aban mentions in his hadeeth that: "Sulaym was a worshipper Sheikh, and a bright shining face."

Ibn Al-Ghazairi says: "Sulaym ibn Qays Al-Hilali Al-Amiri, he has narrated from Abi Abdullah, Al-Hassan (a.s), Al-Hussain (a.s) and Alee ibn Al-Hussain (a.s) and this famous book has been attributed to him. Our companions used to say that Sulaym is not known and there is no mention of him in the reports. However, I found him being mentioned in some sources other than his book and not through Aban ibn Abi Ayyash, and ibn Uqda has mentioned some narrations from him in his book among the companions of the Commander of the Faithful (a.s). The book is fabricated, there is no doubt about it and there are signs about it, among the evidences for this are what he mentions from Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr talking with his father on his deathbed and that there will be thirteen Imams and so on. The Chains of this book differ, sometimes it is through Umar ibn Uzaina from Ibraheem ibn Umar Al-San'ani from Aban ibn Abi Ayyash from Sulaym and sometimes Umar narrates from Aban without any intermediaries."

However, my opinion is that the above mentioned person was upright, but we should stop about the corrupt reports that might exist in his book.

Source: Khulasatul Aqwal. Pg. # 161 - 163.


We can see that Allamah Al-Hilli generally trusts the book of Sulaym, however, he opines that we should stop about the corrupt reports that might exist in this book. But we can also state that this opinion is applied to every other Shi'a book, since we do not consider any book to be 100% authentic, because for every narration the criteria of authenticity must be applied and it is usually not limited to reliability of its narrators, rather to criteria like correlation with Qur'an and other authentic narrations and so many other conditions. 
As for the other objection from ibn Al-Ghazairi; firstly, we should mention that the Rijal book of ibn Al-Ghazairi is a doubtful book in itself. The first person who has mentioned this book is Ahmad ibn Tawoos who died in the year 673 A.H., while ibn Al-Ghazairi died between 411 - 450 A.H. which will be mentioned in this section Insha'Allah Ta'Ala.

Is Ibn Al-Ghazairi's Book Of Rijal Reliable?


Sheikh Agha Bozorg Al-Tehrani:

(Rijal ibn Al-Ghazairi, the Dhu'afa) also called Kitab Al-Dhu'afa. We have talked about it in detail in (Vol. 4, Pg. # 288, S. 12) and mentioned that we cannot find any trace of the book before the time of Al-Sayyed ibn Tawoos who died in the year 673 A.H., because Sayyed, around the middle of the seventh century found this book attributed to ibn Al-Ghazairi, without hearing it from anyone or have been narrated by anyone of his Sheikhs, so he copied its content in his book of Rijal called "Hall Al-Ishkaal Fi Tarajum Al-Rijal" after he mentions of what existed in the four major books of Rijal that were transferred to him through his Sheikhs. He mentions what was in it, so that he had done his job. He copied what was in it in his book, so that his book contains all what has been said about the narrators he has mentioned in his book. Apparently, he has not found his book about Mamdohin (i.e. praiseworthy narrators), otherwise he would have narrated from that book too. Then the two students of Al-Sayyed, and they are Allamah Al-Hilli and ibn Dawood, they have followed their teacher in this by copying the content of what their teacher has mentioned in his book "Hall Al-Ishkaal," in their books of "Al-Khulasa" and "Al-Rijal." Ibn Dawood has mentioned in the end of the biography of his teacher that most of the content of his book "Al-Rijal" are the points of his teacher and his researches, but Al-Allamah does not mention it, however this is apparent from his book.

And his statement on two occasions in Al-Khulasa in mentioning the contradictions of ibn Al-Ghazairi in his two books, shows what he has heard from his teacher about those contradictions and it does not show explicitly that he has seen the two books himself. In summary, he did not know what happened to the book of Al-Dhu'afa that ibn Tawoos found, until Mawla Abdullah Al-Tustari who died in the year 1021 A.H. copied the statements attributed to ibn Al-Ghazairi from the shredded manuscript of "Hall Al-Ishkaal" and collected them independently in a book and mentioned in his Dibaaj and Al-Qahpani, the student of Al-Mawla Abdullah, has copied its content in his book "Majma Al-Rijal" and has mentioned it in his Dibaaj in its full form in his book and that is in our hands with his handwriting. We have mentioned in (Vol. 4, Pg. # 290) that the attribution of the book of Al-Dhu'afa to the famous ibn Al-Ghazairi who was of the Sheikhs of this creed and of the Sheikhs of Sheikh Al-Najashi, is a big prejudice about him and he is higher than this state of disrespect to the masters of the religion, to the extent that no one of those great people of abstinence, righteousness and chastity have survived of his critics, so it is apparent that the author of this book was of the enemies of the great personalities of the Shi'a and wanted to insult them with every trick and every tool, so he has written this book and has mentioned some of the opinions of ibn Al-Ghazairi to disguise people, so that the readers accept whatever of his insults and obscenities he wanted to attribute to those great people, and Allah (swt) knows best.

It should be added to this from Al-Sayyed ibn Tawoos, his establishing of the general rule in Jarh Wa Ta'dil (i.e. authenticating and weakening the narrators); that if Al-Jarh (i.e. weakening of the narrators) contradicts with other opinions, it would be void and if it does not contradict another opinion then trusting it has priority, the opposite of Al-Mad'h (i.e. praise of a narrator) which trusting it is better. And we have mentioned it in (Vol. 4, Pg. # 288, S. 31) and because of this firm ruling among scholars, it is the way of our scholars to not pay attention to the weakening of narrators in the book Al-Dhu'afa, this is if we suppose that its author of the book is known, let alone that the author is unknown, so how can its weakenings be acted upon?!

Source: Al-Dhari'a. Vol. 10, Pg. # 88 - 89.





Scholarly Discussions On ibn Al-Ghazairi's Objections


Sheikh Al-Zanjani Al-Khohini:

I say: His saying that: "The chains of this book…" This is not of the signs of fabrication of the book, it is rather a confirmation from the viewpoint of chains that it has not been narrated through a single chain; we will mention this issue in the discussion about the chains of the book and the distinction between this part and his statement "and so on" confirms the distinction between this part and the two other issues that he has mentioned before that, but he has not mentioned what other issues they are. Therefore we will check the two issues that he has mentioned:

1 - The objection that the number of the Imams is thirteen in the book of Sulaym.

2 - The objection that Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr talks with his father at his deathbed while he was still a child with a minor age.

The first issue: The two objections even if they are proven to be correct, they do not prove that the book is fabricated and there is no relation between the two issues, rather the highest thing that can be proven is discussion about one or two narrations among all narrations of the book and about this issue quoting two scholars would suffice:

Al-Allamah Al-Majlisi says: "This cannot be a means of slandering the book, because it happens very rarely that a book is empty of more than this kind of alteration and mistake, and the examples of this exist even in Al-Kafi and other books which are reliable books, this fact is not hidden from a learned person in the field." [Bihar Al-Anwar. Vol. 22, Pg. # 150]. 

Sayyed Al-Khoei says: "The existence of one or two false issues in a book, is not a proof that the book is fabricated. How can this be, while there are more mistakes than this in most books, even in Al-Kafi which is the most correct book of Hadeeth and the most reliable of them?"

The second issue: What we want to prove through this discussion is that what ibn Al-Ghazairi has attributed to the book, is not correct in itself and is not a slander against the book at all, so that it can put the book under dispute.

Source: The introduction of the Book of Sulaym. Pg. # 170.


Sheikh Al-Zanjani Al-Khohini:

The objection of talking of Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr with his father on his deathbed, while he was at a minor age and discussion about it:

The sumary of the objection is that how could Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr talk with his father on his deathbed, while he was at a minor age, the story of which has been mentioned in Hadeeth # 37 of the Book of Sulaym.

The summary of answer is that: We claim this story to be true from its beginning to the end, without any interpretation and without saying that it could be a result of the mistake of the copiers and also we do not make it an exception from among the narrations of the book, it is rather one of the most certain narrations in it.

This objection has spread as a result of lack of studying the book with care and pondering upon the texts and their meaning and other evidences that surround it, which indicates it to be true, with the inclusion of other external proofs, that some of those who answered the objection have not paid attention to.

The age of Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr near the death of his father is the first issue; it is not more than a narration that contradicts other narrations and evidences that we will mention.

First of all we will give you a summary of the story from the Hadeeth # 37 that contains this story of talking of Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr with his father, so that we know the precision and care of Sulaym in narrating this story in particular and also what denotes to the authenticity of the event.

Here is the summary of the story:

Sulaym wanted to know what the As'haab Al-Sahifa said on their deathbeds [*i.e. people of the affidavit who made an oath in the Ka'ba to usurp the Caliphate from Ahlulbayt (a.s) after the death of the Messenger of Allah (saw)] and they were: Aboo Bakr, Umar, Ma'adh ibn Jabal, Aboo Ubayda ibn Al-Jarrah and Salim Mawla Abi Hudhayfah. So Sulaym met three people to find out about it and they were: Abdur Rahman ibn Ghanam, Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr and the Commander of the Faithful (a.s).

As for ibn Ghanam, he informed him about Ma'adh and Salim and Aboo Ubayda of what they said near their deaths; and that was so that Sulaym asked ibn Ghanam and he was the brother-in-law of Ma'adh ibn Jabal and he was present on his deathbed, so ibn Ghanam informed Sulaym of what happened in detail and he mentioned that Ma'adh saw the Messenger of Allah (saw) and Alee (a.s) in his last moments and they informed him and his companions of their destiny towards Hellfire.

Then ibn Ghanam informed Sulaym that he was frightened of what he heard from Ma'adh near his death, so he went to Hajj and met those who were present at the deathbeds of Abi Ubayda and Salim, so those who were present on their deathbeds informed him that they also said the same as what Ma'adh had said.

Up to this point, Sulaym knew about three people of the As'haab Al-Sahifa of what they said near their deaths, Sulaym narrates it from ibn Ghanam.

As for Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr, he informed him of what Aboo Bakr and Umar said near their deaths, and that was so that Sulaym met Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr and informed him of what he heard from ibn Ghanam. When Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr heard the words of ibn Ghanam from Sulaym, he informed him of what his father Aboo Bakr said near his death like the others did, and he mentioned the story with precision and named those who were present on his deathbed and of what happened of talking between them.

Then Muhammad informed him that he met Abdullah ibn Umar and informed him of what he had heard from his father near his death, Abdullah then informed him of what Umar had said near his death similarly to Abi Bakr.

Then Muhammad informed Sulaym that he met the Commander of the Faithful (a.s) and narrated to him what he had heard from his father and of what Abdullah informed him about his father, then the Commander of the Faithful (a.s) said: "Verily narrated to me of what they said near their deaths someone who is more truthful than you and ibn Umar." He meant the Messenger of Allah (saw) before his death, and after that in a dream or informed him the angel who talks with the Ahlulbayt (a.s).

After the martyrdom of Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr in Egypt, Sulaym met the Commander of the Faithful (a.s) and asked him about what Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr had informed him with. So he (a.s) said: "Muhammad has said the truth, may Allah (swt) have mercy on him, he is a martyr and is living and eating from what Allah (swt) has granted him." Then confirmed the words of Muhammad by saying that his heirs, all of them are Muhaddathun.

This is the whole event that Sulaym narrates in Hadeeth # 37, and we ask the reader to read the Hadeeth with care to see its authenticity that is supported with other internal and external evidences.

A: The internal proofs that help us to know that there is no way of alteration and misinterpretation in this Hadeeth and to see the precision of Sulaym and his care in informing us about the event with the details of his narration. And these are the following points:

1 - What Muhammad informs about his father is entirely in accordance with what others inform about the other four As'haab Al-Sahifa.

2 - Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr mentions the story with precision and mentions in his Hadeeth what Umar and A'isha and his brother Abdur Rahman say in that meeting, he even mentions that they went out to take Wudhu and came back.

3 - He mentions that the three (Umar, A'isha and Abdur Rahman) came back after he closed the eyes of his father and Umar and A'isha asked him of what Aboo Bakr said after they went out.

4 - Muhammad mentions in detail what he heard alone and what he and Umar, A'isha and Abdur Rahman heard together and he mentions it to the 
Commander of the Faithful (a.s) too.

5 - The Commander of the Faithful (a.s) confirms what he said and narrated to him what the Messenger of Allah (saw) informed him or the angel who talks with them.

6 - Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr was astonished that the Commander of the Faithful (a.s) informed him of what had happened between him and his father in a meeting when there was no one present except the two and he saw it as a miracle of him (a.s).

7 - The Commander of the Faithful (a.s) confirms what Muhammad had said once again when Sulaym informs him after his martyrdom in Egypt.

8 - The issue of the minor age of Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr did not make Sulaym to doubt, even though he used to investigate matters with great care and precision and authenticity and he used to find out about all the details in his narrations, especially in this narration. So we see that he asks Muhammad about the details of the story and he does not ask about his age and how those actions happened through him and how those talks remained in his memory.

9 -  When Abdullah ibn Umar heard from Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr the words of his father, he did not reject it due to his minor age.

B: The external proofs that confirm the truthfulness of this Hadeeth and it being issued from the tongue of Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr, are in the following points:

1 - The manuscripts of the book, all four types: A, B, G and D, with all differences in the number of narrations, contain this Hadeeth entirely from the beginning to the end.


2 - Al-Saffar, Al-Sadooq, Sheikh Al-Mufid and Ibraheem ibn Muhammad Al-Thaqafi before them have mentioned this narration through their chains from Sulaym through other than his book, so there is no proof in this narration that could lead the book to be fabricated, because it has been narrated from Sulaym for sure.


3 - We see the confirmation of the words of Abi Bakr in other narrations of the book. As in Hadeeth # 4, the Commander of the Faithful (a.s) says: "I have heard the Holy Prophet (saw) say: 'No doubt, there will be one coffin of fire in which there will be twelve people - six from the beginning) and six from the end, that will be in a well which is in the bottom level of the Hell. And this coffin will be the one that will be locked. There will be a stone kept on the well. When Allah (swt) wishes the Hell fire to be lighted, He will remove that stone from the top of the well. At that time, Hell will set alight with the flames and heat of the well.'" And then he (a.s) mentions that they are twelve people and the five of As'haab Al-Sahifa are among them. [Pg. # 597 of the Book of Sulaym]

And in Hadeeth # 4, the Commander of the Faithful (a.s) says, after he confirms the sayings of four of the As'haab Al-Sahifa the saying of Abi Bakr in usurping the Caliphate: "You have completed your cursed Sahifah which you agreed in the Ka'ba (i.e if Muhammad is killed or dies you people will take away this Caliphate from us the Ahlulbayt (a.s))." [Pg. # 589 of the Book of Sulaym]

In Hadeeth # 11, the Commander of the Faithful (a.s) said to Talha: "By Allah (swt), there is no Sahifah more dear to me than the Sahifah of these five people who took an oath and agreed to stay loyal to it in the Ka'ba on the last pilgrimage that: If Allah (swt) killed Muhammad or he died, they would conspire against me so that I can never achieve the Caliphate." [Pg. # 650 of the Book of Sulaym]

In Hadeeth # 19, the Commander of the Faithful (a.s) said: "That those five were the ones who had written a book (Sahifah) and had decided and agreed in the shade of the Ka'ba that if Muhammad (saw) passed away or got killed, then these people will overpower Alee (a.s) and will remove this Caliphate from him." [Pg. # 727 of the Book of Sulaym]

4 - We see the confirmation of what Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr narrated from Abdullah ibn Umar in other narrations of the book and in other than the book of Sulaym too. So if some of his words are correct, the rest of his words will be confirmed too.

In Hadeeth # 11, Sulaym mentions the talk that happened between the Commander of the Faithful (a.s) and Abdullah ibn Umar in the mosque of the Messenger of Allah (saw) during the Caliphate of Uthman, so he says: "Then he (a.s) said: 'O son of Umar, what did you say at that time?"

Abdullah replied: I asked him: "O father what is it that is withholding you from making him Caliph?" He (a.s) asked: "What was his reply?" Abdullah said: "He told me what I am concealing." So Alayhis salam said: "The Holy Prophet (saw) has informed me of everything that he told you and what you told him." Abdullah asked: "When did he inform you?" Alayhis salam said: "During his lifetime and after that on the night that your father died, in my dream, and if one sees the Holy Prophet (saw) in a dream it is like he has seen him while awake."

Ibn Umar (Abdullah) asked him: "What did he inform you?" Alayhis salam said: "O ibn Umar, I am asking you, bearing Allah (swt) as Witness, if I tell you will you confirm it?" Abdullah replied: "Or I will keep quiet." He (a.s) said: "He told you, when you told him what was it that was withholding him from making me Caliph, the Sahifah that we had written among ourselves in the Ka'ba on the occasion of the last pilgrimage of the Holy Prophet (saw)." Ibn Umar kept quiet. He (a.s) said: "I am asking you, for the sake of the Holy Prophet (saw), to stop asking me." [Pg. # 652 of the Book of Sulaym]

Al-Majlisi narrates in Bihar from Abi Salah Al-Halabi in Taqreeb Al-Ma'aarif: "When Umar was stabbed, he said to his son Abdullah, leaning to his chest: "Woe to you, put my head on the ground." Then he fainted. He said: "Why?" He said: "Woe to you, put my cheek on the ground." So he put his head on the ground, so it touched the soil and he then said: "Woe to Umar, Umar and his mother, if Allah (swt) does not forgive him." [Bihar Al-Anwar. Vol. 8, Pg. # 196]

Al-Majlisi has narrated in Bihar also from the Majalis (i.e. Al-Amali) of Al-Mufid through his chain from Uthman ibn Affan who said: I was the last to see Umar b. Al-Khattab. I called upon him and saw his head on the lap of his son Abdullah, while he was weary. He told his son: "Keep my cheek on the ground." Abdullah refused, so he said: "Keep my cheek on the ground." Abdullah refused, so he said: "Keep my cheek on the ground, you motherless one." So he kept his (Umar's) cheek on the ground, and then Umar said: "O my mother! Woe to me, my mother! I am not forgiven (by Allah (swt))." He went on saying that till he died." [Bihar Al-Anwar. Vol. 8, Pg. # 197]

He has also narrated in Bihar from Al-Sheikh Al-Mufid from his book Al-Kafiya Fi Ibtaal Tawbatil Khati'a, through his chain from Aban ibn Uthman who said: The last word that Umar said until he died, was: "Woe to my mother, if My Lord does not forgive me, woe to my mother, if my Lord does not forgive me." [Bihar Al-Anwar. Vol. 8, Pg. # 199]

And Al-Bahrani has narrated in Madinatul Ma'aajiz from ibn Abbas and Ka'b Al-Ahbar from Abdullah ibn Umar who said: "When the death of my father approached him, he fainted and woke up several times. When he woke up he said: "O son, call to me Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s) before my death." I said: "And what do you want to do with Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s) when you put the Caliphate in a council and you shared it to others with him?" He said: "O son, I heard the Messenger of Allah (saw) saying: 'In the Hellfire there is a coffin that twelve of my companions will be locked in it.' Then he looked at Aboo Bakr and said: 'Be careful that you do not be the first one of them.' Then he looked at me and said: 'Be careful to not be the third one of them.' When I fainted O son, I saw that coffin and there was no one in it except Aboo Bakr and Ma'adh ibn Jabal in it and I will be the third one of them, I do not have any doubt about it." [Madinatul Ma'aajiz. Pg. # 109]

I say: After seeing all these proofs, we are definitely assured about the existence of this Hadeeth in the Book of Sulaym. In addition to what we mentioned in this introduction that the Book of Sulaym has the highest levels of reliability, and that Sulaym and his book have been attested by the A'immah (a.s) and we mentioned the statements of the scholars about the reliability of the Hadeeth.

So with all this, there remains no way to doubt that this story has been told by Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr and Sulaym has narrated it, and there is no need to make any other interpretation and present a possibility of distortion and mistake and so on, let alone that the existence of this Hadeeth could be a sign for the fabrication of the book.

After confirmation of the authenticity of the narration, we face the issue of the minor age of Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr near the death of his father, so we say in an answer to this issue: The date of the birth of Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr is a matter of difference of opinion among the scholars of Siyar and history, because in some narrations he was born in the year of the last pilgrimage, and in some other narrations he was born in the 8th year A.H. and in some other narrations his birth was before that, these are some of the accounts:

1 - Mir Hamed Husain says in Istiqsaa Al-Ifhaam: Fakhruddin Al-Dehlawi says: "Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr was born in the year of the last pilgrimage in Dhi Halifa or in Shajara in the year 8 A.H. and ibn Al-Athir says in Jami' Al-Usool: 'He was born in year eight.' And Qadhi Taqiuddin Al-Maliki says in Al-Iqd Al-Thamin Fi Tarikh Al-Balad Al-Amin and Abul Hajjaj Al-Mazzi in Tahdheeb Al-Kamal and Al-Dhahabi in Ikhtisaar Tahdheeb Al-Kamal and ibn Abdul Barr in Al-Isti'aab." [Istiqsaa Al-Ifhaam. Vol. 1, Pg. # 514]

2 - The issue of talking of Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr with his father near his death has been narrated in other narrations, with other wordings that were exchanged between the two. Imaduddin Al-Tabari has narrated in his Tarikh known as Kamil Al-Baha'i with two narrations about it:

The first narration: One day the Commander of the Faithful (a.s) asked Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr and said: "Did your father not recite this verse near his death: (And the stupor of death will come in truth; that is what you were trying to escape.) {50:19}? And then Umar said to you, be careful son, that Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s) does not hear from you what your father said, and then he may taunt us?" Then the Commander of the Faithful (a.s) smiled when Muhammad told him that. Then Muhammad said: "You said the truth O Alee (a.s)! And I heard him curse him and say: 'You made me do these things' and he said: 'Yes.'" [Kamil Al-Baha'i. Vol. 2, Pg. # 129, Ch. 5]

The second narration: from Abi Inaan Malik ibn Isma'eel Al-Hindi, he is called Al-Rahib or Al-Wahib, who said: "Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr came to his father and while he was ill, he said: 'O father, I see you in this condition that I have not seen you in before?!' He said: 'O son, the man was oppressed, if he forgives me, I hope I heal.' Muhammad then said: 'O father, who is that man?' He said: 'Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s).' Muhammad said: 'I guarantee you that I will talk to Alee (a.s) about this and ask him to forgive you, because he is a forgiving man.' Then Muhammad went to the Commander of the Faithful (a.s) and said: 'My father is in a very bad condition and he said such and such, and I guaranteed for him to ask for forgiveness from you. If you think you can forgive him?' The Commander of the Faithful(a.s) said: 'For your sake, but tell your father to climb the pulpit and inform people about it, so that I forgive him.' So Muhammad returned and said: 'Allah (swt) accepted your prayers.' And then he mentioned to him the words of the Commander of the Faithful (a.s). Aboo Bakr then said: 'I do not like that even two people refuse to send blessings upon me.'" [Kamil Al-Baha'i. Vol. 2, Pg. # 129, Ch. 5]

And Al-Sibt ibn Al-Jawzi in Tadhkiratul Khawas Al-Ummah has narrated this Hadeeth: "And Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr entered upon his father on his deathbed and said: 'Call me your uncle that I appoint him as Caliph.' He said: 'O father, were you upon truth or falsehood?' He said: 'Rather upon truth.' He said: 'Then be contented with it to your son, what you were contented for yourself.'" [Istiqsaa Al-Ifhaam. Vol. 1, Pg. # 514, Tadhkiratul Khawas. Pg. # 62, Kashf Al-Hujb. Pg. # 445]

I say: The reason to put forward these narrations was to point that the talking of Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr with his father on his deathbed is not something exclusive to the Book of Sulaym and the books of the Shi'a only.

The Main Points Of The Discussion:

We see that the narration of the talking of Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr with his father near his death has been in detail and the narration is available in the book of Sulaym and through chains from Sulaym as we see its narration from Imam Al-Tabari and Al-Ghazali and ibn Al-Jawzi and others, and we are assured with all these narrations that Muhammad was at an age that he could talk with his father with those words on his deathbed.

Taking this into consideration we say: Aba Bakr died in the middle of the year 13 A.H., if the birth of Muhammad be the year of the last pilgrimage in the year 9 A.H., his age would be 4 years old when his father died, and if it was the year 8 A.H., he would be about 5 years old. We are in front of these two opinions about his birth without any consensus, neither any Tawatur, nor Istifadha about any one of those two opinions and there is no obligation to stick to these two opinions, rather the mentioned narrations about his talks with his father presents a third opinion about his birth and that is that he should have been at an age to be able to ask such questions and words near the death of his father, even if we do not know his exact age and this fact has been narrated both through Shi'a and the Aammah (i.e. the so-called Sunnis) as you know. [Pg. # 193 of this introduction]


Even if we submit to the contradiction of the three opinions on this issue, we always prefer what has been narrated in the Book of Sulaym, because it is a profound original source (Asl) that the scholars have authenticated, and this reliability is not existent in the other mentioned sources. With the addition that the Book of Sulaym is supported with other narrations even through Sunnis themselves. In addition to that, the narrations of the Shi'a are always preferable over what others have narrated after the reliability has been established about them.

Sayyed Al-Mowahid Al-Abtahi points to all this in his statement: "The birth of Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr in the year of the last pilgrimage, so that it could make possible his talk with his father, is something uncertain, even though it has become famous, so this does not imply the invalidity of his talk with his father."  [Tahdheeb Al-Maqaal. Vol. 1, Pg. # 186]

Notes:

1 - A number of great scholars have mentioned some other possibilities to solve the issue, even though we do not see any need to mention them after what we have presented of the proofs. However, there is no problem in mentioning them as a completion of whatever has been said about the issue. The two Majlisis,' the first and the second, have pointed to some possibilities and Mir Hamed Hussain and his brother Sayyed E'jaaz Husain and Sayyed Al-Khoei, [Rawdhatul Muttaqeen. Vol. 14, Pg. # 371, Bihar Al-Anwar. Vol. 8, Pg. # 195, Istiqsaa Al-Ifhaam, Vol. 1, Pg. # 514, Kashf Al-Hujb. Pg. # 445, Mu'jam Rijal Al-Hadeeth. Vol. 8, Pg. # 225], they say:

1 - It is possible that Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr was of the genius people who had astonishing abilities. Or we can say: Even common children can do astonishing things and they do not forget it throughout their lives, especially when the story is about the death of their father, so how about Abi Bakr who is that famous person who usurped the rights of the Commander of the Faithful (a.s).

Or we can say: That could have happened through a miracle from the Commander of the Faithful (a.s), so he talked with his father in that age and did not forget it, so that the report about his (a.s) usurped rights reach us.

And it has been narrated about Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr that he was the stepson of Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s) and his student, and was like one of his sons and he was suckled with Wilayah and Tashayyu' from childhood and he grew up with it, so he did know a father other than Alee (a.s) and he did not see superiority in anyone other than him.

Some have seen the possibility that: His mother Asma bint Umays might have informed him to reveal the real face of his father for him, because she was in constant connection with the house of the Commander of the Faithful (a.s).

2 - Some have said in response to this objection: "What exists in the Book of Sulaym is the talk of Abdullah ibn Umar with his father, not Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr."

I say: Both issues exist in the book, the story of the talk of Abdullah ibn Umar has been mentioned in Hadeeth # 37 and 11 too, as it was mentioned before.

3 - It has also been said in response to this objection: There was nothing except the weeping of his father and making him recite the Kalima, "There is No God, but God" and there is no talk, so there is no problem in his age.

I say: There was talking; Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr mentions his talk with his father and what was exchanged between him and Umar and what he mentions of the details of the story in that meeting, there are many issues, it was not just reciting the Kalima, so the accurate answer is what we have already mentioned in response to the objection.

4 - It has been also said in response to this objection: It is possible that it is of the alteration or mistakes of the narrators.

I say: The objection is not about a particular word that could have been altered or mistaken that can be solved with the correction of one word. It is rather a complete story, so there is no way for this to have happened.

5 - In many narrations and events that we are sure about their authenticity, there remain unsolved issues, because we do not have a source to confirm it or a reliable report that can clear up the issue. But it does not harm the authenticity of the narration as a whole, especially if the objection can accept some possibilities.

About this issue that we are talking about, the solution is in what we have already mentioned. However we can still say: Even if we do not know the age of Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr near the death of his father, due to the lack of a reliable source, it does not harm the authenticity of this Hadeeth which is surrounded with other evidences, even if we cannot solve that particular issue.



6 - It is strongly possible that the creation of this objection has deep agendas behind it to purify Abi Bakr from those words that came out of his mouth near his death, which is a historical document that reveals secrets and truths.

This is supported with what the author of Al-Dhari'a says about the Rijal of ibn Al-Ghazairi which is the source of this objection, he says: "Apparently the author of this book (i.e. the Rijal of ibn Al-Ghazairi) was of the enemies of the great Shi'a personalities and he wanted to degrade them with every trick and tool…," and what Al-Sayyed Al-Khoei says in his Rijal: "Some scholars have said with certainty that it (i.e. the Rijal of ibn Al-Ghazairi) is fabricated, some of the opponents have written it and has attributed it to ibn Al-Ghazairi." [Al-Dhari'a, Vol. 10, Pg. # 89, Mu'jam Rijal Al-Hadeeth. Vol. 1, Pg. # 102]

Source: The Introduction of the Book of Sulaym. Pg. # 187 - 198.


Our opponents might make a mockery of what Sayyed Al-Khoei has said in regards to the objection on the story of Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr in that it could have happened through a miracle from the Commander of the Faithful (a.s), so that he was able to talk with his father and remember what he had said on his deathbed.

Even though we support the answers of Sheikh Al-Zanjani Al-Khohini for that objection, we also do not reject what Sayyed Al-Khoei has said, as it is a possibility, hence we shall now present some examples from the books of our opponents to silence them forever on this objection Insha'Allah Ta'Ala.

Miracles Performed By Other Than The Prophets' (a.s)


Ibn Taymiyyah:

It is of the firm beliefs of Ahl Al-Sunnah:

To attest the Karamaat (i.e. miracles) of Al-Awliya (i.e. the friends of Allah (swt)) and what happens in their hands of the extraordinary actions in:

- Different fields of science
- Spiritual illumination
- Having different kinds of powers
- And impressions

Like what the people of the previous nations had in the Surah of Al-Kahf and so on, and what has happened in this Ummah through the companions and Al-Tabi'een and people of the later centuries of this Ummah. And it will exist among them till the Day of Judgment.

Source: Al-Aqeedah Al-Wasitiyya. Pg. # 123.


Here we find that in the books of the opponents, it was not only Isa (a.s) who  spoke when he was a mere child, but others also shared this great miracle.

Al-Bukhari:

Narrated Aboo Huraira: The Prophet (saw) said, "None spoke in a cradle but three: (The first was) Jesus (a.s), (the second was), there a man from Bani Isra'il called Juraij. While he was offering his prayers, his mother came and called him. He said (to himself), 'Shall I answer her or keep on praying?' (He went on praying) and did not answer her, his mother said, 'O Allah (swt)! Do not let him die till he sees the faces of prostitutes.' So while he was in his hermitage, a lady came and sought to seduce him, but he refused. So she went to a shepherd and presented herself to him to commit illegal sexual intercourse with her and then later she gave birth to a child and claimed that it belonged to Juraij. The people, therefore, came to him and dismantled his hermitage and expelled him out of it and abused him. Juraij performed the ablution and offered prayer, and then came to the child and said, 'O child! Who is your father?' The child replied, 'The shepherd.' (After hearing this) the people said, 'We shall rebuild your hermitage of gold,' but he said, 'No, of nothing but mud.' (The third was the hero of the following story); A lady from Bani Isra'il was nursing her child at her breast when a handsome rider passed by her. She said, 'O Allah (swt)! Make my child like him.' On that the child left her breast, and facing the rider said, 'O Allah (swt)! Do not make me like him.' The child then started to suck her breast again. (Aboo Huraira further said, "As if I were now looking at the Prophet (saw) sucking his finger (in way of demonstration.") After a while the people passed by with a lady slave and she (i.e. the child's mother) said, 'O Allah! Do not make my child like this (slave girl)! On that the child left her breast and said, 'O Allah (swt)! Make me like her.' When she asked why, the child replied, 'The rider is one of the tyrants while this slave girl is falsely accused of theft and illegal sexual intercourse.'"

Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. # 852, H. # 3436.


Muslim ibn Hajjaj:

Aboo Huraira reported Allah's Apostle (saw) as saying: None spoke in the cradle but only three (persons), Christ son of Mary (s.a), the second one the companion of Juraij. Juraij had constructed a temple and confined himself in that. His mother came to him as he was busy in prayer and she said: "Juraij." He said: "My Lord, my mother (is calling me while I am engaged in) my prayer." He continued with the prayer. She returned and she came on the next day and he was busy in prayer, and she said: "Juraij." And he said: "My Lord, my mother (is calling me while I am engaged) in prayer," and he continued with the prayer and she went back, and then on the next day she again came and he was busy in prayer and she said: "Juraij." And he said: "My Lord, my mother (is calling me while I am engaged in my prayer," and he continued with the prayer, and she said: "My Lord! Do not give him death unless he has seen the fate of the prostitutes." The story of Juraij and that of his meditation and prayer gained currency amongst Bani Isra'il. There was a prostitute who had been a beauty incarnate. She said (to the people): "If you like, I can allure him to evil." She presented herself to him but he paid no heed (to her). She came to a shepherd who lived near the temple and she offered herself to him and he had sexual intercourse with her and so she became pregnant, and when she gave birth to a child she said: "This is from Juraij." So they came and asked him to get down and demolished the temple and began to beat him. He said: "What is the matter?" They said: "You have committed fornication with this prostitute and she has given birth to a child from your loins." He said: "Where is the child?" They brought him (the child) and he said: "Just leave me so that I should observe prayer." And he observed prayer, and when he finished, he came to the child. He struck his stomach and said: "O boy, who is your father?" He said: "He is such shepherd." So they turned towards Juraij, kissed him and touched him (for seeking blessing) and said: "We are prepared to construct your temple with gold." He said. "No, just rebuild it with mud as it had been," and they did that. Then there was a babe who was sucking his mother that a person dressed in fine garment came riding upon a beast. His mother said: "O Allah (swt)! Make my child like this one." He (the babe) left sucking and began to see towards him, and said: "O Allah (swt)! Do not make me like him." He then returned to the chest and began to suck the milk of his mother. He (Aboo Huraira) said: "I perceived as if I am seeing Allah's Messenger (saw) as he is explaining the scene of his sucking milk with his forefinger in his mouth and sucking that." He (Aboo Huraira) further reported Allah's Apostle (saw) as saying: "There happened to pass by him a girl who was being beaten and they were saying: 'You have committed adultery and you have committed theft' and she was saying: 'Allah (swt) is enough for me and He is my good Protector,' and his mother said: 'O Allah (swt)! Do not make my child like her" and he left sucking the milk, and looked towards her and said: "O Allah (swt)! Make me like her," and there was a talk between them. She said: "O you with a shaven head! A good-looking person happened to pass by and I said: 'O Allah (swt), make my child like him,' and you said: 'O Allah (swt)! Do not make me like him,' and they passed by a girl while they were beating her and saying: You committed fornication and you committed theft, and I said: 'O Allah (swt)! Do not make my child like her,' and you said: 'O Allah (swt)! Make me like her.' Thereupon he said: 'That person was a tyrant, and I said: O Allah! Do not make me like him, and they were saying about her: You committed fornication whereas in fact she had not committed that and they were saying: You have committed theft whereas she had not committed theft, so I said: O Allah (swt)! Make me like her.'"

Source: Saheeh Muslim. Pg. # 1187 - 1188.


It is clear that our opponents believe in miracles through people other than the Prophets (a.s) including the companions and Tabi'een and the generations after them. In the narration of Bukhari and Muslim, we see that even an illegitimate born infant can talk and inform people of unseen issues, when a monk asks Allah (swt) for it. Hence, why does it become so unbelievable when the same is said for the Commander of the Faithful (a.s) in regards to Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr who was a righteous believer and neither an infant?!

The Imams Are Twelve And Not Thirteen

Sheikh Al-Zanjani Al-Khohini:

The objection that the number of Imams is thirteen in the Book of Sulaym and the discussion about it:

In brief we can't find in the Book of Sulaym that, "The Imams are thirteen" and what is in the book does not point this out at all and there is no word in it that point to this claim; as no single scholar has found such a thing in the book. This objection's origin is lack of attention and pondering on the sentences of the book and it is also a result of not checking the beginning and the end of the statements and not looking at the Book of Sulaym as a whole.

Here is the complete analysis of the mentioned claim in three steps:

1 - That the book is famous in limiting the number of Imams (a.s) to only twelve.

2 - We will present 24 examples of narrations from the Book of Sulaym that explicitly limit the number of Imams to twelve, despite other facts that point to this.

3 - We want to prove that the Hadeeth about the thirteen Imams does not exist in the Book of Sulaym and the fact that it is a result of copying mistakes that has happened in some manuscripts.

First Step:

The Book of Sulaym is famous since the third century and up to this day containing the narrations that is the beliefs of the Shi'a Al-Imamiyyah in limiting the number of Imams to only twelve. It is rather an astonishing claim that the Imams are thirteen has been attributed to a book like this. Her are some of the scholars who have pointed out this fact:

The famous historian Al-Mas'oudi who died in the year 345 A.H.: "Of those who limit the number of Imams are the Twelvers, whose source of limiting the number of Imams is what Sulaym ibn Qays Al-Hilali has mentioned in his book and their Imam in our time is the one whose reappearance is expected in this era that I have written the book, he is Muhammad son of Al-Hassan son of Alee son of Muhammad son of Alee son of Musa son of Ja'far son of Muhammad son of Alee son of Al-Hussain son of Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s), may Allah (swt) be pleased with them all." [Al-Tanbih Wa Al-Ishraaf. Pg. # 198]


And the scholar of Hadeeth Al-Nu'mani who died in the year 462 A.H.(he actually died in the year 360 A.H., we will Insha'Allah introduce him exclusively), he says in his book of Al-Ghaybah, in the chapter, "What has been narrated about the number of Imams being twelve." He then narrates six narrations from the book of Sulaym and then says: "It is one of the sources that the Shi'a have depended on and referred to. We have mentioned some of what has been narrated in that book and other books about the description of the Messenger of Allah (saw) and the twelve Imams (a.s) and the matching of those descriptions with them and the frequent repitition of their number and his (saw) statement: 'The Imams are from the progeny of Al-Hussain (a.s) and the ninth one of them is their Qa'im (ajf).', … and in this much there is enough proof to put an end to any excuse and to clear up any objection and to refute any false claim and to expose the lies of any innovator and to show the deviancy of any falsifier and it is a clear proof for the correctness of this number of Imams (a.s). It is not possible for anyone of those false claimants who call themselves Shi'a and the Shi'a are innocent of them, to put forward for the correctness of their claims proofs like this and they cannot find it anywhere, neither in the original books (i.e. Usool) that the Shi'a refer to, nor in the Saheeh (Authentic) narrations." [Al-Ghaybah of Al-Nu'mani, Pg. # 61]

Ibn Shahr Ashoub says in Al-Manaqib in the chapter of clear proofs about the twelve Imams(a.s): "A chapter of narrations that have been narrated through the Shi'a…as for what has been narrated from the Prophet (saw), the book Al-Kifaya suffices you…because he has narrated 155 narrations through many chains from the companions of the Prophet (saw), like ibn Abbas that Sa'eed ibn Jubayr has narrated from him…and like Salman from whom Sulaym ibn Qays has narrated." [Manaqib ibn Shahr Ashoub. Vol. 1, Pg. # 294]

Al-Allamah Al-Majlisi says in Bihar: "How can a believer doubt about the correctness of the belief in the Pure Imams (a.s), where it is Mutawaatir from them through near 200 explicit narrations that more than 40 trustworthy and great scholars have narrated in more than fifty books, like Thiqatul Islam Al-Kulayni and…and Sulaym ibn Qays Al-Hilali." [Bihar Al-Anwar. Vol. 53, Pg. # 122]

Al-Mirza Muhammad Abdul-Nabi Al-Nishabouri says in his book Tuhfatul Amin: "And the narration of the names of the twelve Imams (a.s) in their order has been narrated by Sulaym ibn Qays in his Asl…" [Rawdhaat Al-Jannaat. Vol. 7, Pg. # 131]

In the statements of these scholars there is enough evidence that the Book of Sulaym is the first source in this regard (i.e. in mentioning the names of the twelve Imams a.s).

Besides that, the fame of the Book of Sulaym as an original source for the Shi'a Al-Imamiyyah among them, is enough to conclude by certainty that the claim of the mentioning of thirteen Imams in this book is not true. And if it existed in it, even the layman among the Shi'a would have rejected this book, let alone the scholars among them.

The Second Step:

In this step all of the narrations in the Book of Sulaym that point to the number of Imams to be twelve will be presented. In some of these narrations the names of all of them or some of them have been mentioned too and it is supported also by other evidences to nullify any objection and doubt, and it will be known that the claim of "Thirteen Imams" and attributing it to the Book of Sulaym is something rather laughable.

1 - In the first narration of the book, the Messenger of Allah (saw) says: "And myself and my brother and the 11 Imams who are my successors till the Day of Judgment are all Guides, and are themselves Guided. After my brother, amongst all the successors the first one is Hassan (a.s), then second is Hussain (a.s), after whom the nine are from Hussain's (a.s) children..." [Pg. # 565 of the Book of Sulaym]

2 - In Hadeeth # 10 the Commander of the Faithful (a.s) says: I said: "O Prophet of Allah (saw), please tell me their names." He replied: "My, this son (he kept his hand on Hassan's (a.s) head), then after him my this son (and he kept his hand on the head of Hussain (a.s)) and then my this son's son (again he put his hand on Hussain's (a.s) head), then his son whose name will be same as mine, whose name will be Muhammad. He will spread my knowledge and he will be the treasurer of Allah's (swt) Message and O my brother, Alee (a.s) will be born soon during your life time so give him my Salaam."

Then he turned to Hussain (a.s) and said: "Very soon Muhammad ibn Alee (a.s) will be born in your life time – give him my Salaam." Then, O brother, the rest of the twelve Imams in your children" (i.e. twelve Imams including Alee (a.s).) Then I asked: "O Messenger of Allah (saw), tell me the names of all." So he (saw) uttered the name of each one individually.

So O brother of Bani Hilal, By God, the Mahdi (Guide) of this Ummah will be he who will fill this earth with justice and peace in the same manner that it is full of oppression and tyranny. By God, I know all of them who will pay him allegiance in between Rukn-Makam (place between Hajre Aswad and Makame Ibraheem), and I know their names and their tribe."

Fadhl ibn Shazaan in Mukhtasar Ithbatul Raj'ah and Al-Sadooq in Al-I'tiqadaat have narrated this Hadeeth in the exact form by mentioning the names of the Imams one by one and this is its text: The Commander of the Faithful (a.s) said: "O Messenger of Allah (saw), name them to me. He said: "You, O Alee (a.s), then this, my son" - and he put his hand on the head of Hassan (a.s). "And then this, my son" - and he put his hand on the head of Hussain (a.s).

"Then your namesake, O brother, he is the leader of the devotees; then his son, named Muhammad (a.s), the Opener (Baqir) of my knowledge, and the treasurer of the inspiration of Allah (swt). O brother, Alee (a.s) (Zayn ul-Abideen) will be born in your lifetime, so give my greetings to him. And Muhammad (a.s) (Al-Baqir) will be born in your lifetime, O Hussain (a.s), so give my greetings to him. And then Ja'far (a.s) (As-Sadiq); then Musa (Al-Kadhim) b. Ja'far (a.s); then Alee (Ar-Ridha) b. Musa (a.s); then Muhammad (At-Taqi) b. Alee (a.s); then Alee (An-Naqi) b. Muhammad (a.s); then Hassan Az-Zaki (Al-Askari) b. Alee (a.s); then he, whose name is my name and whose colour is my colour, - The upholder of the Command of Allah (swt) (Al-Qa'im Bi-Amri L-lah) in the final era, the Righteous Guide, WHO WILL FILL THE EARTH WITH JUSTICE AND EQUITY, JUST AS NOW IT IS FULL OF OPPRESSION AND WRONG. I swear by Allah (swt) O Sulaym! That people will swear allegiance to him between the Pillar (Rukn) and the Place (Maqam), and I know the names of the people who will support him and I know their tribes." [Pg. # 627 of the Book of Sulaym]

3 - In Hadeeth # 11 in the Tafsir of the verse of Wilayah: "Aboo Bakr and Umar stood up and asked: "O Messenger of Allah (saw), is this verse only for Alee (a.s)?" The Holy Prophet (saw) replied: "Indeed, for him and for all my inheritors till the Day of Judgment." They both said: "O Messenger of Allah (saw)! Tell us who they are." The Holy Prophet (saw) said: "Alee (a.s), my brother, my vizier, my successor, my inheritor, and my Caliph in my Ummah after me, and guardian of all believers after me. Then my son Hassan (a.s), then my son Hussain (a.s), then my son Hussain's (a.s) nine children, one after the other." [Pg. # 645 of the Book of Sulaym]

4 - In Hadeeth # 11 in the Tafsir of the verse of Purification: …Umm Salamah asked: "What about me, O Messenger of Allah?" The Holy Prophet (saw) replied: "You are worthy, but this verse is only for me, my brother, my daughter Faatima (s.a) and my two sons, and my son Hussain's (a.s) nine children, and nobody else is included with me - except them." [Pg. # 646 of the Book of Sulaym]

5 - In Hadeeth # 11 in the Tafsir of the verse about the witnesses of people: …Salman requested: "O Messenger of Allah (saw)! Tell me who they are." The Holy Prophet (saw) replied: "I, my brother and eleven from my children." [Pg. # 647 of the Book of Sulaym]


6 - In Hadeeth # 11 about the description of the Hadeeth, the Book of Allah (swt) and My Household: …Umar stood up and looked angry. He asked: "O Prophet of Allah (saw)! All the people of your house?" He (saw) replied: "No, but those from them who are my inheritors. The first of them is my brother Alee (a.s), who is my vizier, my inheritor, my Caliph in my Ummah and after me, the Wali of all Mo'mineen. He is the first of them, then my son Hassan (a.s) and then my son Hussain (a.s), then nine from the children of Hussain (a.s), one by one, until they come to me at the Fountain." [Pg. # 647 of the Book of Sulaym]


7 - In Hadeeth # 11 the mention of what the Messenger of Allah (saw) wrote on the skin near his death, after he ordered the companions to leave his house (on the occasion of the Pen and the Paper), the Commander of the Faithful (a.s) said: "When you people left, the Holy Prophet (saw) told me all these and also told me what he wanted to write and he wanted people to be witness to it. At that time Archangel Jibra'eel informed him that Allah Azz Wa Jall knew what opposition and separation the Ummah will have. Then he asked for a paper and asked me to write what he wanted written and made three people witness it - Salman, Aboo Dharr and Miqdad, and he told the names of the Imams who are guides, whose obedience Allah (swt) has commanded till the Day of Judgment. In these first is my name, and the second is this my son (pointing towards Hassan (a.s)). After him Hussain (a.s) and then nine from my this son Hussain (a.s)." [Pg. # 658 of the Book of Sulaym]

8 - In Hadeeth # 14 the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "O people! Allah (swt) looked the third time, then after me. He chose my twelve successors from my Ahlulbayt (a.s) and these are all righteous people of my Ummah. In there, there are eleven Imams after my brother one by one. When one of them passes away the other one from them takes his place.

Their example is like stars in the sky,…From all Imams, the first one is Alee (a.s) who is the best of all of them. Then my son Hassan (a.s), then my son Hussain (a.s), then nine from children of Hussain (a.s), and the mother of all these is my daughter Faatima Salawatullah Alayhim." [Pg. # 686 of the Book of Sulaym]

9 - In Hadeeth # 16 of the words of the monk who quoted from the books that he had inherited from Isa ibn Maryam (a.s) by the handwriting of Sham'oon, Sulaym says: "And he said that the book has mentioned names of thirteen people who will be from the descendents of Isma'eel ibn Ibraheem,…Their names are written in this book. Their family tree is written and their merits are written,…Ahmad is Allah's (swt) Prophet. His name is Muhammad… Then his brother, on the Day of Judgment, which is the Hashre Akbar (when absolutely everyone will become alive), will be Sahibul Liva. He will be the bearer of Liva-e-Hamd, which is a standard (flag),…Then eleven Imams who will be from the children of the first one of the twelve will be those whose names will be on Haroon's two sons Shabbar and Shabbir and nine will be from the younger two, and he is Hussain (a.s), who will be one after another. Their last one will be the one behind whom Isa (a.s) will recite the prayer." [Pg. # 706 of the Book of Sulaym]

10 - In Hadeeth # 21: One day the Holy Prophet (saw) saw Hassan (a.s) and Hussain (a.s)coming. He said:…"And in the eyes of Allah (swt), there is no one more meritorious than myself and my brother who is my vizier, my Caliph in my Ummah and after me is the guardian of all Mo'mineen - Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s),…When Alee (a.s) will pass away then my son Hassan (a.s) will be after him, and when he passes away, after him will be my son Hussain (a.s). After that there will be nine Imams who will be descendants of Hussain." [Pg. # 734 of the Book of Sulaym]

11 - In Hadeeth # 25 in the Tafsir of what Allah (swt) says: "This day have I perfected your religion": Salman requested: "O Messenger of Allah (saw), please explain it to us." He (saw) replied: "Alee (a.s) is my brother, my vizier, my successor, and my inheritor and in my Ummah is my Caliph, and after me he is the guardian of all Mo'mineen and from his children there are eleven Imams The first of them is my son Hassan (a.s), then Hussain (a.s), then nine from the children of Hussain (a.s), one after another." [Pg. # 759 of the Book of Sulaym]

12 - In Hadeeth # 25 also: Then the Holy Prophet (saw) said: "O people! Allah (swt) has commanded you in His Book about prayer and I showed it to you practically, and about Zakat, Fasting and Hajj, which I informed you and explained to you. He in His Book has commanded you concerning Wilayat, and O people, I make you witness that this Wilayat is particularily for Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s) and for those successors who are from my children and from my brother, my successor children. Alee (a.s) is the first one of them, then Hassan (a.s), then Hussain (a.s) and then nine from my son Hussain (a.s),…" [Pg. # 760 of the Book of Sulaym]

13 - In Hadeeth # 25 explaining the verse of Purification: The Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "Surely this verse has been revealed only for me, my brother Alee (a.s), my daughter Faatima (s.a) and my sons Hassan (a.s) and Hussain (a.s) and the nine Imams who will be from Hussain (a.s) who is my son. This is particularly for us and there is no one else included with us." [Pg. # 761 of the Book of Sulaym]

14 - In Hadeeth # 25 explaining the statement of Allah (swt): "The Apostle may be a bearer of witness to you, and you may be bearers of witness to the people" The Commander of the Faithful (a.s) said: "Salman stood up and said: 'O Messenger of Allah (saw)! Who are these people over whom you are witness and they witness over people, whom Allah (swt) has chosen and there is no excuse for them in Deen - that Deen which is the Deen of their father Ibraheem?' So the Holy Prophet (saw) replied: 'No doubt, it is for only thirteen people - myself, my brother Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s), and eleven from my children who will be one after another.'"[Pg. # 762 of the Book of Sulaym]

15 - In Hadeeth # 25 explaining the statement, "I leave among you two heavy things, the Book of Allah and my Household": Umar ibn Al-Khattab stood up with anger on his face and asked: "O Messenger of Allah (saw)! All your Ahlulbayt?" He (saw) replied: "No. But all my successors in which there is my brother, my vizier, my inheritor, my Caliph in my Ummah and after me is the guardian of every Mo'min, and eleven from his children. He is the first one of them and the best of all and after him, my these two sons (he pointed his hand towards Hassan (a.s) and Hussain (a.s)) then my son's successor whose name will be on my brother Alee (a.s). He is the son of Hussain (a.s) then Alee's (a.s) successor and his that son, named Muhammad (a.s), then Ja'far ibn Muhammad (a.s), then Musa ibn Ja'far (a.s), then Alee ibn Musa (a.s), then Muhammad ibn Alee (a.s), then Alee ibn Muhammad (a.s), then Hassan ibn Alee (a.s), then Muhammad ibn Hassan (a.s), -the Guide of this Ummah. His name will be like my name, his habit will be like my habit." [Pg. # 763 of the Book of Sulaym]

16 - In Hadeeth # 35: The Commander of the Faithful (a.s) said: "O Sulaym, my eleven successors who will be from my children are such Imams who are guides and are guided and are all Muhaddith." I asked: "O Amir ul Mo'mineen, who are they all?" He replied: "My this son Hassan (a.s), after him my this son Hussain (a.s), then my this son (and he held the hand of his grandson, Alee ibn Hussain (a.s), who was still an infant), then eight from his children, one after another, and these are those people about whom Allah (swt) has sworn and said: 'And (the mystic ties) Of Parent and Child' (Surah Balad: 3) Here 'Walid' is the Holy Prophet (saw) and myself and Wa Ma Walad" means these eleven successors, Salawatullah Alay him." [Pg. # 824 of the Book of Sulaym]

17 - In Hadeeth # 42: The Messenger of Allah (saw): "O people! When I am martyred then Alee (a.s) has more rights on your life than you yourself have, when Alee (a.s) is martyred then my son Hassan (a.s) has more rights over all believers than they themselves have, and when my son Hassan (a.s) is martyred, then my son Hussain (a.s) has more rights over all believers than they themselves, and when my son Hussain (a.s) is martyred, then my son Alee ibn Hussain (a.s) will have more rights over believers than they themselves. While they are all there, no one will have any choice."

Then he turned towards Alee (a.s) and said: "O Alee (a.s)! You will soon get him, so convey my Salaam to him, and when he is martyred his son Muhammad (a.s) will have more rights over believers than they themselves have, and O Hussain (a.s)! You will soon see him, so convey my Salaam to him. Then after Muhammad (a.s) there will be one after another, men, and while they are there, nobody will have a choice." Then he repeated this three times and said: "There will be no one from these who will not have more rights over believers than they themselves and while they are there, nobody will have a choice. These are all guides and are guided, and will be nine from children of Hussain." [Pg. # 837 of the Book of Sulaym]

18 - In Hadeeth # 42 also: Abdullah ibn Ja'far said: "Yes, I have heard the Holy Prophet (saw) say: 'There is no rank in a place of Heaven which is nearer to the Throne of my Lord, which is as excellent and supreme as my status. We will be fourteen people in there - myself, my brother Alee (a.s), the best of all and my best friend, and Faatima (s.a) who will be the leader of the entire women of Paradise, Hassan (a.s) and Hussain (a.s) and nine Imams from the children of Hussain (a.s). 

We will be fourteen people in one place. Allah (swt) has kept all evil away from us, and has purified us in such a manner that we deserve to be purified." In another version: "With me there are thirteen of my Household, my brother Alee (a.s) is the first of them and my daughter Faatima (s.a) and my two sons Al-Hassan (a.s) and Al-Hussain (a.s) and nine from the children of Al-Hussain (a.s) whom Allah (swt) has kept all evil away from, and has purified them a thorough purification." [Pg. # 840 of the Book of Sulaym]

19 - In Hadeeth # 45: The Messenger of Allah (saw): "Beware! Allah (swt) looked at the entire people on the earth and from them He chose two people. From these two, I am one,… The other one is Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s)…Be aware! Allah (swt) looked the second time so after us, He chose twelve successors from my Ahlulbayt and He declared them to be the best in my Ummah, one after the other." [Pg. # 857 of the Book of Sulaym]

I say: This Hadeeth will be discussed in particular in the third step of this part. [Pg. # 857 of the Book of Sulaym]

20 - In Hadeeth # 49 in the explanation of what the Messenger of Allah (saw) wrote in the skin after what Umar said (on the occasion of the Pen and the Paper): Salman said: "So he (saw) dictated the names of each guiding Imam one after another after him, and Alee (a.s) was writing it with his hands. He (saw) said: 'I am making you people witness that truly my brother, my vizier, my inheritor and my Caliph in my Ummah, after me, is Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s), then Hassan (a.s) and Hussain (a.s) then after them all, nine from the children of Hussain." [Pg. # 877 of the Book of Sulaym]

21 - In Hadeeth # 61 in the explanation of the People of Authority and Wilayah, The Prophet (saw) said: "The first one, the most meritorious and the best of all is this my brother Alee ibn Aboo Talib (a.s)." And he kept his hand on Alee's (a.s) head. "After him my this son." And he kept his hand on Hassan's (a.s) head. "Then, after him, my this son." and he kept his hand on Hussain's (a.s) head, "and nine Awsiya who will be from the children of Hussain (a.s), one after another." [Pg. # 906 of the Book of Sulaym]

22 - In Hadeeth # 61 also: The Prophet (saw) said: "From my Ahlulbayt there will be twelve Imams of guidance. All of them will be those calling towards paradise. Alee (a.s), Hassan (a.s) and Hussain (a.s) and nine from the children of Hussain (a.s), one by one. The Imam and the father of them all is Alee (a.s). I am the Imam of Alee (a.s), and Imam of them all." [Pg. # 907 of the Book of Sulaym]

23 - In Hadeeth # 67: The Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s) is my Caliph in my Ummah and he has more authority over all Mo'mineen than they themselves have. And when he leaves, my this son (and he put hs hand on the head of Hassan (a.s)) and when he passes away then my this son (and he put his hand on the head of Hussain (a.s)). Then nine from the children of Hussain (a.s) one after another." [Pg. # 922 of the Book of Sulaym]

24 - In Hadeeth # 77: The Prophet (saw) said to Al-Hussain (a.s): "You are Allah's (swt) authority and the son of Allah's (swt) authority, and the father of the authorities - nine who will be from your children. The ninth one of them will be their Qa'im." [Pg. # 940 of the Book of Sulaym]

These are the proofs in the book of Sulaym that limit the number of Imams to twelve. There are many other evidences about the subject in the book, so there remains no doubt after these many proofs that the claim, "The number of Imams is thirteen" and attributing it to the book of Sulaym, has no reality to it and it is not reasonable.

The Third Step:

In this step we prove that the words, "There are thirteen Imams" is not existent in the book at all and that it is a mistake of those who copied the texts in some manuscripts, we say:

1 - In Hadeeth # 16 where the monk reads from his book, "And he said that the book has mentioned names of thirteen people who will be from the descendents of Isma'eel ibn Ibraheem…Ahmad is Allah's (swt) Prophet. His name is Muhammad…Then his brother, who is the bearer of Liva-e-Hamd, which is a standard (flag),…Then eleven Imams…" [Pg. # 706 of the Book of Sulaym]

2 - In Hadeeth # 25: No doubt, it is for only thirteen people - myself, my brother Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s), and eleven from my children who will be one after another." [Pg. # 762 of the Book of Sulaym]

3 - In Hadeeth # 45: "Beware, Allah (swt) looked at the entire people on the earth and from them He chose two people. From these two, I am one,…The other one is Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s)…Be aware! Allah (swt) looked the second time so after us, He chose twelve successors from my Ahlulbayt and He declared them to be the best in my Ummah, one after the other." [Pg. # 857 of the Book of Sulaym]

As for the first and the second narration there is no dispute, because the thirteen men include the Messenger of Allah (saw) too, as it has been mentioned in the Hadeeth itself. As for the third narration, which is the main point of dispute and the dispute is about the words "After us" which goes back to the Messenger of Allah (saw) and the Commander of Faithful (a.s) and "Twelve" after them.

This objection can be answered in many ways:

First Answer: There is no problem in the sentence itself, because it could include Faatima Al-Zahra (s.a) in the twelve and that is in accordance with the subject of the Hadeeth that Allah (swt) has chosen them as His friends (Awliya) from among all his creatures on Earth when he started the creation. He made them the Chosen Ones among the Ummah of the Messenger of Allah (saw).

It rather has to consist of twelve people so that it includes Siddiqah Al-Tahira Faatima Al-Zahra (s.a), because we believe in her infallibility and that she is the owner of Divine Authority, except that she is not an Imam. So the meaning of what the Messenger of Allah (saw) says, is: When Allah Almighty chose us, Muhammad (saw) and Alee (a.s), from among his creatures, He then chose twelve other Wali's, who are Faatima (s.a) and eleven other individuals from among his infallible children, and He made them the Chosen Ones of my Ummah one after another.

And Hadeeth # 25 in the Book of Sulaym in the Tafsir of the verse of Purification supports this meaning, where the Prophet (saw) says: "Surely this verse has been revealed only for me, my brother Alee (a.s), my daughter Faatima (s.a) and my sons Hassan (a.s) and Hussain (a.s) and the nine Imams who will be from Hussain (a.s) who is my son. This is particularly for us and there is no one else included with us." [Pg. # 761 of the Book of Sulaym]

Second Answer: The words "After us" could be an alteration/copy mistake of "After me" in both ways the aim would be the number of Imams. And we found in some manuscripts "After me" without alteration. So due to the long time frame of 14 centuries and the multiplication of copying one manuscript into many others, especially if it is possible for a word to be altered/mistaken, we could be sure that it has happened from a narrator or the writer, when have heard it or copied the text from one manuscript into another. This possibility is also supported with the usage of the first person pronoun in, "My Household" and "My Ummah" in the Hadeeth. So as it is possible that it could be an alteration of, "After me" to "After us," it would be possible that the word "Eleven" has been altered to, "Twelve" as Allamah Al-Majlisi II has pointed out in Bihar Al-Anwar. Vol. 22, Pg. # 150. This is also supported by the fact that the very same Hadeeth has been mentioned in Hadeeth # 14 of the Book with this wording: "Allah (swt) looked the third time, then after me. He chose my twelve successors from my Ahlulbayt and these are all righteous people of my Ummah. In there, there are eleven Imams after my brother one by one. When one of them passes away the other one from them takes his place..." and at the end of the Hadeeth it mentions their names as follows: "The first one of Imams is Alee (a.s) who is the best of all of them. Then my son Hassan (a.s)…" [Pg. # 686 of the Book of Sulaym]

Third Answer: When we know that the Book of Sulaym is known for limiting the number of Imams to only twelve and mentions their names in many examples, and when we know also that this particular wording is not an explicit text about thirteen, it is rather an ambiguous wording, certainty will be achieved that it is of the mistakes of the narrators and we do not even need to prove the alteration, in other words the narrator has not mentioned except the nomination of twelve and he has mentioned them as "Twelve" but has forgotten the words "After us" that was mentioned before it. The examples of such mistakes are existent in many other books.

Mir Hamed Hussain says in Istiqsaa Al-Ifhaam, the Arabic of it is: "After investigation in the Book of Sulaym from the beginning to the end and checking every sentence, it became clear that there is not mention of the Imamate of thirteen Imams at all, so that it can be taken a proof for the Imamate of other than the Messenger of Allah (saw) and the infallible Imams (a.s). There are rather explicit narrations in it that the Pure Imams are twelve as long as there is days and nights, and that they are eleven heirs of the Best of Creation (saw). So when it is clear that in the book there are explicit texts and clear nominations (of twelve Imams), then how the Imamate of thirteen Imams could have been mentioned in it, which the narrations of the book itself falsifies it in multiple places of the book." [Istiqsaa Al-Ifhaam. Vol. 1, Pg. # 540 - 550]

Sheikh Muhammad Taqi Al-Tustari says: "It is of miswording of the narrators, otherwise such mistakes exist even in Al-Kafi. As it is the case in the chapter about the nomination of the twelve Imams by the Prophet (saw): 'I and twelve persons from my descendants and you, O Alee (a.s), are the safety anchor of the earth…If all the twelve persons from my family will no longer be there, the earth will devour her inhabitants without delay.' [Al-Kafi. Vol. 1, Pg. # 534, H. # 17]

And in another narration from him (saw): "From my descendants there will be twelve noble supervisors, who are Muhaddathun, persons to whom angels speak, and very intelligent. The last of them will be Al-Qa'im." [Al-Kafi. Vol. 1, Pg. # 534, H. # 18]

And Aboo Sa'eed Al-Asfuri has narrated the same narration with the wording "eleven" [Asl of Abi Sa'eed Al-Asfuri. Pg. # 1]

And in a third narration from Jabir Al-Ansari who said: "Once I went to see Faatima (s.a), daughter of the Holy Prophet (saw), and I saw with her a tablet in which the names of the executors of the wills (a.s) from her descendants were written." [Al-Kafi. Vol. 1, Pg. # 532 H. # 9]

And it has been narrated in Kamaluddin and Al-Uyoon and Al-Khisal without the words "From her descendants." [Kamaaluddin wa Tamaamun Ni'ma. Pg. # 311, H. # 3, Uyoon Al-Akhbar, Vol. 1, Pg. # 37, H. #6 and Al-Khisal. Ch. 12 H. # 42]

And in a fourth narration from Al-Baqir (a.s): "Twelve A'immah (a.s) from the family of Muhammad (saw) and they all will be Muhaddathun, persons to whom angels speak. They will be of the descendants of the Messenger of Allah (saw) and Alee ibn Aboo Talib (a.s)." [Al-Kafi. Vol. 1, Pg. # 533, H. # 14]

And it has been narrated in Al-Khisal and Al-Uyoon with the wording: "They all will be Muhaddathun, persons to whom angels speak, after the Messenger of Allah (saw) and Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s)." [Uyoon Al-Akhbar. Vol. 1, Pg. # 46, H. # 24 and Al-Khisal. Ch. 12, H. # 49]

And in a fifth narration from Abi Sa'eed Al-Khudri in the questions of the Jew about the Imams after the Prophet (saw) and the Commander of the Faithful (a.s), so he (a.s) said to him: "This nation will have twelve A'immah. All of them will be from the descendents of the Holy Prophet (saw), of this nation. They will be from my descendants." Until he says: "Those who will be with him therein in his dwelling will be these twelve people from his descendants." [Al-Kafi. Vol. 1, Pg. # 532, H. # 8]

And with the same meaning Al-Nu'mani has narrated it also without "From the descendants of the Holy Prophet (saw)" the end of what Sheikh Al-Tustari says in Qamoos Al-Rijal. [Qamoos Al-Rijal. Vol. 4, Pg. # 452]

Notes:

A: Some might say in reply to this objection that there is no problem in this kind of wording, because it is correct as a metaphor. Mir Hamed Hussain says: "The person who attributes this objection to the Book of Sulaym is mistaken due to the statement of the Messenger of Allah (saw): 'The Imams (a.s) are twelve after us.' So if we suppose the Commander of Faithful (a.s) as one of them, then they would be thirteen. However, metaphorically it is correct for the Commander of the Faithful (a.s) to be one of those twelve and there is no problem in this." [Istiqsaa Al-Ifhaam. Vol. 1, Pg. # 540 - 550]

Allamah Muhammad Taqi Majlisi I says: "It is in the form of majority (i.e. the majority of them are from the descendants of the Prophet (saw)), even though the Commander of the Faithful (a.s) was like a son for the Messenger of Allah (saw), as he was his brother, and the examples of this kind of wordings exist in Al-Kafi and other books too." [Rawdhatul Muttaqeen. Vol. 14, Pg. # 371]. And Allamah Majlisi says the same. [Bihar Al-Anwar. Vol. 22, Pg. # 150]

I say: Apparently the source of their statements is what we mentioned of the miswording of the narrators.

B: A number of the scholars of Rijal have said, among them Al-Istarabadi and Al-Tafrishi and Al-Sayyed E'jaaz Hussain and others, that they checked the book page by page from the beginning to the end and they could not find anything that could mean that there will be thirteen Imams. [Minhaaj Al-Maqaal. Pg. # 171, Naqd Al-Rijal, Pg. # 159. Kashf Al-Hujb, Pg. # 445]

I say: Their statements point to what we mentioned in the first step or what we mentioned about the origins of the objection that it is due to the miswording of the narrators or copying mistake/alteration, maybe their manuscripts were empty of this mistake as it is the case in some the manuscripts that we have seen. Therefore their statements that they could not find anything about it, is severely firm.

G: Al-Najashi says in the biography of Habbatullah ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad Al-Katib: "He (i.e. Habbatullah) used to learn Al-Kalaam and used to participate in the lessons of Abil Hussain ibn Shaybah Al-Alawi who was a Zaydi, so he wrote a book for him and mentioned that the Imams are thirteen with Zayd ibn Alee ibn Al-Hussain, and he took a Hadeeth in the Book of Sulaym ibn Qays Al-Hilali as a proof that the Imams are twelve of the descendants of the Commander of the Faithful (a.s)." [Fehrist of Al-Najashi. Pg. # 308]

I say: Habbatullah was contemporary to ibn Al-Ghazairi, who was of the scholars of the fifth century and it is highly possible that the dislike of ibn Al-Ghazairi of the Book of Sulaym and presenting to him this objection was the origin of this objection, that Habbatullah had written that book on the basis of the Zaydi sect.

We answer to Habbatullah in the following manner, first of all; the presentation of the objection only which does not exist in the Book of Sulaym and which does not prove his claim, does not cast doubt on the Book of Sulaym. So whatever we have said to this point in the three previous steps, is an answer to him too, and we add other answers to it too:

First: There is no point in the Hadeeth that he has taken as proof about the existence of twelve men of the descendants of the Commander of the Faithful (a.s), rather what can be said at most is that there will be twelve Awliya after the Messenger of Allah (saw) and the Commander of the Faithful (a.s).

Allamah Al-Mamaqani has presented the best answer in Tanqih Al-Maqaal that Habbatullah has changed the words in the Book of Sulaym from, "The Imams of the children of Isma'eel" to, "Imams from the children of the Commander of the Faithful (a.s)," so it is a sign for the book of Habbatullah to be fabricated not the Book of Sulaym. [Tanqih Al-Maqaal. Vol. 1, Pg. # 186]

Second: Sayyed Al-Abtahi says in Tahdheeb Al-Maqaal: "Even if we accept that the claimed Hadeeth exists in the book, it would necessitate the falsification of the Wilayat and Imamate of the Commander of the Faithful (a.s), because after pointing out the number in the beginning, and that the Imams are of the children of Alee (a.s), Alee (a.s) will be out of the Hadeeth, so it is not allowed to act upon its apparent words." [Tahdheeb Al-Maqaal. Vol. 1, Pg. # 186]

Third: What can we expect from someone who writes a book of Zaydiyyah, that its aim was to falsify the Imamiyyah beliefs. So can we use a work that was written with that aim as a means of slandering our main sources (Usool) that we use to prove the rightfulness of beliefs considering the fact that Imam Al-Sadiq (a.s) says: "Your main concern is the affairs of your religion. The main concern of your enemies is you. Their hearts are full of enmity against you. They distort the words that they hear from you, consider other things as equal to you, and they accuse you of such things out of slander. This is surely a sufficient act of disobedience in the sight of Allah (swt)." [Bihar Al-Anwar. Vol. 2, Pg. # 218, H. # 13 from Sifaat Al-Shi'a of Al-Sadooq. H. # 29]

D: You found out from what we explained that the presentation of this objection "i.e. The attribution of thirteen Imams" began from the lack of looking into the content of the book with precision and the lack of studying it with care, as Habbatullah has attributed to the book, which might be the origin of this objection, due to a kind of enmity and quarrel with the Shi'a Al-Imamiyyah, so maybe he wanted to destroy our Usool in a way that we can not recognise.

H: Among the evidences that supports the mistakes could have happened through their miswording is that the historian Al-Mas'oudi says that the origin of the limitation of the number of Imams to twelve is the Book of Sulaym, then he presents a Hadeeth of the book as proof and he paraphrases it from the Messenger of Allah (saw) to Alee (a.s): "You and twelve of your children of the Imams of truth." [Al-Tanbih Wa Al-Ishraaf. Pg. # 198]

W: Sayyed Al-Khwansari says in Rawdhaat Al-Jannaat, "In the mentioned Hadeeth, after 'Chosen after us twelve heirs' he says: 'The first of the Imams is my brother Alee (a.s), then my son Al-Hassan (a.s)…" [Rawdhaat Al-Jannaat. Vol. 4, Pg. # 71]

I say: You know from what was mentioned before that his statement: "The first of the Imams is Alee (a.s)…" exists in Hadeeth # 14, [Pg. # 686 of the Book of Sulaym], and there is no dispute that there is no "Chose after us" in it. As for Hadeeth # 45 that is the main point of dispute there is not such words.

So up to this point the discussion about the nullification of the dispute about the book containing words that point to the existence of thirteen Imams comes to an end.

Source: The Introduction of the Book of Sulaym. Pg. # 170 - 174.


Some Additional Points About The Two Above Mentioned Objections:

Sheikh Al-Zanjani Al-Khohini:

Al-Sheikh Al-Khajawi in his Al-Fawahid Al-Rijaliyyah Pg. # 327: "The flaws of the objections that have been given as signs for the book to be fabricated is obvious, and the book belongs to Sulaym ibn Qays, as the Eminent Sheikh Al-Najashi has mentioned in the beginning of his book and in the biography of Sulaym and also from what Sheikh Al-Tusi and Al-Kash'shi and others have stated. Besides that, it is obvious that Aban, rather even people who are in a higher status than him cannot fabricate a book like this, and if it was fabricated or there was any sign of fabrication in it, the trustworthy scholar of Islam, 'Al-Kulayni' would have never narrated from it in his book Al-Kafi in different chapters according to their subjects and to the extent of what he needed of the narrations of the book."

I say about the objection that of "Thirteen Imams": There is no one in this world that believes in thirteen Imams at all, especially beside the twelve Imams that are established, because Al-Zaydiyyah believe in the unbroken Imamate of the descendants of Zayd after him then in Fatimiyeen and the number exceeds up to this day hundreds of Imams and their names are mentioned in their books that are written in that field, so they do not believe in our Imams after Imam Zainul-Abideen (a.s).

So based on this, the addition of Zayd into the twelve Imams would be a new innovated Madh'hab that has no one to call to it in the world. So it will be asked: Who are these thirteen Imams whose names are neither mentioned in the book of Sulaym and nor in other books and it does not match with the beliefs of any particular Madh'hab.

And it would be astonishing that the origin of this belief and this new innovated religion be the mistake of one word or its alteration in "After me" or in "Twelve."

As for the objection of Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr: And that is the problem that Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr was not at an age of answering what was asked from him, then after that they heard Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr they ordered him to conceal it and they did not accuse him of forgetting or making a mistake because he was a child.

Al-Sheikh Al-Hurr Al-Amili narrates a narration that points to the fact that has been mentioned in the book of Sulaym. In Ithbatul Huda. Vol. 2, Pg. # 368, H # 205: He has narrated it from Al-Bayadhi in Siraat Al-Mustaqeem from Al-Hussain ibn Kathir from his father who said: "Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr entered upon his father while he was ill, so he said to him: "How are you?" He said: "The oppression of ibn Abi Talib (a.s)!"

There are also other historical issues that shows that the age of Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr was at a level that he could say things that are higher in meaning than what he talked with his father near his death, and we will mention two examples:

A: Al-Sayyed Al-Bahrani has narrated in his book Madinatul Ma'ajiz: Pg. # 129, miracle 361 through his chain Abi Sa'eed Al-Khudri in the story of Al-Khawla Al-Hanafiyyah who was one of the tribe of Malik ibn Nuwaira and the gangs of Abi Bakr had taken her as captive after killing Malik. He said: Khawla entered into the mosque and explained what she explained and Alee (a.s) was not present, so a group of companions were suggested to her and she was asking every man his name until she reached a man who was called Alee, she asked: "Who are you?" He said: "I am Alee ibn Abdullah Al-Ghurafi!" She said: "If you were Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s) I would have submitted myself to him, because I won't submit myself to anyone other than him, that is what my father has ordered me." Then the Commander of the Faithful (a.s) was informed, so he came and told her story through unseen knowledge, so she submitted herself to him (a.s).

So one of the two men (i.e. Abi Bakr or Umar) said: That his share and the share of his children has exceeded with another man, then Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr stood up and said: "That is my share by Allah (swt)!" Then said: "O Umar! How much do you antagonize this man while there is no one like him among you?" So people started screaming supporting Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr…

So in this narration we see that Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr was defending the Commander of the Faithful (a.s) during the life of Abi Bakr, and he was talking in the crowd of people with such words, he was even at an age that could calculate the shares of booty.

B: Allamah Al-Tustari says in the Al-Akhbar Al-Dakhila. Pg. # 234: The writer of Al-Waqidi has narrated from some of their narrators that: Aba Bakr asked to be washed after his death by his wife Asma, if she was not able to wash his body, then Muhammad his son should help her.

I say: and the age of Muhammad according to several narrations was higher than a child.

Source: The introduction of the Book of Sulaym. Pg. # 7 - 9.



Al-Mas'oudi:

And among the peremptory statements about the twelvers (Imamate) are those essentially concerned about a restricted number, like what Sulaym bin Qays Al-Hilali mentioned in his book which he has narrated from Aban bin Abi Ayyash, that the Prophet (saw) said to the commander of the faithful Alee bin Abi Talib (a.s): "You and twelve men from you progeny are the Imams of the truth." And none has narrated this tradition except Sulaym bin Qays, and that their awaited Imam whom is expected to appear in our time, whose name is authored in our book like this: Muhammad bin Al-Hassan bin Alee bin Muhammad bin Alee bin Musa bin Ja'far bin Muhammad bin Alee bin Al-Hussain ibn Alee bin Abi Talib (May Allah (swt) be pleased with them all).

Source: Al-Tanbeeh Wa Al-Ishraf. Pg. # 198 - 199.



Attesting Al-Mas'oudi

Ahmad ibn Al-Siddiq:

Nay, they attributed Darqutni to Shi'ism although he is far from it, just because he memorized the poems of Hemayri. Nay, they talked about Shafi'i and attributed him to Shi'ism just because he agreed with the Shi'ee on some issues in which they (Shi'ee) were right and did not innovate in, such as pronouncing Bismillah loudly, performing Qunoot during morning prayer, wearing a ring on the right hand and his inclination towards Ahlulbayt (a.s), may Allah (swt) be pleased with him pointed to that in his famous poems. And they called Al-Mas'oudi weak and attributed him to Shi'ism just because of his statement in Muruj Al-Dhahab: "The things which the companions of Allah's Messenger (saw) deserved virtue because it is their preceding to (bring) Iman, migration, support to Allah's messenger (saw), nearness to him, conviction and sacrifices by their souls for him. Their knowledge about the Holy Qur'aan, Jihad for the sake of Allah (swt), godliness, asceticism, judgment, chastity, knowledge and all that Alee (a.s) had the biggest share of, beside his (Alee's (a.s)) distinction by special virtues such as brotherhood, inclining towards him (a.s) and status (of Aaron (a.s))."



Source: Fath Al-Malik Al-Alee. Pg. # 155.




Authenticity Of The Book Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal

Now that we answered all the objections against the Book of Sulaym and proved its authenticity, it would be worth discussing one of most significant Hadeeth collections from among the so-called 'Ahl Al-Sunnah.'

No doubt the Musnad of Ahmad ibn Hanbal is the largest Hadeeth collection of our opponents which contains about 30,000 narrations. The scholars have always given great attention to it and valued this large Hadeeth collection, even claiming that it does not contain a single fabricated narration.

Ahmad ibn Hanbal is famously recorded to have said about his book: "The content of this book has been gathered and chosen by me from more than seven hundred and fifty thousand narrations. So whatever narrations from the Messenger of Allah (saw) that people have disagreement with, refer it to my book so you may find it. And if you did not find it then the narration has no strong value." This saying of his has been attested by numerous scholars.

Tahir Al-Dimashqi:

"Musnad Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal although he committed himself to record Saheeh (Authentic) in his book."


Source: Tawjeeh Al-Nazar. Pg. # 154.



 Muhammad ibn Umar Al-Madini:

"He (Ahmad ibn Hanbal), was careful with the chain and the content, hence he only recorded what is authentic according to him."
  
Source: Khasa'is Musnad Ahmad. Pg. # 34 - 35.


Al-Albani:


Hanbal ibn Ishaq said: 'Our uncle (Ahmad) gathered us, me, Saleh and Abdullah. He taught us "Al-Musnad" and nobody else heard it in its complete form except us. And he (i.e. Ahmad ibn Hanbal) said: "This book is what I compiled and picked from more that seven hundred and fifty thousand Hadeeths. Whenever the Muslims argue about a Hadeeth of the Messenger of Allah (saw) you should turn to this book, if you find it in this book then it is true, and if not then it is not true."


(Al-Albani says): 'This is what Al-Hafidh Al-Madini in "Al-Khasa'is" and ibn Al-Jawzi in "Manaqib Imam Ahmad" have narrated through two chains from Hanbal, so it is firm and Saheeh (Authentic).

Source: Al-Zaab Al-Ahmad. Pg. # 12. 


 





Now let us investigate how the book has been transmitted through time to scholars of the later generations. Do we actually find that it is Saheeh or not?

 The Musnad of Ahmad ibn Hanbal has been passed on to later generations via the following chain:

1 - Ahmad ibn Hanbal (164 - 241 A.H.)

2 - Abdullah ibn Ahmad ibn Hanbal (213 - 290 A.H.)

3 - Ibn Malik Al-Qati'ee (274 - 368 A.H.)

4 - Ibn Al-Muz'hib (355 - 444 A.H.)

5 - Ibn Al-Hussain Al-Shaybani (432 - 525 A.H.)

As for 1 and 2, they are Ahmad ibn Hanbal and his son Abdullah who do not need an introduction, so we shall begin with the 3rd narrator, Al-Qati'ee who has narrated the Musnad from Abdullah ibn Ahmad ibn Hanbal.


3 - Ibn Malik Al-Qati'ee (274 - 368 A.H.):


Ahmad Shakir: 

As for Al-Qati'ee the narrator from him (i.e. from Abdullah ibn Ahmad ibn Hanbal)...he was born in Muharram of the year 274 A.H. and he heard Hadeeth at an age that he could distinguish with the support of his father, from...and from Abdullah son of Al-Imam Ahmad.

Source: Introduction of Musnad Ahmad. Vol. 1, Pg. # 46.


Al-Dhahabi: 

Al-Qati'ee, knowledgeable Sheikh of Hadeeth, scholar of Hadeeth in Iraq, Aboo Bakr, Ahmad ibn Ja'far ibn Hamdan ibn Malik ibn Shabib Al-Baghdadi Al-Qati'ee Al-Hanbali, the narrator of Musnad of Imam Ahmad and Al-Zuhd and his book of Al-Fadha'il. He was born at the beginning of the year 274 A.H. 

Ibn Bukayr said: I heard him saying: "Abdullah ibn Ahmad used to come to us and Aboo Abdullah ibn Al-Khassas, the uncle of my mother, used to learn from him in the room, until it was said to him: 'Does he tire you?' And he said: 'I like him.'"

Abul Hassan ibn Al-Furat said that he has heard many narrations, except that he confused it at the end of his life and lost his sight and became dotage to the extent that he could not distinguish what was recited back to him (of narrations).

Al-Khatib says: I heard the jurist Ahmad ibn Ahmad Al-Qasri saying: Ibn Al-Lubban Al-Fardhi told me: "Do not go to Al-Qati'ee, he has become weak-minded and confused and I prohibited my son to hear Hadeeth from him."

Ibn Abil Fawaris says: "He was not a strong narrator. He has things in the original Musnad that are doubtful, it is said that he wrote them after they were drowned. He was an isolated person and owner of narrations."

Al-Sulami says: I asked Dar Al-Qutni about him, he said: "Trustworthy, pious and an old narrator and I have heard that his Du'as were answered."

Al-Barqani says: He was a righteous person, his father was connected with the government, Abdullah ibn Ahmad used to teach the son of that governor and Al-Qati'ee was present, then part of his books drowned after that, so he copied them from a book that is said he had not heard, so scholars have attacked him because of that, but he is truthful in my opinion, he was a bit dulling. I degraded him in front of Al-Hakim, but he disliked it that I did it and then he praised him and said: "He was my Sheikh."

He died seven days before the month of Dhil Hijjah of the year 368 A.H. at the age of 95.

Source: Siyar A'lam Al-Nubala. Vol. 16, Pg. # 210 - 213. 


4 - Ibn Al-Muz'hib (355 - 444 A.H.):

Ahmad Shakir:

As for narrator from Al-Qati'ee, he is ibn Al-Muz’hib...he was born in the year 355 A.H. and heard Musnad at the age of ten from Al-Qati'ee.

Source: Introduction of Musnad Ahmad. Vol. 1, Pg. # 47 - 48.


Al-Dhahabi:

Al-Hassan ibn Alee ibn Muhammad, Aboo Alee ibn Al-Muz'hib Al-Tamimi Al-Baghdadi, the preacher and the narrator of Musnad from Al-Qati'ee. He has narrated from ibn Masi, Abi Sa'eed Al-Hurfi. Ibn Lulu Al-Warraq and a group of other people.

Al-Khatib says: He used to narrate from Al-Qati'ee the entire Musnad of Ahmad, his hearing (of Hadeeth) was Saheeh, except in some of its volumes, because he had added his name in them. He also used to narrate the book Al-Zuhd of Ahmad, while he did not have an original copy, his manuscript was with his own handwriting, and he is not worthy of taking as proof. I asked him about his birthdate, he said: the year 355 A.H. and he died in the year 444 A.H.

Ibn Nuqta says: The saying of Al-Khatib: "His hearing was Saheeh, except for some volumes of it," it seems that he did not inform Al-Khatib about it, if he did it could be beneficial. And we mentioned that the Musnad of Fadhala ibn Ubayd and Awf ibn Malik did not exist in the book of ibn Muz'hib, likewise some of the narrations of the Musnad of Jabir did not exist in his manuscript, Al-Harrani has narrated it from Al-Qati'ee. If the man used to add his name in it as Al-Khatib claims, he could add his name in the others too. 

Then we see that Al-Khatib narrates from him some things in his books: Narrated to us Al-Hassan ibn Alee from Ja'far Al-Qari from Aboo Tahir Al-Salafi who said: I asked Shuja Al-Zehli about ibn Al-Muz'hib, he said: "He was an intractable person in narration, he had heard many narrations, but he was not of those who can be trusted in narration, it seemed that he was confused about some of his hearing of narrations."

Then Al-Salafi told us: "Despite his intractability in narration, he has been talked against, because he has narrated the book of Al-Zuhd from Ahmad after its original was destroyed."

Abul Fadhl ibn Khayroon says: "He has narrated the Musnad and Al-Zuhd and other books, I heard from him all of them." 

Al-Khatib says: "Ibn Al-Muz'hib narrated a Hadeeth from ibn Malik Al-Qati'ee that he had not heard it from him." 

I (Al-Dhahabi) say: Maybe he had his permission to narrate his narrations in the form of Wijada (i.e. finding somewhere), because he used to accompany Al-
Qati'ee.

Narrated to us Sa'eed Al-Hurfi from Aboo Shu'ayb Al-Harrani, then said and narrated to us from Al-Dar Qutni and Al-Warraq and Abi Umar ibn Mahdi from Al-Muhamili a Hadeeth. So I said to him: "Ibn Mahdi did not have this narration." So he erased the name of ibn Mahdi from his original manuscript.  

He used to often present narrations to me that the origins of the narrators of them was not clear, so I used to tell him and he used to add their origins in the chains in his original manuscript, I told him to not do this, but he never listened. 

I (Al-Dhahabi) say: It is apparent about ibn Al-Muz'hib that he was an untrusted Sheikh, like his Sheikh ibn Malik, that is why in Musnad there are things that are not firm in their contents and chains. Allah (swt) knows best.    

Source: Mizan Al-I'tidal. Vol. 2, Pg. # 262 - 263, Person # 2546 / 1918. 


Al-Dhahabi:

We mentioned previously in the biography of ibn Ghaylan that Al-Rashidi wanted to have the permission to narrate the Musnad of Imam Ahmad from Abi Alee (i.e. Ibn Al-Muz'hib), he refused to give him permission unless he gave him twenty Dinar.

Source: Siyar A'lam Al-Nubala. Vol. 17, Pg. # 643.


5 - Ibn Al-Hussain Al-Shaybani (432 - 525 A.H.):

Ahmad Shakir:

As for ibn Al-Hussain, may Allah (swt) have mercy on him, (the narrator from ibn Al-Muz'hib)...he was born on the 4th of Rabi Al-Awwal of the year 432 A.H. and he heard Musnad from ibn Al-Muz'hib at the end of the year 436 and 437 A.H.


Source: Introduction of Musnad Ahmad. Vol. 1, Pg. # 49.


Al-Dhahabi:

Ibn Al-Hussain: The noble Sheikh, truthful scholar of Hadeeth, scholar of Hadeeth in many cities, Abul Qasim Habbatullah ibn Muhammad ibn Abdul-Wahed ibn Ahmad ibn Al-Abbas ibn Al-Hussain Al-Shaybani, originally from Hamazaan, Al-Baghdadi Al-Katib.

His birth was in the 4th Rabi Al-Awwal of the year 432 A.H. He has heard Hadeeth in the year 337 A.H. from Abi Talib ibn Ghilaan and Abi Alee ibn Al-Muz'hib and Abi Muhammad ibn Al-Muqtadir and Abil Qasim Al-Tanukhi and Qadhi Abi Tayyeb Al-Tabari and a group of others.

He is the only narrator of Musnad Ahmad, and the narrator of Abi Bakr Al-Shafi'i known as Al-Ghaylaniyyaat and Yashkariyyaat. He has heard most of the Musnad in the year 436 A.H. this is what ibn Al-Muz'hib confirms about ibn Al-Hussain, he says: "He heard from me the Musnad in the years 436 and 437 A.H."

I (Al-Dhahabi) say: According to this, his hearing of Musnad was in the year 436 A.H. while he was at the age of five and he dictated it to him in several sessions, then others gathered around him to narrate it from him.

Footnote: (Al-Arna'ut): He (ibn Al-Hussain) narrates it (i.e. Musnad Ahmad) from the scholar of Hadeeth Abi Alee Al-Hassan ibn Alee, known as ibn Al-Muz'hib from the scholar of Hadeeth of Baghdad Ahmad ibn Ja'far ibn Hamdan Al-Qati'ee from Abdullah son of Imam Ahmad from his father.

Ibn Al-Jawzi says: His father sent him and his brother Abdul-Wahed from a very young age to learn Hadeeth, so they heard Hadeeth, and I heard from him the Musnad, he was trustworthy, he died in the 4th Shawal of the year 525 A.H. 

Source: Siyar A'lam Al-Nubala. Vol. 19, Pg. # 536 - 538.


After presenting the chain of the entire Musnad of Ahmad, we shall give a summary of the above mentioned points:
  • Al-Qati'ee, a young boy under the age of sixteen hears the entire Musnad from Abdullah ibn Ahmad from his father.
  • Al-Qati'ee loses his original manuscripts in drowning and he copies it again from an unknown source without hearing it.
  • Al-Qati'ee, who was an untrustworthy Sheikh and older than eighty years of age, lost his memory, became feeble minded and could not distinguish between the narrations that were recited back to him. But despite this, he narrates the entire Musnad of Ahmad to ibn Al-Muz'hib, a young boy of about ten years of age who was also untrustworthy, an intractable person who was unsure about what was narrated to him and would be one to alter the chains of narration by removing names due to slight suggestions. Thus when he reached above eighty years of age, he narrates the entire Musnad of Ahmad to ibn Al-Husayn Al-Shaybani, a child of 4 to 5 years of age, who then becomes the single narrator of the entire Musnad of Ahmad to the scholars of the later generations.
So with this interesting chain, we get the largest and one of the most significant Hadeeth collections of the so-called 'Ahl Al-Sunnah.'!!!

Now we ask the following questions:  

How is it that a boy of 4 to 5 years of age is able to understand and write down what is dictated to him and then recites a Musnad of about 30,000 narrations to his Sheikh who is careless in this field and whose intentions are on how much money he earns for it?!

But the narration of Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr who talks only a few sentences with his father and remembers it, is not acceptable?

Which one of the two is more unlikely? Hearing 30,000 narrations and understanding them? Or hearing a few sentences from your father on his deathbed?

We leave the reader to pontificate on this matter. 

All in all, we find that for the objections made on the Book of Sulaym, there are more and far worse ones for the Musnad of Ahmad. Thus, we see that the scholars of the so-called 'Ahl Al-Sunnah' rely only on the fame of a book as evidence for its reliability while the chain is just an extra factor of strength, if there exists any.

Al-Albani:

The fame of a book obviates the need for a chain for it:

Our Sheikh said in his comment on the book 'Fadhl Al-Salaat of Isma'eel Al-Qadhi': "The fame of a book among scholars and its circulation among them and their trust upon it, obviates the need to check its chain, if the chain is also proven, then it would be an extra factor of strength."

Source: Rawdh Al-Dani Fil Fawahid Al-Hadithiyya. Pg. # 147.







Narrations On The Twelve Imams (a.s) From Sulaym Through Early Shi'a Scholars


We have previously mentioned the explicit texts of fourteen narrations from the Book of Sulaym that the number of Imams (a.s) are twelve. In this part, we shall present some of the narrations regarding the Twelve Imams (a.s) that our early scholars have narrated in their books through different chains of narrators from Sulaym ibn Qays. The other supportive narrations for every narration through Sulaym and other than him are too many, hence we shall refrain from mentioning them all. We will only mention famous narrations from Sulaym in this section and present other authentic narrations regarding the Twelve Imams (a.s) that have been narrated through other narrators from the Messenger of Allah (saw) and Infallible Imams (a.s) in the next part of these series Insha'Allah Ta'Ala.



Hadeeth # 1:

Sheikh Al-Sadooq:

Narrated to us Muhammad bin Hassan bin Ahmad bin Walid: Narrated to us Muhammad bin Hasan as-Saffar from Ya'qoob bin Yazid from Hammad bin Isa from Umar bin Uzaina from Aban bin Abi Ayyash from Ibraheem bin Umar Yamani from Sulaym bin Qays Hilali that he said: I heard Salman Farsi (r.a) say: "I went to visit the Holy Prophet (saw) during his terminal illness and I was seated there when Lady Faatima (s.a) entered and began to weep at the condition of the Messenger of Allah (saw). Tears were flowing on her cheeks.

The Messenger of Allah (saw) said: 'Why are you weeping, Faatima (s.a)?' She said: 'O Messenger of Allah (saw), I fear destruction of myself and my children after your passing away.' Eyes of the Messenger of Allah (saw) filled with tears and he said: 'Faatima (s.a), do you know that the Almighty Allah has preferred for us, Ahlulbayt (a.s.) the hereafter over this world? And made annihilation inevitable for all creatures? And Allah (swt) glanced at the earth and chose me among His creatures and honoured me with prophethood. Then Allah (swt) glanced at the earth the second time and chose your husband and revealed to me that I should give your hand in marriage to him and appoint him as my successor, Vizier and Caliph among my Ummah?

Thus your father is superior to all the prophets and your husband is superior to all the successors and you shall be the first one to meet me. Then Allah (swt) glanced at the earth the third time and from among the creatures chose your two sons. Thus you are the chief of the ladies of Paradise and your sons Hassan (a.s) and Hussain (a.s) are the chiefs of the youths of Paradise and the sons of your husband are my successors till Judgment Day. All of them are Mahdi and Hadi (guided and guiding ones). Of them the first will be my brother Alee (a.s), then Hassan (a.s), then Hussain (a.s), then nine Imams from the progeny of Hussain (a.s); all of them will be in my grade in Paradise. There is no grade nearer to Almighty Allah than the grade of me and my father, Ibraheem (a.s). Daughter, do you know that your husband is the best person of the Ummah and the best of my Ahlulbayt (a.s)? His Islam is the oldest. His forbearance is the greatest. His knowledge is paramount.'

After hearing this, Lady Faatima (s.a) became happy. Then the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: 'My dearest, there are excellences for your husband. He was the first to express faith in Allah (swt) and His Messenger (saw) and no one in my Ummah is having this precedence. He has the knowledge of the Book of Allah, the Mighty and Sublime and my practice (Sunnah) and there is no one in my Ummah other than him who has complete knowledge of my sciences. The Almighty Allah bestowed knowledge to me and not to anyone else. And He bestowed knowledge to His angels and His prophets. And I have more knowledge than the angels and prophets. Then the Almighty Allah commanded me to transfer this knowledge to him (Alee (a.s)) and I did that. Thus, apart from him there is no one in my Ummah for whom has come together my knowledge, my wisdom and my understanding. And indeed my daughter is his wife and his sons, Hassan (a.s) and Hussain (a.s), are the two grandsons of my Ummah. Your husband fulfils the duty of enjoining good and forbidding evil. The Almighty Allah has given him wisdom and eloquence. My dear, the Almighty Allah has given us Ahlulbayt, six such qualities as have neither been given to anyone before nor will be given to anyone ever. The prophet of us, Ahlulbayt, is the chief of the prophets and messengers. And that is your father. And our successor is the chief of the successors, and that is your husband. Our martyr is the chief of the martyrs, and that is Hamza bin Abdul Muttalib, the uncle of your father.' Lady Faatima (s.a) said: 'O Messenger of Allah (saw), Is he only the martyr of those who were martyred with him?' He replied: 'No, among all the martyrs of former and latter people except the prophets and successors. And Ja'far bin Aboo Talib whom Allah (swt) has bestowed with two wings and he flies around with the angels in Paradise. And your sons, Hassan (a.s) and Hussain (a.s) are the grandsons of this Ummah and the chiefs of the youths of Paradise.

I swear by One in whose hands is my life, the Mahdi (ajf) shall be from us who will the earth with justice and equity just as it would be fraught with injustice and oppression.' Lady Faatima (s.a) asked who was the most superior of them. The Messenger of Allah (saw) said: 'After me Alee (a.s) is the most superior among this Ummah. The Almighty Allah has preferred the hereafter for us Ahlulbayt, instead of the world.' Then the Messenger of Allah (saw) looked at Lady Faatima (s.a), her husband and her sons and said: 'O Salman, I make Allah (swt) the witness that peace with them is peace with me, and war with them is war with me. They shall be with me in Paradise.' Then he called Alee (a.s) near him and said: 'My brother, you will have to suffer great tribulations at the hands of the Quraish after me. Thus if you find helpers you fight your enemies, otherwise observe patience and keep away from taking up arms; don't throw yourself to perdition.

You are in relation to me as Haroon (a.s) was to Musa (a.s) whom his community had weakened and was about to kill him. So you must also be patient at the atrocities of Quraish as your example is like that of Haroon. Those who oppress you will be like the calf worshippers. O Alee (a.s), the Almighty Allah has destined discord and disunity for this Ummah. If Allah (swt) wanted, He could have united all the people on guidance till there would not have been difference even between two persons and there would have been no controversy. Neither the inferior would have denied the superior. And if Allah (swt) wanted, He could have made haste in taking revenge and changed the circumstances till the falsehood of the unjust would have become manifest and people would have known the position of truth. However, the Almighty Allah has made this world as the abode of deeds and made the hereafter the abode of recompense so that the good may be recompensed with good and the bad may be recompensed with bad.' Alee (a.s) said: 'Praise be to Allah (swt), thankfulness for His blessings and patience in calamities.'"

Sheikh Hadi Al-Najafi: The narration's chain is reliable.

Source: Kamaaluddin wa Tamaamun Ni'ma. Pg. # 250 - 252.


Hadeeth # 10:

Attestation of Ahlulbayt (a.s) for the Book of Sulaym:

One of the most important narrations of the Book of Sulaym is Hadeeth # 10, which is an explanation of the reason for the differences that has happened in the narrations in Islam. It is a very useful narration, since it clarifies many things for us. First of all, the explanation of the differences in the narrations, then the mention of the conspiracy against the Ahlulbayt (a.s), then the number of the Imams is specified and the reason why the Ahlulbayt (a.s) are the partners with the Holy Qur'aan and why we should take narrations from them. The important thing about this narration is that it has been authenticated by five Imams of the Ahlulbayt (a.s). This Hadeeth is a key narration for the authenticity of the whole book too, firstly because five Imams authenticate it. Secondly, Sulaym mentions in this Hadeeth that he has heard many narrations from Salman, Abi Dharr and Miqdad and the confirmation of them from the Commander of the Faithful (a.s), which is a general authentication for the narrations of his book too, because what he has heard from Salman, Abi Dharr and Miqdad and so on, he has recorded them in this book. So when the Imams (a.s) authenticated this narration, they have in fact authenticated the whole book. This Hadeeth has been recorded in several classic Hadeeth collections too through several chains from Sulaym, which is another proof for its authenticity.

Sulaym ibn Qays:

The abstract of the Hadeeth: The reason of the difference between the narrations and the Shi'a and their opponents; four kind of narrators; not every one of those who used to ask the Messenger of Allah (saw) also understood his answer; the whole knowledge is not with anyone except with the Commander of the Faithful (a.s) and eleven Imams (a.s) of his sons; five Imams of the Ahlulbayt (a.s) attest Sulaym for this Hadeeth; a brief account of what the Ummah did of breaking the allegiance and treachery to Ahlulbayt (a.s) of the Messenger (saw); how the false narration were spread; Imam Al-Baqir (a.s) talks about the fabrication and alteration in the narrations.

This Hadeeth has also been narrated from Sulaym by: Al-Fadhl ibn Shazaan in Mukhtasar Ithbatul Raj'ah, Al-Saffar in Basaa'ir Al-Darajaat, Al-Kulayni in Al-Kafi, Al-Tabari in Al-Mustarshid, Al-Sadooq in Al-Khisal and Kamaaluddin wa Tamaamun Ni’ma and Al-I'tiqadaat, Al-Karajaki in Al-Istinsaar, Al-Nu'mani in Al-Ghaybah, Al-Hasakani in Shawahid Al-Tanzil, Al-Harrani in Tohaf Al-Uqool, Al-Ayyashi in his Tafseer, Al-Bayadhi in Al-Sirat Al-Mustaqeem, ibn Abil Hadid in Sharh Al-Nahj. Check the References # 10.

Aban ibn Abi Ayyash narrates from Sulaym ibn Qays Hilali. Sulaym said: I asked Alee (a.s): "O Amir ul Mo'mineen, I heard some commentary of the Holy Qur'aan from Aboo Dharr, Salman and Miqdad, and some riwaya they heard from the Holy Prophet (saw). After that I heard confirmation of these from you. I have seen a lot of things relating to commentary of the Holy Qur'aan and lots of traditions from the Holy Prophet (saw) in people's hands and they are different from what I have heard from you and you people think that they are invalid. Do you think that these people intentionally lie about the Holy Prophet (saw) and comment on the Holy Qur'aan in their own understanding?"

Sulaym said: "Alee (a.s) turned towards me and said: 'O Sulaym, you have asked so understand the answer. People have in their hands valid and invalid, truth and falsehood, Nasikh (those verses that invalidated other verses) and Mansukh (the invalid verses), particular and general, Mohkam (clear) and Mutashabih (not clear) and Hifdh (memorised) and Wahma (suspect) and during the time of the Holy Prophet (saw) also people told lies and related to him, until he (saw) got up in front of them to address them. He said: "O people, there are a lot that relate lies towards me. So any person who intentionally relates a lie to me, he should reserve a place in Hell for himself." After his death, people lied and related the lie to him. The Holy Prophet (saw), May Allah (swt) bless the Nabi of Rahmah (the Prophet of Mercy), and send His blessings on him and his Ahlulbayt (a.s). Those that tell you traditions will be of four types – there won't be a fifth one. One will be a hypocrite who will portray Iman and is a Muslim just to show. He does not think it is bad, or a sin, to relate false things to the Holy Prophet (saw) intentionally. If Muslims knew he was a liar, a hypocrite, then they would not accept what he said was true. But they said he is a companion of the Holy Prophet (saw), they have seen him, heard tradition from him, he does not lie and does not think it lawful to relate a lie to the Holy Prophet (saw). Whereas the information that Allah (swt) has given about hypocrites, He has given and He has described his attributes that he has. Allah Tabarak Wa Ta'Ala has said: And when you see them, their persons will please you, and if they speak, you will listen to their speech; {63: 4}.

These people in the end stayed alive and became nearer to the Imams (a.s) and deviated from them and went near to those who called them towards Hell through deceit, lies, hypocrisy and accusation. So they made them leaders and let them ride on the backs of people and in this world, through them, fed themselves. And people are with Kings except those whom Allah (swt) saves. So this is one of the four types.

There is another who heard something from the Holy Prophet (saw) but he did not remember exactly what he heard and did not lie intentionally and he has what he heard from the Holy Prophet (saw) and he acts on it, and says that he heard it from the Holy Prophet (saw). If Muslims knew that he had any doubt, then they would not accept it. If he himself knew he was doubtful then he would leave it.

The third type is a person who heard something from the Holy Prophet (saw) what he ordered and then stopped it, but the person does not know, or he heard something that was stopped and after that the Holy Prophet (saw) order to do it, but the person does not know it. This person remembered Mansukh (what order has been withdrawn) and did not remember Nasikh (what is current). If he knew it was Mansukh he would leave it. If Muslims knew the order was Mansukh when they heard, they would all leave it.

The fourth is a person who did not associate any lie to Allah (swt) or His Prophet (saw) because he bore enmity towards lies, and feared Allah (swt), respected and valued the Holy Prophet (saw) and had no doubt. He remembered it the way he heard it. He did not add or leave anything out, remembered Nasikh and Mansukh, acted on Nasikh and left Mansukh.

The order of the Holy Prophet (saw) to do, and to stop, is like the Holy Qur'aan. It is Nasikh and it is Mansukh. It is general and particular, Mohkam and Mutashabih. Sometimes there used to be two types of his talk. One used to be particular and general like the Holy Qur'aan. He who did not know what Allah (swt) has meant and what the Holy Prophet (saw) had meant also heard this.

Not all companions of the Holy Prophet (saw) were of the type who would ask him and understand him. There were also those who used to ask, but did not understand until they wanted that somebody comes, or an Arabi (one who lived in the outskirts of Madinah) comes and asks the Holy Prophet (saw) so they would hear him.

I used to go to the Holy Prophet (saw) everyday – once in the morning and once at night and he used to see me alone and wherever he went I used to go with him. The companions of the Holy Prophet (saw) knew that he did not do that with anyone else except me, and sometimes this used to happen in my house. The Holy Prophet (saw) used to come to me and when I used to go to him at some place, he used to meet me alone, and asked his women to go, and there was nobody except him and myself, and when he used to come to my house to meet me alone, then neither Faatima (s.a) nor my children went away.

When I used to question him he would answer me, and when I was silent or my questions finished, he would himself start. There is no verse of the Holy Qur'aan that was revealed that he did not make me recite and write, and I used to write with my own hands and he used to pray to Allah (swt) that I understand it and remember it.

I have not forgotten any verse of Allah's (swt) Book ever since I remembered it. He told me its meanings, and I remembered it, and he made me write it and I wrote it, and there is nothing that Allah (swt) told him Haraam or Halaal, or Amr or Nahiy and Itaa't (obedience) and sin, and things that have happened or will happen until the Day of Judgement, but he told me and I remembered it. I have not forgotten even one alphabet about it. Then the Holy Prophet (saw) kept his hand on my chest and prayed to Allah (swt) that my chest is filled with knowledge, understanding (fahm), Fiqh (jurisprudence), Hukm and Noor (light) and teaches me in such a manner that I do not remain ignorant and remember it in a manner that I do not forget it.

One day I asked him, "O Prophet of Allah (saw), since the day you prayed for me, whatever you prayed, I have not forgotten the knowledge that you taught me, so why do you make me write and why do you ask me to write? Are you afraid that I will forget it? He replied, 'O my brother, I am not afraid that you will forget it or by ignorant. Allah (swt) has informed me that He has accepted my prayer for you and for your partners (the eleven Imams) who will be after you."

I asked, "O Prophet of Allah (saw), who are my partners?"

He replied: "Those whom Allah (swt) made near to Him and with Him, near to me also – for whom He has said 'O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Apostle and those in authority from among you' {4:59}.

So I asked: "O Prophet of Allah (saw), who are these people?"

He replied: "They are Awsiya until they all come to me at the Fountain. They are all guided and are guides. They will not be harmed by those who harm them and do not lose from those that leave them. They are all with the Holy Qur'aan and the Holy Qur'aan is with them. They will not separate from the Holy Qur'an and the Holy Qur'aan will not separate from them.

Through them Allah (swt) will help my Ummah and through them it will rain, and through their prayers which have already been accepted, calamities of people will be removed." I said: "O Prophet of Allah (saw), please tell me their names."

He replied: "My this son (he kept his hand on Hassan's (a.s) head), then after him my this son (and he kept his hand on the head of Hussain (a.s)) and then my this son's son (again he put his hand on Hussain's (a.s) head), then his son whose name will be same as mine, whose name will be Muhammad. He will spread my knowledge and he will be the treasurer of Allah's (swt) Message, and O my brother, Alee (a.s), will be born soon during your life time so give him my Salaam."

Then he turned to Hussain (a.s) and said: "Very soon Muhammad (a.s) and Alee (a.s) will be born in your life time – give him my Salaam." Then, O brother, all twelve Imams in your children." (i.e. Twelve Imams including Alee (a.s)). Then I asked: "O Messenger of Allah (saw), tell me the names of them all." So he (saw) uttered the name of each one individually.

So O brother of Bani Hilal, By God, the Mahdi (Guide) of this Ummah will be he who will fill this earth with justice and peace in the same manner that it is full of oppression and tyranny. By God, I know all of them who will pay him allegiance in between Rukn-Makam (place between Hajre Aswad and Makame Ibrahim), and I know their names and their tribe."

Sulaym said: "After the death of Alee (a.s) I met Hassan (a.s) and Hussain (a.s) in Madinah and I narrated this Hadeeth to them from their father. They both said: 'You are telling the truth. Our father told this Hadeeth to you when we were sitting and we remembered it from the Holy Prophet (saw) in the same manner that you were informed of it by our father. There is no addition nor omission in this.'"

Sulaym said: "Then I met Alee ibnul Hussain (a.s) when his son Muhammad ibn Alee (a.s) was with him. I narrated this Hadeeth to him the way I had heard it from his father, and his uncle, and from Alee (a.s). So Alee ibnul Hussain (a.s) said: "Amir ul Mo'mineen (a.s) taught me, narrating from the Holy Prophet (saw) when he was ill and I was a child." Then Muhammad (a.s) said: "I was taught by my grandfather Hussain (a.s) through the Holy Prophet (saw) when he was ill."

Aban said: "I told this whole Hadeeth to Alee ibnul Hussain (a.s) narrating it from Sulaym. He said: 'Sulaym said the truth.' Jabir ibn Abdullah Ansari came to my son when he was a child and kept coming to the place of teaching. He kissed him (my son) and gave the Salaam of the Holy Prophet (saw) to him."

Aban said: "I went for Hajj after the death of Alee ibnul Hussain (a.s) and met Aboo Ja'far, Muhammad ibn Alee (peace be on both of them) and told him the whole Hadeeth without leaving even one alphabet. His both eyes filled with tears and he said: 'Sulaym said the truth. My grand father Hussain (a.s) and I were sitting with my father and he narrated this Hadeeth exactly like this to me. At that time my father said: You have said the truth. My father has narrated this Hadeeth exactly from Amir ul Mo'mineen (a.s) and we are witness."

Then they both told me whatever they heard from the Holy Prophet (saw).

*Hammad ibn Isa says: I mentioned this Hadeeth to my master Abi Abdullah Imam Al-Sadiq (a.s), he wept and said: "Sulaym has said the truth, verily my father narrated to me this Hadeeth from his father Alee ibn Al-Hussain (a.s) from his father Al-Hussain ibn Alee(a.s) who said: 'I heard this narration from the Commander of the Faithful (a.s) when Sulaym ibn Qays asked him.'"

*Footnote: this has been mentioned at the end of the Hadeeth in Mukhtasar Ithbatul Raj'ah that Al-Fadhl ibn Shazaan has narrated from Muhammad ibn Isma'eel ibn Bazi from Hammad ibn Isa from Imam Al-Sadiq (a.s). Refer to the manuscript of Mukhatasar Ithbatul Raj'ah of ibn Shazaan in the library of Astaan Quds, # 7442 and it has been printed completely in the magazine of Thurathuna, # 15. Hammad ibn Isa is a narrator who has narrated the Book of Sulaym entirely.

Source: Book of Sulaym. Pg. # 620 - 630.


Book of Ithbatur Raj'ah of Al-Fadhl ibn Shazaan:

The chain of Fadhl ibn Shazaan up to Imam Al-Sadiq (a.s) is Saheeh (Authentic). Imam Al-Sadiq (a.s) authenticates the narration which in fact is an authentication for the entire Book of Sulaym as we mentioned above.

Al-Fadhl ibn Shazaan himself is one of the greatest scholars of the Shi'a who died in the year 260 A.H. before Imam Al-Askari (a.s).

As for the book of Fadhl ibn Shazaan; Mukhtasar (i.e. summary) of Ithbatul Raj'ah, it is one of the important books that has been written about Al-Ghaybah. The complete book was called Ithbatul Raj'ah, but the version that is available today is unfortunately a summary of it, i.e. Mukhtasar Ithbatul Raj'ah, which contains only 20 narrations. It is the version that Sheikh Hurr Al-Amili had and he has narrated its narrations in his book Ithbatul Huda. However, it seems that Sheikh Mir Lawhi had the entire book of Ithbatul Raj'ah, he narrates all or most of its narrations in his book Kifayatul Mohtadi, which are more than 50 narrations, that we might present some of its narrations later Insha'Allah.

Sheikh Mahuazi:

Al-Fadhl ibn Shazaan: He is Aboo Muhammad Al-Azdi Al-Nisaburi, he is trustworthy and owner of a high position by consensus. Al-Najashi says: He has narrated from Abi Ja'far Al-Thani, Al-Jawad (a.s) and it is said from Al-Ridha (a.s) too, and he was trustworthy, he was one the jurists of our scholars and a theologian, he has a great position among our people and his rank is more famous than to be mentioned. [Rijal Al-Najashi. 306, # 840] 

Sheikh Hurr Al-Amili says in the introduction nine of his great book, "Ithbatul Huda" that he has several chains for the books that he has narrated from. Then he mentions the book Ithbatul Raj'ah of Fadhl ibn Shazaan among his sources that he has chains for them and has narrated from them in his book, and his chains go through the great scholars of Shi'a and their chiefs.

Even though the entire book has not reached us with an authentic chain, however, it has reached Sheikh Hurr Al-Amili and he has narrated some of its narrations and this is enough for its authenticity, that is why the chief of jurists Sayyed Al-Khoei authenticates all the narrations of Alee ibn Ja'far Al-Sadiq (a.s) that exist in his book that Al-Hurr Al-Amili has narrated in his huge book "Wasail Al-Shi'a," even though he doubts the authenticity of the chain of the current printed manuscript of that book, not the book itself.

Source: Arba'oon Hadeethan Mu'tabaran. Pg. # 32 - 33.


Al-Najashi:

Al-Fadhl ibn Shazaan ibn Al-Khalil, Aboo Muhammad Al-Azdi Al-Nishabouri, his father was of the companions of Yunus. He has narrated from Aboo Ja'far the second (Imam Al-Jawad (a.s)) and it is said also from Al-Ridha (a.s) and he was trustworthy, one of our scholars in theology and jurisprudence. He has a high esteem among our people and his position is higher than to be mentioned. Al-Kanji has mentioned that he has written 180 books, his books that we have received are:...Book of Ithbatur Raj'ah...Book of Al-Qa'im (ajf)...

Source: Rijal Al-Najashi. Pg. # 295.


Sheikh Al-Tusi:

Al-Fadhl ibn Shazaan Al-Nishabouri, the jurisprudent and theologian, owner of high esteem, he has books and writings, among them are: ...Book of Ithbatur Raj'ah...

Source: Al-Fehrist. Pg. # 197 - 199.




Al-Fadhl ibn Shazaan:

[After presenting the entire narration, he says:]

Muhammad ibn Isma'eel then said: Then Hammad ibn Isa said: I mentioned this Hadeeth to my master Abi Abdullah Imam Al-Sadiq (a.s), he wept and said: "Sulaym has said the truth, verily my father narrated to me this Hadeeth from his father Alee ibn Al-Hussain (a.s) from his father Al-Hussain ibn Alee (a.s) who said: 'I heard this narration from my father the Commander of the Faithful (a.s) when Sulaym ibn Qays asked him.'"

Source: Mukhtasar Ithbatur Raj'ah. Pg. # 201 / 205 - 206.


Sheikh Hurr Al-Amili:

It has been narrated from Sulaym ibn Qays from Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s) from the Prophet (saw) in a long narration that he said to Alee (a.s): "I fear neither forgetfulness nor ignorance on your part, but write down for your associates, who will come after you." And I said: "O Messenger of Allah (saw), who are my associates?" And he said: "Those whose obedience to whom has been coupled by Allah (swt), with obedience to you." And I said: "Who are they, O Messenger of Allah (saw)?" And he said: "They concerning whom Allah (swt) has said: 'O ye who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those of you who are in authority' {4.59}. And I said: "O Messenger of Allah (saw), who are they?" He said: "They are the Awsiya (executors) who will be executors after me. They will not separate until they come to me at my Pond (Hawd), rightly-guiding and rightly-guided. The deceit of those that deceive will not injure them, nor the desertion of those that desert them. They (the Imams (a.s)) are with the Holy Qur'aan, and the Holy Qur'aan is with them; they will not forsake it (the Holy Qur'aan) and it will not forsake them."

And I (Alee (a.s)) said: "O Messenger of Allah (saw), name them to me." He said: "You, O Alee (a.s), then this, my son" - and he put his hand on the head of Hassan (a.s). "And then this, my son," - and he put his hand on the head of Hussain (a.s).

"Then your namesake, O brother, he is the leader of the devotees; then his son, named Muhammad (a.s), the Opener (Baqir) of my knowledge, and the treasurer of the inspiration of Allah (swt). O brother, Alee (a.s) (Zayn ul-Abideen) will be born in your lifetime, so give my greetings to him. And Muhammad (a.s) (Al-Baqir) will be born in your lifetime, O Hussain (a.s), so give my greetings to him. And then Ja'far b. Muhammad (a.s); then Musa b. Ja'far (a.s); then Alee b. Musa (a.s); then Muhammad b. Alee (a.s); then Alee b. Muhammad (a.s); then Hassan b. Alee az-Zaki (a.s); then the one whose name is my name and whose colour is my colour, - the upholder of the Command of Allah (swt) (Al-Qa 'im Bi-Amri L-lah) in the final era, the Righteous Guide, WHO WILL FILL THE EARTH WITH JUSTICE AND EQUITY, JUST AS NOW IT IS FULL OF OPPRESSION AND WRONG. I swear by Allah (swt), I know him by his name and where people will swear allegiance to him between the Pillar (Rukn) and the Place (Maqam), and I know the names of the people who will support him and I know their tribes.

This has been narrated by Al-Fadhl ibn Shazaan in his book Ithbatur Raj'ah from Muhammad ibn Isma'eel ibn Bazi from Hammad ibn Isa from Ibraheem ibn Umar Al-Yamani from Aban ibn Abi Ayyash from Sulaym ibn Qays.

He has narrated it also from Muhammad ibn Isma'eel ibn Bazi from Hammad ibn Isa from Imam Al-Sadiq (a.s). Al-Sadooq says: Sulaym b. Qays said: Later on I met Hassan (a.s) and Hussain (a.s) at Madinah after Mu'awiyah began to reign, and I related them this story from their father. Both of them said: "You speak the truth. The Prince of Believers had related this story to you, while we were sitting." Sulaym b. Qays said: "I then met Alee b. Al-Husayn (a.s) (Zayn ul Abideen), on whom be peace, and his son Muhammad Al-Baqir (a.s) was with him, and I related to him what I had heard from his father, and he (Alee (a.s)) said: 'I heard it from the Prince of Believers, who in turn had it from the Messenger of Allah (saw) while he was ill and I was a boy.'"

Aban b. Abi Ayyash said that he related the story (of Sulaym b. Al-Qays Al-Hilali) to Imam Alee b. Al-Hussain (a.s) and his son Al-Baqir (a.s) and they both said: "Sulaym has spoken the truth."

Source: Ithbatul Huda. Vol. 2, Pg. # 120 - 121.



Mir Lawhi:

The upright, noble, the pious worshipper, the learned theologian, the smart and proficient jurisprudent, the meritorious Sheikh Aboo Muhammad Al-Fadhl ibn Shazaan ibn Al-Khalil, may Allah (swt) grant him best places in Paradise with the pure A'immah (a.s). He says in his book called "Ithbatur Raj'ah": Narrated to us Muhammad ibn Isma'eel ibn Bazi who said: narrated to us Hammad ibn Isa who said: Narrated to us Ibraheem ibn Umar Al-Yamani who said: Narrated to us Aban ibn Abi Ayyash who said: Narrated to us Sulaym ibn Qays Hilali, he said: I asked Alee (a.s): "O Amir ul Mo'mineen, I heard some commentary of the Holy Qur'aan from Aboo Dharr, Salman and Miqdad, and some narrations they heard from the Holy Prophet (saw). After that I heard confirmation of these from you. I have seen a lot of things relating to the commentary of the Holy Qur'aan and lots of traditions from the Holy Prophet (saw) in people's hands and they are different from what I have heard from you, and you people think that they are invalid. Do you think that these people intentionally lie about the Holy Prophet (saw) and comment on the Holy Qur'aan in their own understanding?"

Sulaym said: Alee (a.s) turned towards me and said: "O Sulaym, you have asked so understand the answer. People have in their hands valid and invalid, truth and falsehood, Nasikh (those verses that invalidated other verses) and Mansukh (the invalid verses), particular and general, Mohkam (clear) and Mutashabih (not clear) and Hifdh (memorised) and Wahma (suspect) and during the time of the Holy Prophet (saw) also people told lies and related to him, until he (saw) got up in front of them to address them. He said: 'O people! There are a lot that relate lies towards me. So any person who intentionally relates a lie to me, he should reserve a place in Hell for himself.' Then after his death, people lied and related the lie to him more than what was lied upon him in his lifetime.

Those that tell you traditions will be of four types – there won't be a fifth one. One will be a hypocrite who will portray Iman and is a Muslim just to show. He does not think it is bad, or a sin, to relate false things to the Holy Prophet (saw) intentionally. If Muslims knew he was a liar, a hypocrite, then they would not accept what he said was true. But they said he is a companion of the Holy Prophet (saw), they have seen him, heard tradition from him, he does not lie and does not think it lawful to relate a lie to the Holy Prophet (saw). Whereas the information that Allah (swt) has given about hypocrites, He has given and He has described his attributes that he has. Allah Tabarak Wa Ta'Ala has said: 'And when you see them, their persons will please you, and if they speak, you will listen to their speech.' {63:4}.

These people in the end stayed alive and became nearer to the Imams (a.s) and who deviated and, near to those who called them towards Hell through deceit, lie, hypocrisy, and accusation. So they made them leaders and let them ride on the backs of people and in this world, through them, fed themselves. And people are with Kings and Dunya except those whom Allah (swt) saves. So this is one of the four types.

There is another who heard something from the Holy Prophet (saw) but he did not remember exactly what he heard and did not lie intentionally and he has what he heard from the Holy Prophet (saw) and he acts on it, and says that he heard it from the Holy Prophet (saw). If Muslims knew that he had any doubt, then they would not accept it. If he himself knew he was doubtful then he would leave it.

The third type is a person who heard something from the Holy Prophet (saw) what he ordered and then stopped it, but the person does not know, or he heard something that was stopped and after that the Holy Prophet (saw) ordered to do it, but the person does not know it. This person remembered Mansukh (what order has been withdrawn) and did not remember Nasikh (what is current). If he knew it was Mansukh he would leave it. If Muslims knew the order was Mansukh when they heard, they would all leave it.

The fourth is a person who did not associate any lie to Allah (swt) or His Prophet (saw) because he bore enmity towards lies, and feared Allah (swt), respected and valued the Holy Prophet (saw) and had no doubt. He remembered it the way he heard it. He did not add or leave anything out, remembered Nasikh and Mansukh, acted on Nasikh and left Mansukh. The order of the Holy Prophet (saw) to do, and to stop, is like the Holy Qur'aan. It is Nasikh and it is Mansukh. It is general and particular, Mohkam and Mutashabih. Sometimes there used to be two types of his talk. One used to be particular and general like the Holy Qur'aan. Allah the Mighty the Exalted says: "And whatever the Messenger gives you, accept it, and from whatever he forbids you, keep back." {59:7} He who did not know what Allah (swt) meant and what the Holy Prophet (saw) had meant also heard this.

Not all companions of the Holy Prophet (saw) were of the type who would ask him and understand him. There were also those who used to ask, but did not understand until they wanted that somebody comes, or an Arabi (one who lived in the outskirts of Madinah) comes and asks the Holy Prophet (saw) so they would hear him.

I used to go to the Holy Prophet (saw) everyday – once in the morning and once at night and he used to see me alone and wherever he went I used to go with him. The companions of the Holy Prophet (saw) knew that he did not do that with anyone else except me, and sometimes this used to happen in my house. The Holy Prophet (saw) used to come to me and when I used to go to him at some place, he used to meet me alone, and asked his women to go and there was nobody except him and myself and when he used to come to my house to meet me alone, then neither Faatima (s.a) nor my children went away.

When I used to question him, he would answer me and when I was silent or my questions finished, he would himself start. There is no verse of the Holy Qur'aan that was revealed that he did not make me recite and write, and I used to write with my own hands and he used to pray to Allah (swt) that I understand it and remember it.

I have not forgotten any verse of Allah's (swt) Book ever since I have remembered it. He told me its meanings, and I remembered it and he made me write it and I wrote it, and there is nothing that Allah (swt) told him Haraam or Halaal, or Amr or Nahiy and Itaa't (obedience) and sin, and things that have happened or will happen until the Day of Judgement, but he told me and I remembered it. I have not forgotten even one alphabet about it. Then the Holy Prophet (saw) kept his hand on my chest and prayed to Allah (swt) that my chest is filled with knowledge, understanding (fahm), Fiqh (jurisprudence), Hukm and Noor (light) and teaches me in such a manner that I do not remain ignorant and remember it in a manner that I do not forget it.

One day I asked him "O Prophet of Allah (saw), since the day you prayed for me, whatever you prayed, I have not forgotten the knowledge that you taught me, so why do you make me write and why do you ask me to write? Are you afraid that I will forget it?" He replied "O my brother, I am not afraid that you will forget it or by ignorance. Allah (swt) has informed me that He has accepted my prayer for you and for your partners who will be after you."
I asked, "O Prophet of Allah (saw), who are my partners?"

He replied: "Those whose obedience Allah (swt) made near to Him and with Him, near to me also – for whom He has said, 'O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Apostle and those in authority from among you.' {4: 59}. So I asked: "O Prophet of Allah (saw), who are these people?"

He replied: "They are Awsiya until they all come to me at the Fountain. They are all guided and are guides. They will not be harmed by those who harm them and do not lose from those that leave them. They are all with the Holy Qur'aan and the Holy Qur'aan is with them. They will not separate from the Holy Qur'aan and the Holy Qur'aan will not separate from them. Through them Allah (swt) will help my Ummah and through them it will rain, and through their prayers which have already been accepted, calamities of people will be removed." I said: "O Prophet of Allah (saw), please tell me their names." He replied: "You O Alee (a.s) are the first one of them, then my this son" - he kept his hand on Hassan's (a.s) head, "then after him my this son" - and he kept his hand on the head of Hussain (a.s) and then your namesake Alee Zain Al-Abideen (a.s), and he will be born in your lifetime O brother, so pass my Salaam to him, then his son Muhammad Al-Baqir (a.s), he will spread my knowledge and he will be the treasurer of Allah's (swt) Message and O my brother, then his son Ja'far Al-Sadiq (a.s), then his son Musa Al-Kadhim (a.s), then his son Alee Al-Ridha (a.s), then his son Muhammad Al-Taqi (a.s), then his son Alee Al-Naqi (a.s), then his son Al-Hassan Al-Zaki (a.s), then his son Al-Hujja Al-Qa'im (ajf), the seal of my executors and successors, the avenger from my enemies. He who will fill this earth with justice and peace in the same manner that it is full of oppression and tyranny." Then the Commander of the Faithful (a.s) said: "By God, I know him O Sulaym, when he will be paid allegiance in between Rukn-Makam (place between Hajre Aswad and Makame Ibrahim), and I know the names of his supporters and know their tribes."

Muhammad ibn Isma'eel said: Then Hammad ibn Isa said: I mentioned this Hadeeth to my master Abi Abdulla Imam Al-Sadiq (a.s), he wept and said: "Sulaym has said the truth, verily my father narrated to me this Hadeeth from his father Alee ibn Al-Hussain (a.s) from his father Al-Hussain ibn Alee (a.s) who said: 'I heard this narration from my father the Commander of the Faithful (a.s) when Sulaym ibn Qays asked him.'"

Sheikh Mir Lawhi: The mentioned Sheikh (i.e. Al-Fadhl ibn Shazaan) has narrated this Hadeeth in his mentioned book with this chain which is empty of any defect, which is actually a short authentic chain from Sulaym ibn Qays Al-Hilali who said it.

Source: Kifayatul Mohtadi. Pg. # 330 - 333.


Sheikh Al-Mahuzi:

Al-Fadhl ibn Shazaan narrates from Muhammad ibn Isma'eel ibn Bazi from Hammad ibn Isa from Imam Al-Sadiq (a.s); And from Muhammad ibn Isma'eel ibn Bazi from Hammad ibn Isa from Ibraheem ibn Umar Al-Yamani from Aban ibn Abi Ayyash from Sulaym ibn Qays from Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s) from the Prophet (saw) in a long narration, until the Prophet (saw) says to Alee (a.s):

"I am not afraid that you will forget it or by ignorant, but write down for your partners who will be after you." I asked "O Messenger of Allah (saw), who are my partners?" He replied: "Those whose obedience is put by Allah (swt) near to yours." I asked: "Who are they O Messenger of Allah (saw)?" He said, "Those about whom Allah (swt) says: 'O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Apostle and those in authority from among you.'" {4:59}.

So I asked: "O Prophet of Allah (saw), who are these people?"

He replied: "They are the Awsiya until they all come to me at the Fountain. They are all guided and are guides. They will not be harmed by those who harm them and do not lose from those that leave them. They are all with the Holy Qur'aan and the Holy Qur'aan is with them. They will not separate from the Holy Qur'aan and the Holy Qur'aan will not separate from them. Through them Allah (swt) will help my Ummah and through them it will rain, and through their prayers which have already been accepted, calamities of people will be removed."

I said: "O Prophet of Allah (saw), please tell me their names." He replied: "You O Alee (a.s) are the first one of them, then my this son - he kept his hand on Hassan's (a.s) head, then after him my this son - and he kept his hand on the head of Hussain (a.s) and then your namesake Alee Zain Al-Abideen (a.s), then his son Muhammad Al-Baqir (a.s). He will spread my knowledge and he will be the treasurer of Allah's Message, and Alee (a.s) will be born in your lifetime O brother, so pass my Salaam to him, and Muhammad will be born in your lifetime O Hussain (a.s), so pass my Salaam to him, then Ja'far (a.s), Musa ibn Ja'far (a.s), then Alee ibn Musa (a.s), then Muhammad ibn Alee (a.s), then Alee ibn Muhammad (a.s), then Al-Hassan ibn Alee Al-Zaki (a.s), then the one whose name is the same as my name and his colour is my colour, Al-Qa'im by the command of Allah (swt) in the end of times, Al-Mahdi (ajf) who will fill this earth with justice and peace in the same manner that it is full of oppression and tyranny. By God, I know him O Sulaym, when he will be paid allegiance in between Rukn-Makam (place between Hajre Aswad and Makame Ibrahim), and I know the names of his supporters and know their tribes."

Attestation of the Hadeeth:

Muhammad ibn Isma'eel ibn Bazi: He is a great trustworthy scholar by consensus. Al-Najashi says: Aboo Ja'far, was of the upright and trustworthy people of this creed, very righteous in actions, Al-Faddaal says about him: He was very very trustworthy and Imam Al-Ridha (a.s) has said about him: "I wish there were people among you like him."

Hammad ibn Isa: He is Al-Juhani Aboo Muhammad, a great trustworthy person by consensus. Al-Najashi says: He was trustworthy in Hadeeth and truthful. He died drowning in Al-Juhfa in the year 209 A.H. and he was also a narrator for the Aammah (i.e. the so-called Sunnis. Ibn Ma'een says: He was a righteous Sheikh, Aboo Hatam weakens him and others, Al-Tirmidhi and ibn Majah have narrated from him and it is enough the praise of ibn Ma'een about him who is the prominent Imam of Jarh Wa Ta'deel (i.e. the knowledge of weakening and authenticating narrators) among Al-Aammah (i.e. the so-called Sunnis).

Footnote: Also narrated in Al-I'tiqadaat of Sheikh Al-Sadooq and its commentary by Sheikh Al-Mufid, in Ithbatul Huda 3/544 and Hurr Al-Amili has a connected chain up to Al-Fadhl ibn Shazaan which goes through the prominent and significant Shi'a scholars, also in the book of Sulaym with summarization of the names.

And the Sheikh of the scholars of Qom, father of Al-Sadooq has narrated it through another Saheeh (Authentic) chain and has summarized the names in Al-Imamah Wa Al-Tabsira: 54, and Al-Sadooq has narrated it from him in Al-Ilal: 208 and Al-Amali: 485 and in Kamaaluddin wa Tamaamun Ni’ma: 206.

Source: Arba'oon Hadeethan Mu'tabaran. Pg. # 38 - 39.


Al-Nu'mani:

(10) The previous series of narrators from Abdur Razzaq from Ma'mar from Aban that Sulaym bin Qays Al-Hilali had said:

I said to Alee (a.s): "I have heard from Salman, Al-Miqdad and Aboo Dharr some interpretations of the Holy Qur'aan and some traditions of the Prophet (saw) different from what the people have had with them, and I heard from you what confirmed that I have heard from those men. In the meanwhile, I found among the people some interpretations of the Holy Qur'aan and some prophetic traditions in which they denied those interpretations and traditions (narrated by those three men) and claimed that they were false. Do you think that they (the people) ascribed false things to the Prophet (saw) and interpreted the Holy Qur'aan according to their own opinions?"

Alee (a.s) said: "With people there is truth and falsehood, abrogating and abrogated verdicts, special and general verdicts, allegorical and clear Qur'aanic verses, memorization and illusion. False things were ascribed to the Prophet (saw) when he was still alive until he made a speech saying: 'O people! The fabricators who ascribed false things to me became so many. Let him, who ascribes false things to me intendedly, take his seat in Hell.' Nevertheless, many people ascribed false things to him after his death.

The narrators of traditions are of four kinds; one is a hypocrite showing faith with his tongue only. He does not refrain from ascribing false things to the Prophet (saw) intendedly. If people know that he is a hypocrite and a liar, they will never believe him or accept anything from him but they see that he has accompanied the Prophet (saw), has seen him and heard from him; therefore they trusted in him without knowing his reality. Allah (swt) has told us about the hypocrites and described them t0 us when saying, 'And when you see them, their persons will please you, and If they speak, you will listen to their speech; (they are) as if they were big pieces of wood clad with garments; they think every cry to be against them. They are the enemy, therefore beware of them; may Allah destroy them, whence are they turned back.' They kept on that after the Prophet (saw) and approached the deviant rulers who invited people towards Hell via lies and fabrications. They entrusted them with positions and authorities and imposed them on people by force. They hastened towards the pleasures of this worldly life. In fact, most people follow the Kings and look forward to the pleasures of this life except a few whom Allah (swt) has guided.

The other kind is a man, who heard something from the Prophet (saw) and could not memorize it correctly. He mistook when narrating it without intending to fabricate it. If the Muslims knew that he had mistaken, they would not accept a tradition from him, and if he himself knew that his tradition was incorrect, he would deny it.

The third is a man, who heard the Prophet (saw) ordering something and then the Prophet (saw) prohibited it, but the man did not know or hear the Prophet (s) prohibiting something and then he permitted it, but the man did not know; therefore he memorized the abrogated verdict and ignored the abrogating verdict. If he knew that it had been abrogated, he would deny it and if people, when hearing it, knew that it had been abrogated, they would deny it.

The fourth one is he, who never fabricates the sayings of Allah (swt) or the sayings of His messenger (saw) because he hates lying, fears Allah (swt) and glorifies the Prophet (saw). He does not forget but he keeps the tradition as he hears it. He narrates it with no word more and no word less. He knows the abrogating and the abrogated verdicts. He acts according to the abrogating verdicts and refuses the abrogated ones. The orders and prohibitions of the Prophet (saw) are like those of the Holy Qur'aan; among them there are abrogating and abrogated verdicts, particular and general, allegorical and clear sayings. Allah (swt) says, 'Whatever the Messenger gives you, accept it, and from whatever he forbids you, keep back.' Many people hear the allegorical sayings and do not know what Allah (swt) and His messenger (saw) mean.

Not all of the Prophet's (saw) companions used to ask about many things to understand them well. They often liked that a nomad or a passerby might ask the Prophet (saw) so that they would hear the answer. I used to come to the Prophet (saw) once in the day and once in the night. He let me alone with him. The Prophet's (saw) companions knew well that the Prophet (saw) did not do that with anyone else than me. The Prophet (saw) often came to my house and when I came to him in one of his houses, he asked his wives to leave us alone.

But when he (saw) came to my house, Faatima (s.a) would stay with us and would not leave nor would any of my sons. If I began asking, he would answer me and if I finished my questions and became silent, he would begin talking to me and praying to Allah (swt) to make me perceive and memorize. Since he has prayed to Allah (swt) for me, I have never forgotten anything at all. Once I said to the Prophet (saw): 'O messenger of Allah (saw), since you have prayed to Allah (swt) for me, I have never forgotten anything of what you have taught me and dictated to me. But you have not ordered me to write it down. Do you not fear that I may forget?' He said: 'O my brother, I do not fear that you may forget or ignore any thing. Allah (swt) has revealed to me that He has responded to my praying for you and your partners coming after you. But you are to write it down for them.'"

I asked: "O messenger of Allah (saw), who are my partners?"

He said: "They are those, whom Allah (swt) has connected with Himself and me when He said: 'O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in authority from among you. If you fear that you may quarrel about something, then refer it to Allah, the Messenger and those of authority among you.'"

I said: "O messenger of Allah (saw), who are they?" He said: "They are the guardians, one after the other, until they come to me at the pond (in Paradise). Every one of them is guided and he is a guide for people. They will not be affected by disappointment of anyone, who will disappoint them. They are with the Holy Qur'aan and the Holy Qur'aan is with them. They will not part with the Holy Qur'aan nor will it part with them. By them my Ummah will win and by their praying the heaven will rain for people and calamities will be away from them."

I said: "O messenger of Allah (saw), would you tell me their names?"

He said: "My son; this - and he put his hand on Al-Hassan (a.s) then my son; this - he put his hand on Al-Hussain (a.s) - then his son, whose name will be like your name, O Alee (a.s), then Muhammad the son of Alee (a.s)."

Then he turned towards Al-Hussain (a.s) and said: "Muhammad bin Alee (a.s) will be born during your life. Give him my regards! Then will be the rest of the twelve Imams." I said: "O messenger of Allah (saw), would you tell me their names?" He mentioned their names one after the other. O Sulaym, by Allah (swt)! From them is Al-Mahdi (ajf) of this Ummah. He will spread justice and equity all over the world after it has been filled with injustice and oppression."

Source: Al-Ghaybah Al-Nu'mani. Pg. # 51 - 53.


Sheikh Al-Sadooq:

Narrated to us Muzaffar bin Ja'far bin Muzaffar bin Alawi Samarqandi: Narrated to us Ja'far bin Muhammad bin Mas'ood from his father: Narrated to us Muhammad bin Nasr from Hasan bin Musa Khashshab: Narrated to us Hakam bin Bohlool Ansari from Isma'eel bin Hammam from Imran bin Qurra from Abi Muhammad Madani from ibne Uzaina from Aban bin Abi Ayyash that he said: Narrated to us Sulaym ibn Qais Al-Hilali relates:
I heard Alee (a.s) say, "No verse from the Holy Qur'aan descended on the Messenger of Allah (saw) but that he recited it for me and dictated it, while I jotted it down. He taught me its interpretation, its exegesis, its abrogating verse, its abrogated verse, its clear verse and its ambiguous verse. He prayed to Allah, Mighty and Glorified be He, that he should teach me its understanding and its memorization. Consequently, I never forgot even one verse from the Book of Allah (swt), nor the knowledge, which he dictated to me and I had written it down. He did not leave anything which Allah, Mighty and Glorified be He, taught him from the permissible and the prohibited, the commands and the prohibitions, the past and the present, obedience as well as defiance, but that he taught me and I memorized it. I did not forget even one word from them. Then he placed his hand on my heart and prayed to Allah, Mighty and Glorified be He, that He should fill my heart with knowledge, understanding, wisdom and light. I did not forget any of these nor was there anything which I did not write."

I asked, "O Messenger of Allah (saw), do you fear forgetfulness for me afterwards?" He replied, "I do not fear for you forgetfulness or ignorance. Indeed, my Lord, mighty is His Majesty, has informed me that He has responded to my prayer for you and your partners, those who will follow you." I asked, "O Messenger of Allah (saw), Who are my partners after me?" He replied, "Those whom Allah, Mighty and Glorified be He, has accompanied with Himself and me in His verse:"Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and the possessors of authority amongst you. {4:59}. I inquired, "O Messenger of Allah (saw), who are they?"

He replied, "My successors till they reach unto me at the pond (of Kauthar). All of them are guides and guided. One who forsakes them will not harm them. They are with the Holy Qur'aan and the Holy Qur'aan is with them, neither it will separate from them, nor will they separate from it. Due to them my people will be helped, due to them they will receive rain, due to them calamity will be dispelled from them and their prayers will be accepted." I requested, "O Messenger of Allah (saw), name them for me." He rejoined, "This son of mine" - and he placed his hand on the head of Hassan, "then this son" - and he kept his hand on the head of Hussain (peace be on them both), "then his son Alee (a.s), who will be born in your life, so convey my Salaam to him and thus twelve (Imams) will be completed." I prayed, "May my father and my mother be sacrificed for you, O Messenger of Allah (saw), name each one of them for me." So, he named them one by one. By Allah (swt)! O brother of Bani Hilal, amongst them, is the Mahdi of this people, Muhammad (ajf), the one who will fill the earth with justice and equity like it has been fraught with injustice. By Allah (swt)! Surely I know who will pay allegiance to him between the Rukn and the Maqaam (in Ka'ba) and I know their names and their fathers and their tribes."

Source: Kamaaluddin wa Tamaamun Ni'ma. Pg. # 270 - 271.

Sheikh Al-Sadooq:

It is related on the authority of Sulaym b. Qays Al-Hilali that he said to the Prince of Believers, peace be on him: "Verily I have heard from Salman, Miqdad and Aboo Dharr some explanations of the Holy Qur'aan and the traditions of the Prophet (saw) different from what are generally known to the people. And I have heard from you a corroboration of what I heard from them. And I know that there are many things current among the people regarding the explanation of the Holy Qur'aan and the traditions of the Prophet (saw), to which you (the Imams (a.s)) are opposed, and you assert that all that is false. Is it possible that the people attribute a lie to the Prophet of Allah (saw) deliberately, and give explanations according to their own opinions?"

(The reporter) says: And Alee, on whom be peace, said: "You have asked (a question), so now hearken to its reply. Verily the people at large possess the truth and the falsehood; the abrogating (nasikh) and the abrogated (mansukh) verses; the special and the general; the definite (mohkam) and the ambiguous (mutashabih); the well remembered (hifzanand the doubtful (wahman). Even in the lifetime of the Prophet, on whom be peace, people attributed to the Prophet (saw) things which were not true, until (matters reached such a stage that) he rose to address the people and said: 'O people, the number of perjurers against me has increased; now he who speaks a falsehood against me intentionally, let him prepare for himself a place in Hell.' Thereafter falsehoods were told against him after his death.

All tradition has come to you from one of four sources, and there is not a fifth. 

(I) The first is the hypocrite (munafiq) professing the faith, simulating Islam, who does not regard it as a sin, and does not care if he speaks an untruth against the Prophet (saw) intentionally. Now if people knew that he was a mendacious hypocrite, they would neither have accepted anything from him, nor would they have considered him truthful. But they said: Here is a man who associated with the Messenger of Allah (saw) and who saw and heard him. Therefore they accepted (traditions) from him, not knowing his real attitude. And Allah (swt) has given tidings regarding the hypocrites and described them with clarity. For He says, Great is He as a Speaker: "And when thou seest them their figures please thee; and if they speak thou givest ear unto their speech. (They are) as though they were blocks of wood in striped cloaks" {63:4}.

They (the hypocrites) then split up in to factions after the Prophet (saw), and found favour with the leaders of destruction and inviters towards the fire by means of deception and falsehood and calumny. They assigned them offices, enjoyed the wealth of the world through them and bore them (hypocrites) upon the necks of people.

For people, generally - save those whom Allah (swt) has protected - follow the Kings and the worldly path. This is the first of the four types.

(II) The second is the man who hears something from the Prophet (saw) but does not remember it precisely. He then falls into an error concerning it, without intentionally telling a lie. Now this (tradition) is with him; he professes it, acts according to it, and relates it to others and says: 'I heard it from the Messenger of Allah (saw). If people knew that this was a mistake, they would not accept it, and if he himself knew that it was an error, he would certainly have cast it off.

(III) The third is the man who hears the Prophet (saw) commanding a certain act, which, unknown to him, was later forbidden. Or (he hears the Prophet (saw)) forbidding an act, which was later, unknown to him, permitted. Hence he remembers the abrogated, but not the abrogating (command). Now if he knew that it was abrogated, he would surely have rejected it; and similarly if the people knew that what was heard from the relator was an abrogated command, they too would surely have rejected it.

(IV) The fourth is the man who does not give the he to Allah (swt) and His Prophet (saw), because he hates falsehood and fears Allah the Mighty and Glorious, and honours the Messenger of Allah (saw). He does not forget it, but commits to memory precisely what he hears. So he brings forward what he has heard, without any increase or decrease. If he knew the abrogating and the abrogated (command), he would act in accordance with the abrogating and would reject the abrogated (injunction).

Now the commands of the Prophet (saw) are like those of the Holy Qur'aan, are abrogating (nasikh) and abrogated (mansukh), special (khass) and general ('am), definite (mohkam) and ambiguous (mutashabih). And there may be words related from the Prophet (saw) bearing two meanings; a general and a particular one, exactly as in the case of the Holy Qur'aan. Allah the Mighty and Glorious says in His Book: 'And whatsoever the Messenger giveth you, take it. And whatsoever he forbiddeth, abstain (from it)' {59.7}. Now what Allah (swt) and His Messenger (saw) meant remained ambiguous to those who did not know. Not all the Companions of the Prophet (saw) questioned or tried to understand him, for among them were those who neither questioned, nor understood him; for Allah (swt) forbade them from questioning when He said:

'O ye who believe! Ask not of things which, if they were made known to you, would trouble you; but if ye ask of them when the Qur'aan is being revealed, they will be made known unto you. Allah pardoneth this, for Allah is Forgiving, Clement. A folk before you asked (for such disclosures) and they disbelieved therein.' {5. 101 - 102}.

So they were forbidden from questioning to such an extent that they were glad if a desert Arab would come and ask, and they would listen.

I (Alee (a.s)) used to visit the Messenger of Allah (saw), habitually, every night and every day in strict privacy, when he used to answer me concerning what I asked, and I used to go about him wherever he went. The companions of the Messenger of Allah (saw) knew (full well) that he did not act in this manner with anyone else. And this (private conversation) would often take place in my house. And whenever I would visit him at some of his resting-places, he would arrange for being alone with me and ask his wives to leave, so that no one would remain except he and I.

And when he would come to me in private, he would ask every one to withdraw except Faatima (s.a) or one of my two sons, and when questioned he would answer me. And when I would remain silent and my questions would be exhausted, he would begin himself. So that nothing was revealed to the Prophet (saw) of the verses of the Holy Qur'aan, or taught to him by Allah, Exalted is He, concerning what was lawful and what was forbidden, command or prohibition, obedience or sin, things past or future –but he would teach it to me and make me read it, or dictate it to me and I would write it down in my own hand. He would explain to me its true meaning (Ta'weel), and its apparent and hidden significance (Zahir, Batin), and I would commit it to memory and would not forget even a letter of it. Whenever the Messenger of Allah (saw) used to instruct me, he would place his hand on my chest and say: 'O Lord! Fill his mind (Qalb) with knowledge, understanding, light, forbearance and belief (Iman); Teach him and do not let him remain ignorant; cause him to remember and not to forget.'

I said to him one day: 'May my father and mother be sacrificed for you, O Messenger of Allah (saw), do you fear forgetfulness (on my part)?' And he said: 'O my brother! I fear neither forgetfulness nor ignorance on your part. Allah the Mighty and Glorious has informed me that he has accepted (my prayers) concerning you (Alee (a.s)) and your associates, who will come after you.' And I said: 'O Messenger of Allah (saw), who are my associates?' And he said: 'Those, obedience to whom has been coupled by Allah (swt), with obedience to Himself and obedience to me (Prophet).

And I said: 'Who are they, O Messenger of Allah (saw)?' And he said: 'They concerning whom Allah (swt) has said: "O ye who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those of you who are in authority" {4.59}. And I said: 'O Messenger of Allah (saw), who are they?' He said: They are the Awsiya (executors) who will be executors after me. They will not separate until they come to me at my Pond (hawth), rightly-guiding and rightly-guided. The deceit of those that deceive will not injure them, nor the desertion of those that desert them. They (the Imams (a.s)) are with the Holy Qur'aan, and the Holy Qur'aan is with them; they will not forsake it (the Holy Qur'aan) and it will not forsake them. By them (Imams (a.s)) will my community (Ummah) be guided, and by them will they be benefited, and by them will calamity be averted, and through them will their prayers be heard.'

And I (Alee (a.s)) said: 'O Messenger of Allah (saw), name them to me.' He said: 'You, O Alee (a.s), then this, my son' - and he put his hand on the head of Hassan (a.s). 'And then this, my son.' - and he put his hand on the head of Hussain (a.s). "Then your namesake, O brother, he is the leader of the devotees; then his son, named Muhammad (a.s), the Opener (Baqir) of my knowledge, and the treasurer of the inspiration of Allah (swt). O brother, Alee (a.s) (Zayn ul Abideen) will be born in your lifetime, so give my greetings to him. And Muhammad (a.s) (Al-Baqir) will be born in your lifetime, O Hussain (a.s), so give my greetings to him. Then the rest of the twelve Imams (a.s) (in some manuscripts with the addition: And then Ja'far (a.s) (as-Sadiq); then Musa (a.s) (Al-Kadhim) b. Ja'far; then Alee (Al-Ridha) b. Musa (a.s); then Muhammad (at-Taqi) b. Alee (a.s); then Alee (an-Naqi) b. Muhammad; (a.s) then Hasan Az-Zaki (Al-Askari) b. Alee (a.s); till Al-Mahdi (ajf) of the Ummah of Muhammad (saw) he, whose name is my name and whose colour is my colour, - the upholder of the Command of Allah (swt) (Al-Qa'im B-Amri L-lah) in the final era, the Righteous Guide, WHO WILL FILL THE EARTH WITH JUSTICE AND EQUITY, JUST AS NOW IT IS FULL OF OPPRESSION AND WRONG. I swear by Allah (swt), O Sulaym, that people will swear allegiance to him between the Pillar (Rukn) and the Place (Maqam), 334 and I know the names of the people who will support him and I know their tribes.'

Sulaym b. Qays said: Later on I met Hassan (a.s) and Hussain (a.s) at Madinah after Mu'awiyah began to reign, and I related them this story from their father. Both of them said: 'You speak the truth. The Prince of Believers had related this story to you, while we were sitting, and we remembered this from the Messenger of Allah (saw) as you relate it, and not a word has been added or subtracted.' 

And Sulaym b. Qays said: I then met Alee b. Al-Hussain (Zayn ul Abideen), on whom be peace, and his son Muhammad Al-Baqir (a.s) was with him, and I related to him what I had heard from his father, and he (Alee (a.s)) said: "I heard it from the Prince of Believers, who in turn had it from the Messenger of Allah (saw), while he was ill and I was a boy." Then Aboo Ja'far (Muhammad Al-Baqir (a.s)) said: "And when my grandfather gave me the Prophet's (saw) greetings I was a boy."

Aban b. Abi Ayyash said: I related the whole of this story, as related by Sulaym b. Al-Qays Al-Hilali, to Imam Alee b. Al-Hussain (a.s), and he said: "He (Sulaym) spoke the truth. Jabir b. Abdullah Al-Ansari happened to meet my son, Muhammad Al-Baqir (a.s), while he was attending school, and he kissed him and gave him the greeting of the Messenger of Allah (saw)."

Aban b. Abi Ayyash said: I went to the Hajj after the death of Imam Alee b. Al-Hussain (Zayn ul Abideenv(a.s)), and I met Imam Muhammad Al-Baqir (a.s), and I related to him the whole of this story, as related by Sulaym b. Qays, and his eyes filled with tears and he said: "Sulaym, may the mercy of Allah (swt) be upon him, spoke the truth. Sulaym had come to my father after my grandfather Al-Hussain (a.s) was slain, and I was present when he related this story exactly in the same manner, and my father said to him: 'By Allah (swt), you have spoken the truth, O Sulaym. My father had related to me this story from the Prince of Believers.'"

Source: Al-I'tiqadaat Al-Imamiyyah. Pg. # 118 - 123.


Al-Ayyashi:

Sulaym ibn Qays Al-Hilali has narrated: I heard Alee (a.s) say, "No verse from the Holy Qur'aan descended on the Messenger of Allah (saw) but that he recited it for me and dictated it, while I jotted it down. He taught me its interpretation, its exegesis, its abrogating verse, its abrogated verse, its clear verse and its ambiguous verse. He prayed to Allah, Mighty and Glorified be He, that he should teach me its understanding and its memorization. Consequently, I never forgot even one verse from the Book of Allah (swt), nor the knowledge, which he dictated to me and I had written it down. He did not leave anything which Allah, Mighty and Glorified be He, taught him from the permissible and the prohibited, the commands and the prohibitions, the past and the present, obedience as well as defiance, but that he taught me and I memorized it. I did not forget even one word from them. Then he placed his hand on my heart and prayed to Allah, Mighty and Glorified be He, that He should fill my heart with knowledge, understanding, wisdom and light. I did not forget any of these nor was there anything which I did not write." I asked, "O Messenger of Allah (saw), do you fear forgetfulness for me afterwards?" He replied, "I do not fear for you forgetfulness or ignorance. Indeed, my Lord, mighty is His Majesty, has informed me that He has responded to my prayer for you and your partners, those who will follow you." I asked, "O Messenger of Allah (saw), who are my partners after me?" He replied, "Those whom Allah, Mighty and Glorified be He, has accompanied with Himself and me {4:59} of the Holy Qur'aan)."

He (saw) then said, "My successors till they reach unto me at the pond (of Kauthar). All of them are guides and guided. One who forsakes them will not harm them. They are with the Holy Qur'aan and the Holy Qur'aan is with them. Neither it will separate from them, nor will they separate from it. Due to them my people will be helped, due to them they will receive rain, due to them calamity will be dispelled from them and their prayers will be accepted." I requested, "O Messenger of Allah (saw), name them for me." He rejoined, "This son of mine." - And he placed his hand on the head of Hassan. "Then this son." - And he kept his hand on the head of Hussain (peace be on them both). "Then his son Alee (a.s), who will be born in your life, so convey my Salaam to him and thus twelve (Imams) will be completed from the son of Muhammad (saw)."

I prayed, "May my father and my mother be sacrificed for you, O Messenger of Allah (saw), name each one of them for me." So, he named them one by one. By Allah (swt)! O brother of Bani Hilal, amongst them, is the Mahdi (ajf) of this Ummah of Muhammad (saw), the one who will fill the earth with justice and equity like it has been fraught with injustice. By Allah (swt)! Surely I know who will pay allegiance to him between the Rukn and the Maqaam (in Ka'ba) and I know their names and their fathers and their tribes."

Source: Tafsir Al-Ayyashi. Vol. 1, Pg. # 26 - 27.



Hadeeth # 11:

Al-Nu'mani:

(11) Abdur Razzaq narrated from Ma'mar bin Rashid from Aban bin Abi Ayyash that Sulaym bin Qays had said: "Alee (a.s) said to Talha in a long tradition when mentioning the pride of Al-Muhajireen and Al-Ansar about their virtues: "O Talha, have you not witnessed the Prophet (saw) when he asked for a tablet to write a decree, by which the Ummah would not go astray nor would it disagree after him, and then your friend said: "The Prophet (saw) is raving" then the Prophet (saw) became angry and gave it up?" Talha said: "Yes, I have witnessed that." Imam Alee (a.s) said: "When you (all) went out, the Prophet (saw) told me about the decree he wanted to write before the public to witness it. He said to me that Gabriel had told him that Allah (swt) had known that the Ummah would disagree and separate after him (the Prophet (saw)). He asked for a sheet of paper and dictated to me what he wanted to write in the tablet before people. He let three persons witness that. They were Salman Al-Farsi, Aboo Dharr and Al-Miqdad. He mentioned the names of the Imams of guidance, whom he ordered the believers to obey until the Day of Resurrection. He mentioned my name as the first of them then my son Hassan (a.s) and then my son Hussain (a.s) and then nine ones from the progeny of my son Hussain (a.s). Was it not so, O you Aboo Dharr and you Al-Miqdad?" They said: "We witness that the Prophet (saw) has done so." Talha said: "By Allah (swt)! I have heard the Prophet (saw) saying to Aboo Dharr: 'By Allah (swt), the earth has not carried nor has the sky shaded one more truthful or more pious than Aboo Dharr.' I witness that they (Aboo Dharr and Al-Miqdad) have not said but the truth and you are more truthful and more pious to me than them both."

Source: Al-Ghaybah Al-Nu'mani. Pg. # 53 - 54.


Sheikh Al-Sadooq:

Narrated to us my father and Muhammad bin Hasan - May Allah (swt) be pleased with them - they said: Narrated to us Sa'ad bin Abdullah: Narrated to us Ya'qoob bin Yazid from Hammad bin Isa from Umar bin Uzaina from Aban bin Abi Ayyash from Sulaym bin Qays Hilali that he said: "I saw Alee (a.s) in Masjid-e-Nabawi during the Caliphate of Uthman and some people were mentioning some traditions and discussing Fiqh and knowledge. They talked about Quraish, their merits and those who brought Faith in the beginning and their migration to Madinah and what virtues the Holy Prophet (saw) had mentioned about the Quraysh, like his saying that all Imams will be from the Quraysh and people will be following the Quraysh and the Quraysh will be the Imams of Arabs, and his saying that one should not say bad things about Quraysh and one Quraysh will have twice the strength of a non-Quraysh man, and he who bears enmity to Quraysh, Allah (swt) bears enmity with him, and his saying that whoever humiliates the Quraysh, Allah (swt) will humiliate him. They talked about the Ansar, their merits, who were the first ones to accept Islam and their help and how Allah (swt) has praised them in His Book, and discussed what virtues the Holy Prophet (saw) had mentioned and what he said about the funeral of Sa'ad ibn Ma'adh, and talked about Hanzala ibn Aboo Aamir, who was given the ritual bath by angels, and talked about that person who was helped by a honeybee. They talked until they did not leave any of the merits of the Ansar. Every tribe said they had this one and that one from their tribe. The Quraysh said that the Holy Prophet (saw) was from them, Hamza ibn Abdul Muttalib was from them, Ja'far was from them, Ubaidah ibn Harith and Zaid ibn Haritha were from them, and so were Aboo Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Sa'ad, Aboo Ubaidah, Saalim and ibn Awf. They did not leave anybody among the ones who accepted Islam in the beginning. There were more than 200 people – some were facing the Qibla and some were sitting in a circle. From the Quraysh, from what I can remember, was Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s., Sa'ad ibn Abi Waqqas, Abdul Rahman ibn Awf and Zubair and Talha and Ammar, Miqdad, Aboo Dharr, and Hashim ibn Atbah, Abdullah ibn Umar, and Hassan (a.s) and Hussain (a.s), Abbas and Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr, Abdullah ibn Ja'far, Ubaidullah ibn Abbas. From the Ansar there were Ubayy ibn Kaab, Zaid ibn Thabit, Aboo Ayyub-e-Ansari, and Abul Haytham ibnul Taihan, Muhammad ibn Muslimah and Qays ibn Sa'ad ibn Ubadah, Jabir ibn Abdullah, Aboo Maryam and Anas ibn Malik, Zaid ibn Arqam, Abdullah Awf, Aboo Layla and with him his son Abdul Rahman who was sitting next to him, who was a young boy – as yet he did not have a beard growing and was very handsome. Abul Hasan Basri came, and with him was his son Hassan (a.s) who was a young boy, as yet, did not have a beard growing and was very handsome. His height was medium. I started looking at him and Abdul Rahman Abi Layla. I could not decide who was more handsome between these two except that Hassan (a.s) was older and taller. Then people said many things from morning to midday and Uthman was in his house and did not even know what these people were talking about. Alee (a.s) was quiet he did not talk and neither did anyone from his household.

Then all these people turned to Alee (a.s.) and said, 'O Abul Hasan! What has stopped you from talking?' So Alee (a.s) replied: 'There is no tribe from which a tribesman has not spoken about merits and not said truth.' Then he said: 'O people of the Quraysh! O group of Ansar! Through whom has Allah (swt) given you these merits – is it because of you yourselves or because of your tribes, or people of your house or somebody else apart from you?' Everyone replied: 'God has given, and because of the Holy Prophet (saw) has obliged us, and we have acquired all these because of him and we have got it. So all merits that we have acquired in religion and the world is because of the Holy Prophet (saw). We have not acquired it because of our own selves or our tribes or people of our houses.' He said: 'You have spoken the truth, O groups of Quraysh and Ansar. So do you accept that whatever good you have acquired in religion and the world is especially due to us Ahlulbayt and not due to yourselves, and you have heard the Holy Prophet (saw) saying: 'I and my brother Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s) are created from the same clay until Adam.' People of Badr, Uhud and people of Saabeqah (people who accepted Islam first) all said: 'Yes we have heard it from the Holy Prophet (saw).' He asked: 'What, do you accept that my brother, the Holy Prophet (saw), said: 'I and my Ahlulbayt – we were, each and everyone of us, one Noor (light) that were walking in the presence of Allah 14,000 years before Adam (a.s) was created, and when Adam was created, this light was put in his loins and brought to this earth. Then this light was put in the boat through Nuh (a.s), and then in the fire through Ibrahim (a.s) and after that, transferred on highly esteemed loins and pure wombs and then from pure wombs towards extremely respected loins, within such fathers and mothers who never met each other unlawfully.' Then Alee (a.s) said: 'Bearing Allah (swt) as Witness, I am saying do you know Allah (swt), in His first Books has in many verses given my merits and in this Ummah nobody reached Allah (swt) and His Prophet (saw) before me?' Everyone replied: 'Bearing Allah as Witness – Yes.' He asked: 'Bearing Allah (swt) as Witness, do you know when the verses: 'And (as for) the foremost, the first of the Muhajirs and Ansar...'{9: 100}. And 'And the foremost are the foremost, these are they who are drawn nigh (to Allah).' {56: 10-11}. Were revealed, the Holy Prophet (saw) was asked whom these were for.

He replied: 'Allah (swt) has revealed them for Prophets (a.s) and their inheritors and I am more meritorious than all Prophets (a.s) and Messengers (a.s), and Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s), my inheritor, is more meritorious than all inheritors?'

All replied: 'Bearing Allah as Witness – Yes.'

He said: 'I am telling you bearing Allah (swt) as Witness, do you know when these verses: 'O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Apostle and those in authority from among you.' {4:59}

And

 'Only Allah is your Wali and His Apostle and those who keep up prayers and pay the poor-rate while they bow.' {5:55}

And

'What! Do you think that you will be left alone while Allah has not known those of you who have struggled hard and have not taken any one as an adherent besides Allah and His Apostle and the believers.' {9:16}. 

Were revealed people asked: 'O Messenger of Allah (saw), is this for particular believers or is it for believers in general?' Then Allah, the Mighty and Sublime commanded His Prophet to inform them who is Ulil Amr and explain Wilayat to them like prayer, fasting, Zakat, Hajj was explained to them. At that time the Holy Prophet (saw) appointed me at Ghadeer Khumm, then he gave a sermon and said: 'O people! Allah (swt) has given me such a Message that my chest is becoming tight, and I thought people will not believe me, so He demanded that I pass the Message on, or He will punish me.' Then the Holy Prophet (saw) was ordered and it was announced that prayer is being established and then gave a sermon and said: 'O people! Do you know that Allah (swt) is my Mola and I am the Mola of the Mo'mineen and I have more authority over the lives of the Mo'mineen than they themselves?' Everyone replied: 'Surely, O Prophet of Allah (saw)!' He said: 'O Alee (a.s), get up.' So I got up. He said: 'Whosever's Mola I am, then this Alee (a.s) is his Mola – O Allah (swt) befriend him who befriends them and bear enmity towards him who bears enmity towards them (i.e. Ahlulbayt).'

Salman then stood up and asked: 'O Messenger of Allah (saw)! What kind of Wilayat?' He replied: 'On whomever I have more authority, Alee (a.s) also has more authority' and then the Almighty Allah revealed the verse: 'This day I have perfected for you your religion and completed My favour on you and chosen for you Islam as a religion.' {5:3}. Then the Holy Prophet (saw) recited Takbir and said, 'Allaho Akbar, my Prophethood is complete and Allah's (swt) religion is complete with Alee's (a.s) Wilayat after me.' Aboo Bakr and Umar stood up and asked: 'O Messenger of Allah (saw)! Is this verse only for Alee (a.s)?' The Holy Prophet (saw) replied: 'Indeed, for him and for all my inheritors till the Day of Judgment.' They both said: 'O Messenger of Allah (saw)! Tell us who they are.' The Holy Prophet (saw) said: 'Alee (a.s), my brother, my vizier, my successor, my inheritor, and my Caliph in my Ummah after me, and the guardian of all Mo'mineen after me, then my son Hassan (a.s), then my son Hussain (a.s), then my son Hussain's (a.s) nine children, one after the other. The Holy Qur'aan will be with them all and they will all be with the Holy Qur'aan. They all will not leave the Holy Qur'aan and the Holy Qur'aan will not leave them all until they reach me at my Fountain.' Then people said: 'Yes, surely, bearing Allah (swt) as Witness, we have heard it and we are witness – it is like what you said.' Some people said: 'We remember most of what you said, but do not remember everything.' Alee (a.s) said: 'You have said the truth – all people are not equal in memory. I bear Allah (swt) as witness – these people have remembered it when the Holy Prophet (saw) stood up and explained it to them.'

Then Zaid ibn Arqam, Baraa ibn Aazib, Aboo Dharr, Miqdad and Ammar stood up and said: 'We bear witness, we remember the Messenger of Allah (saw) saying, when he was on the pulpit and you were next to him: 'O people! Allah (swt) has commanded me that I appoint an Imam for you after me who will be responsible and he will be my inheritor, my Caliph, and whose obedience, Allah (swt) – in His Book – has made obligatory on believers and has joined his obedience to His and my obedience. He has given command about his Wilayat in His Book, and I spoke again to Allah (swt) concerning this, fearing taunts and disbelief of the hypocrites. Allah (swt) commanded firmly that I pass this Message or He will punish me. O people! Allah (swt) has commanded in His Book to pray, so I explained it to you and He commanded Zakat, fasting and Hajj, so I mentioned these and explained these to you. And He has commanded you concerning Wilayat, and I am bearing you as witnesses that this Wilayat is for him (Alee (a.s)) especially, (and he put his hand on Alee (a.s)). Then after him, it is for his two sons and after them all inheritors who will be his children. They will not separate from the Holy Qur'aan and the Holy Qur'aan will not separate from them until they reach me at the Pool. O people, I have told you, after me what your shelter will be and after me who your Imam, Wali, and Hadi will be. He is this – my brother Ali ibn Abi Talib (a.s). He has the same status that I have with you. Listen to him in matters of religion, and in your tasks, obey him because he has all that Allah (swt) has given me – His Knowledge and Wisdom. So ask him and learn from him and after him, his inheritors. Do not teach him and do not by-pass him, and do not fall behind him because he is with truth and truth is with him. He will always be with truth and truth will always be with him.'

Then they all sat down. Sulaym says that Alee (a.s) said: 'O people! You know that when Allah (swt) in His Book revealed: 'Allah only desires to keep away the uncleanness from you, O people of the House! And to purify you a (thorough) purifying.' {33:33}

The Holy Prophet (saw) gathered me, Faatima (s.a) and my two sons, Hassan (a.s) and Hussain (a.s), and then put a cloak over us and said: 'These are my Ahlulbayt (a.s), my flesh. What displeases them will displease me, what hurts them will hurt me, and what troubles me will trouble them, so keep them away from evil and keep them as pure as they have a right to be.' Umme Salamah asked: 'What about me, O Messenger of Allah (saw)?' The Holy Prophet (saw) replied: 'You are worthy, but this verse is only for me, my brother, my daughter Faatima (s.a) and my two sons, and my son Hussain's (a.s) nine children, and nobody else is included with me –except them.'

Everyone replied: 'Yes, indeed, we bear witness that Umme Salamah told this to us. We asked the Holy Prophet (saw) and he said exactly what Umme Salamah had related to us.'
Then Alee (a.s) said: 'I am telling you, bearing Allah (swt) as Witness, do you know when the verse: 

'O you who believe! Be careful of (your duty to) Allah and be with the true ones.' {9:119}

Salman (r.a) asked: 'O Messenger of Allah (saw), is this verse general or particular?' Holy Prophet (saw) replied, 'All believers have been commanded here but the Siddiqeen are particular, i.e. My brother Alee (a.s) and after him my inheritors until the Day of Judgment.' Everyone said: 'Bearing Allah (swt) as Witness – Yes.' Alee (a.s.) said: 'Bearing Allah (swt) as Witness – do you know I asked the Holy Prophet (saw) at the time of the expedition of Tabuk why he had left me behind and he replied: 'Madinah cannot be alright without either you or me, and you are to me as Haroon (a.s) was to Musa (a.s), except that after me there will not be another Prophet.' Everyone said: 'Bearing Allah (swt) as Witness – Yes.'

Alee (a.s) asked: 'Bearing Allah (swt) as Witness, do you know when Allah (swt) revealed in Surah Hajj: 'O you who believe! Bow down and prostrate yourselves and serve your Lord, and do good that you may succeed…till the end of Surah… {22:77}

Salman (r.a) stood up and asked: 'O Messenger of Allah (saw)! Who are these people over whom you stand witness and they stand witness over people, whom Allah (swt) has chosen and has left no obstacle in religion and their father Ibraheem's religion?' He replied: 'Allah (swt) has meant only thirteen people, the Ummah is not included.'

Salman (r.a) requested: 'O Messenger of Allah (saw)! Tell me who they are.' The Holy Prophet (saw) replied: 'I, my brother and eleven from my children.' Everyone replied: 'Bearing Allah (swt) as Witness – Yes.' Alee (a.s) said: 'I ask you, bearing Allah (swt) as Witness, do you know that the Holy Prophet (saw) gave a sermon after which he did not give any sermon?' He said: 'O people, I leave behind you two heavy things – Allah's (swt) Book and my Ahlulbayt (a.s). Keep close to them, you will not deviate, because Lateef and Khabeer (Allah (swt)) has informed me and has promised me that these two will not separate until they come to the Pool to me.' Umar stood up and looked angrily. He asked: 'O Prophet of Allah (saw), all the people of your house?' He replied: 'No, but those from them who are my inheritors. The first of them is my brother Alee (a.s), who is my vizier, my inheritor, my Caliph in my Ummah and after me, the guardian of all believers. He is the first of them, then my son Hassan (a.s) and then my son Hussain (a.s), then nine from the posterity of Hussain (a.s), one by one, until they come to me at the Fountain. They will be witness on the earth of Allah (swt) and will be authority on His Creation, and will be minds of His Wisdom. He who obeys them will have obeyed Allah (swt), and he who disobeys them will have disobeyed Allah (swt).' Everyone said: 'We bear witness that the Holy Prophet (saw) had said that.' Then for a long time Alee (a.s) was questioned. He did not leave anything, bearing Allah (swt) as Witness, until he reached his final merits that the Holy Prophet (saw) has mentioned about him. All kept confirming, bearing Allah (swt) as Witness, that this was true."

Source: Kamaaluddin wa Tamaamun Ni'ma. Pg. # 260 - 265.


Hadeeth # 14:

Al-Nu'mani:

Abdur Razzaq bin Hammam narrated from Ma'mar bin Rashid from Aban bin Abi Ayyash from Sulaym bin Qays that Imam Alee (a.s) had said: "One day I passed by a man, who said: 'The example of Muhammad (saw) is like the example of a date-palm growing in a dunghill.' I came to the Prophet (saw) and told him of that. He became very angry. He went to the minbar. Al-Ansar took up their arms when they saw the Prophet (saw) so angry. He said: "Why do some people criticize my close relatives after they have heard me mentioning that Allah (swt) has preferred them to all of the people and has favoured them by purifying them and taking uncleanness away from them? They have heard me mentioning the virtues of my family and the virtues of my guardian, whom Allah (swt) has honoured and preferred because of his precedence in being a Muslim, his defending Islam, his kinship to me and that he is to me as has Aaron (a.s) was to Moses (a.s). After all, someone of you claim that I am, among my family, like a date-palm growing in a dunghill! Allah (swt) has created his creation and divided them into two parties. He has made me in the best of them. Then He has divided this party into three groups and made me in the best of them and in the best tribe. Then He divided them into families and made me in the best of them until I have been purified with my brother Alee bin Aboo Talib (a.s) from among the family.

Allah (swt) the Almighty looked at the people of the earth and chose me from among them and then He looked again and chose Alee (a.s); my brother, vizier, heir, my Caliph for my Ummah and the guardian of every believer after me. Whoever obeys him, obeys Allah (swt) and whoever opposes him, opposes Allah (swt). Whoever loves him will be loved by Allah (swt) and whoever hates him will be hated by Allah (swt). No one loves him except the believers and no one hates him except the unbelievers. He is the basis of the earth and its ease after me. He is the word of piety and the firmest handhold of Allah (swt). 'They desire to put out the light of Allah with their mouths, and Allah will not consent save to perfect His light.' The enemies of Allah (swt) want to put out the light of my brother, but Allah (swt) will not consent save to perfect his light. O people! Let the present inform the absent of my speech! Then Allah (swt) looked thirdly and chose some ones from among my family after me. They are the best of my Ummah; eleven Imams after my brother (Alee (a.s)) one after the other. Whenever one of them leaves to the better world another one will replace him. Their example is like the stars of the sky; whenever a star sets another will shine. They are guided and guiding Imams. They will never be affected by the disappointment of their opponents nor by the plotting of their enemies. They are the authorities of Allah (swt) on the earth and His witnesses over His people. Whoever obeys them, obeys Allah (swt) and whoever disobeys them disobeys Allah (swt). They are with the Holy Qur'aan and the Holy Qur'aan is with them. They will never part with the Holy Qur'aan nor will it part with them until they come to me at the pond (in Paradise). The first of the Imams (a.s) is my brother Alee (a.s), who is the best of them, then my son Hassan (a.s), then my son Hussain (a.s) and then nine ones from the progeny of Hussain." He mentioned all the tradition.

Source: Al-Ghaybah Al-Nu'mani. Pg. # 54 - 55.



Hadeeth # 16:

Al-Nu'mani:

The same previous series of narrators from Abdur Razzaq bin Hammam from Ma'mar bin Rashid from Aban bin Abi Ayyash that Sulaym bin Qays Al-Hilali had said: "When we were coming back with Amir ul Mo'mineen (a.s) from (the battle of) Siffeen, we stopped for a time to rest near a monastery. A handsome and neat old man came out of the monastery. He had a book in his hand.

He came to Amir ul Mo'mineen, greeted him and said: "I am from the progeny of one of the disciples of Jesus Christ (a.s). He was the best of the twelve disciples of Jesus Christ and the most beloved one to him. Jesus Christ (a.s) had entrusted him with his wills, given him his books and taught him his knowledge and wisdom. The progeny of this disciple had been keeping to the faith of Jesus Christ (a.s). They had never disbelieved or apostatized from his religion.

The books are still with me. They had been written by the hand of our forefather according to the dictation of Jesus Christ (a.s) himself. Every thing that would happen after him had been mentioned in these books and the names of all the Kings who would rule after him, one after the other. It had been mentioned that Allah the Almighty would send a man from among the Arabs as a Prophet. He would be from the progeny of Ishmael the son of Abraham. He would be from a land called Tehama and a village called Makkah. His name would be Ahmad.

He would have twelve names. His advent, birth, emigration, who would fight him, who would support him, who would be his enemies, how long he would live and what his Ummah would face after him until Jesus Christ (a.s) would descend from the Heaven had been mentioned in these books.

The names of thirteen men of the progeny of Ishmael the son of Abraham had been mentioned in the book and that they were the best of all of the people and the most beloved ones to Allah (swt). Allah (swt) would be the guardian of whoever believed in them and would be the enemy of whoever opposed them. Whoever obeyed them would be guided and whoever disobeyed them would go astray. Obeying them would mean obeying Allah (swt) and disobeying them would mean disobeying Allah (swt).

Everything about them had been mentioned such as their names, lineage, aspects, how long each one of them would live, how many ones of them would conceal their faith before their people and which one of them would appear and then all the people would submit to him until Jesus Christ (a.s) would descend from the Heaven and then he (Jesus Christ (a.s)) would offer prayers behind him and would say: 'You are the Imam and no one is to precede you.' Then he would advance to lead the people in offering the prayer and Jesus Christ (a.s) would stand behind him in the first row.

The first of them and the best of them is the messenger of Allah (saw). His names are Muhammad, Abdullah, Ya'seen, Al-Fattah (the conqueror), Al-Khatam (the last), Al-Hashir (the resurrector), Al-Aaqib (the successor), Al-Mahi (the eraser), Al-Qa'id (the leader), the Prophet of Allah (saw), the best friend of Allah (swt) and the beloved of Allah (swt). He is the most honored of all the people before Allah (swt) and the most beloved to Him. Allah (swt) has never created an honoured angel or a prophet since Adam (a.s) better than him near Allah (swt) or more beloved to Allah (swt) than him. Allah (swt) will seat him on His Throne on the Day of Resurrection and will accept his intercession for everyone he intercedes for. With his name; Muhammad (saw) is the Messenger of Allah (swt), the Pen writes on the Divine Tablet and with the keeper of the banner on the Day of the Great Resurrection, his guardian, vizier and successor for his Ummah.

The most beloved one to Allah (swt) after him is Alee (a.s); his cousin and the guardian of every believer after him and then eleven men of Muhammad (saw) and Alee's (a.s) progeny, the first two of them are named as the names of the two sons of Aaron (a.s); Shubbar (a.s) and Shubayr (a.s), and nine of the progeny of the youngest of them one after the other, behind the last of whom Jesus Christ (a.s) will offer the prayers." Then he mentioned the rest of the tradition.

Source: Al-Ghaybah Al-Nu'mani. Pg. # 49 - 50.


Hadeeth # 25:


Al-Nu'mani:

From the book of Sulaym bin Qays Al-Hilali there was a tradition narrated by Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Sa'eed bin Uqda, Muhammad bin Hammam bin Suhayl and Abdul Aziz and Abdul Wahid the sons of Abdullah bin Younus Al-Moossili from their companions;

Abdur Razzaq bin Hammam, Ma'mar bin Rashid, Aban bin Abi Ayyash and Sulaym bin Qays. From another way the tradition was narrated by Haroon bin Muhammad from Ahmad bin Ubaydillah bin Ja'far bin Al-Mu'alla Al-Hamadani from Abul Hasan Amr bin Jami bin Amr bin Harb Al-Kindi from Abdullah bin Al-Mubarak from Abdur Razzaq bin Hammam from Ma'mar from Aban bin Abi Ayyash from Sulaym bin Qays Al-Hilali. Aban said that he also had heard it from Umar bin Aboo Salama. Ma'mar said that Aboo Haroon Al-Abdi had also heard it from Umar bin Aboo Salama that Sulaym had said: "When Mu'awiyah sent for Abud Darda and Aboo Hurayra, while we were with Amir ul Mo'mineen (a.s) in (the battle of) Siffeen, and gave them a letter to be given to Amir ul Mo'mineen Alee (a.s), Imam Alee (a.s) said to the two messengers after receiving the letter: "You informed me of what Mu'awiyah sent with you. Then listen to me and inform him of what I shall say to you."

They said: "Yes, we do."

Imam Alee (a.s) replied with a long answer until he mentioned the matter when the Prophet (saw) had appointed him (Imam Alee (a.s)) in Ghadeer Khum as the guardian and the Caliph after him (after the Prophet (saw)) according to the order of Allah (swt). He said:


"When this verse, 'Only Allah is your guardian and His Messenger and those who believe, those who keep up prayers and pay the poor-rate while they bow' was revealed to the Prophet (saw), the people asked him: 'O messenger of Allah (saw), does it concern some of the believers particularly or all in general?' Then Allah (swt) ordered His messenger (saw) to declare for them the guardian, whom Allah (swt) had chosen, and to explain for them the matter of guardianship as he had explained the matters of prayer, zakat, fasting and hajj. Imam Alee (a.s) said: "The Prophet (saw) appointed me (as guardian) in Khum and said:

'Allah the Almighty has revealed to me something, which my chest became unable to bear and I thought that people would not believe me if I announced it, then Allah (swt) threatened me either to announce it or He would punish me.'

He ordered his companions to call for the prayer. He led them in offering the Dhuhr prayer and then he asked Alee (a.s) to get up. He said to the people very loudly: 'O people! Allah (swt) is my guardian and I am the guardian of the believers. I am worthier of them than themselves. Whoever I am his guardian, Alee (a.s) is to be his guardian. O Allah (swt)! Support whomsoever supports him and be the enemy of whoever opposes him!'

Salman Al-Farsi (r.a) got up and said: "O messenger of Allah (swt), what guardianship is it?" 

The Prophet (saw) said: "Whoever that I am worthier of than himself, has to consider Alee (a.s) as worthier of him than himself."

Then Allah (swt) revealed, 'This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed My favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion.' Salman (r.a) said: "O messenger of Allah (saw)! Have these verses been revealed about Alee (a.s)?"

The Prophet (saw) said: "About him and about my guardians until the Day of Resurrection."

Salman asked (r.a): "O messenger of Allah (saw), would you please tell me about them?"

The Prophet (saw) said: "They are, my brother, guardian, son-in-law, heir, the Caliph of my Ummah and the guardian of every believer after me, Alee (a.s) and eleven Imams of my progeny; the first of them is my son Hassan (a.s) then my son Hussain (a.s) and then nine Imams from Al-Hussain's (a.s) progeny one after the other. They are with the Holy Qur'aan and the Holy Qur'aan is with them. They will never part with it nor will it part with them until they will come to me at the pond in Paradise."

Twelve men from among those, who had fought with the Prophet (saw) in the battle of Badr, got up and said: "O Amir ul Mo'mineen, we witness that we have heard this from the Prophet (saw) exactly as you say, no word more no word less." The rest of companions (of Badr) said: "We have memorized most of what you said but not all of it. These twelve men are the best of us."


Imam Alee (a.s) said: "You are right. Not all of the people can memorize everything. Some are better than others (in memorizing)." From among those twelve men four men; Abul Haytham bin at-Tayhan, Aboo Ayyoob, Ammar and Khuzayma bin Thabit got up and said: "We witness that we have memorized the saying of the Prophet (saw) then. He said while he was standing up and Alee (a.s) was standing beside him: "O people! Allah (swt) has ordered me to appoint for you an Imam, who will be my guardian among you and the successor in my family and my Ummah after me. Allah (swt) has imposed upon the believers, in His Book, to obey him and ordered them to submit to him. I said: O my God! I fear that the hypocrites may not believe me. Then He threatened me either to inform of it or He would punish me. O people, Allah (swt) has ordered you in His Book to offer prayers, which I have explained to you. He has ordered you of zakat and fasting, which also I have explained to you. He has ordered you, in His Book, of the guardianship and I call you, O people, to witness that this concerns particularly this (Alee (a.s)) and the guardians of my progeny and his progeny. The first of them is my son Al-Hassan (a.s) then Al-Hussain (a.s) and nine of Al-Hussain's (a.s) progeny. They will never part with the Book until they come to me at the pond (in Paradise).


O people, I have informed you of your resort, your Imam, guardian and guide after me. He is Alee bin Aboo Talib (a.s). He is my brother and he is among you as I have been among you. Entrust him with your religion and obey him in all of your affairs. He has all what Allah (swt) has taught me. Allah (swt) has ordered me to teach it to him and to inform you that he has learned it. Ask him and learn from him and from his guardians. Do not try to teach them. Do not precede them and do not lag behind them because they are with the truth and the truth is with them. They never part with the truth nor will it part with them."

Then Imam Alee (a.s) said to Abud Darda, Aboo Hurayra and those around him:

"O people! Do you know that when Allah (swt) revealed in His Book, 'Allah only desires to keep away the uncleanness from you, O people of the House! and to purify you a (thorough) purifying,' the Prophet (saw) gathered me, Faatima (s.a), Hassan (a.s) and Hussain (a.s) with him under one garment and said: 'O Allah (swt)! These are my beloved family, my weighty thing I have left and the people of my house. O Allah (swt)! Keep away the uncleanness from them and purify them.' Umm Salamah said: 'And Me!' The Prophet (saw) said: 'You will be of a pleasant fate. This verse has been revealed concerning me, my brother Alee (a.s), my daughter Faatima (s.a), my sons Al-Hassan (a.s) and Al-Hussain (a.s) and nine ones of Al-Hussain's (a.s) progeny and no one else.'

Most of the people available there got up and said: "We witness that Umm Salamah has narrated this for us. We asked the Prophet (saw) and he confirmed what Umm Salamah had narrated."

Imam Alee (a.s) said: "Do you not know that Allah (swt) has revealed in the Surah of Al-Hajj these verses, 'O you who believe! Bow down and prostrate yourselves and serve your Lord, and do good that you may succeed. And strive hard in (the way of) Allah, (such) a striving is due to Him; He has chosen you and has not laid upon you any hardship in religion; the faith of your father Ibraheem; He named you Muslims before and in this, that the Messenger may be a bearer of witness to you, and you may be bearers of witness to the people.'" And then Salman asked the Prophet (saw): "O messenger of Allah (sa)! Who are these people, whom you are the witness on and who are the witnesses on people and whom Allah (swt) has chosen and has not laid upon them any hardship in religion; the faith of their father Ibraheem?" The Prophet (saw) said: "Allah (swt) has meant by that thirteen persons; me, my brother Alee (a.s) and eleven ones of his progeny."


They said: "Yes, by Allah (swt), we have heard that from the Prophet (saw)." Imam Alee (a.s) said: "I adjure you before Allah (swt)! Have you known that the Prophet (saw) made a speech that he had not made another speech after it when he said: 'O people! I have left among you two things; the Book of Allah (swt) and my family. If you keep to them, you will never go astray at all. The Archangel Gabriel has informed me and promised me that they will never separate until they come to me at the pond (in Paradise)?" They said: "Yes, by Allah (swt), we have witnessed all that from the Prophet (saw)."

Then twelve men got up and said: "We witnessed that when the Prophet (saw) made a speech on the last day of his life, Umar bin Al-Khattab got up angrily and said: “O messenger of Allah (swt), all the people of your house?" The Prophet (saw) said: "No, only my guardians; Alee (a.s), my brother, vizier, heir, the Caliph of my Ummah and the guardian of every believer after me, who is the first of them and the best of them, and then his guardian after him; my son - he pointed to Al-Hassan (a.s) - then his guardian; my son - he pointed to Al-Hussain (a.s) - then his guardian, whose name is like the name of my brother (Alee (a.s)) then his guardian after him, whose name is like mine then seven ones; his (Muhammad bin Alee's (a.s)) son and (six) grandsons one after the other until they come to me at the pond. They are the witnesses of Allah (swt) on His earth and the authorities over His people. He, who obeys them, obeys Allah (swt) and he, who disobeys them, disobeys Allah (swt)."

Seventy men, who had fought with the Prophet (saw) in the battle of Badr, and nearly the same number of Al-Muhajireen got up and said: "You reminded us of what we have forgotten. We witness that we have heard that from the Prophet (saw)." Abud Darda and Aboo Hurayra left and told Mu'awiyah of all that Imam Alee (a.s) had said and that the people had witnessed of."


Source: Al-Ghaybah Al-Nu'mani. Pg. # 45 - 49.




Hadeeth # 37:

Al-Saffar:

It has been narrated to us by Abdullah, from Ibrahim bin Muhammad Al-Thaqafy, from Isma'il bin Yasaar, from Alee Bin Ja'far Al-Hazramy, from Sulaym Al-Shamy, who has said: He heard Alee (a.s) say: "I and my successors from my sons are guides all of us are Muhaddith (i.e. those who talk with angels)." I said, "O Ameer ul Mo'mineen, who are they?" He (a.s) said: "Al-Hassan (a.s), and Al-Hussain (a.s), then his son Alee bin Al-Hussain (a.s), who on that day was an infant, then eight from after him, one after the other, and they are the ones by whom Allah (azwj) Swore Saying: {90:3} 'And the begetter and whom he begot.' As for the begetter, he is Rasool Allah (saw), and whom he begot means all these successors (a.s)." I said, "O Ameer ul Mo'mineen (a.s), can there be two Imams together?" He said: "No, except one of the two will be silent. He will not speak until the first one passes away."

Sulaym Al-Shamy said, "I asked Muhammad bin Aboo Bakr. I said, 'Alee (a.s) was a Muhaddith?' He said, 'Yes.' I said, 'And do the Angels narrate on the Prophets (a.s)?' He said, 'Have you not read {22:52}: 'And We did not send before you any Rasool or Prophet or Muhaddith?' I said, 'So, Ameer ul Mo'mineen (a.s) was a Muhaddith?' He said, 'Yes, and Faatima (s.a) was a Muhaddithat, and she was not a Prophetess.'"

Source: Basaa'ir Al-Darajaat. Pg. # 413 - 414.


Sheikh Al-Mufid:

It has been narrated from him (i.e. Ibrahim bin Muhammad Al-Thaqafy) who said: narrated to me Isma'il Bin Yasaar, from Alee bin Ja'far Al-Hazramy, from Sulaym ibn Qays Al-Shamy, who has said: He heard Alee (a.s) say: "I and my successors from my sons are guides all of us are Muhaddith (i.e. those who talk with angels)." I said, "O Ameer ul Mo'mineen, who are they?" He (a.s) said: "Al-Hassan (a.s), and Al-Hussain (a.s), then my son Alee bin Al-Hussain (a.s), who on that day was an infant, then eight from after him, one after the other, and they are the ones by whom Allah (azwj) Swore Saying: {90:3} 'And the begetter and whom he begot.' As for the begetter, he is Rasool Allah (saw), and whom he begot means all these successors (a.s)." I said, "O Ameer ul Mo'mineen (a.s), can there be two Imams together?" He said: "No, except one of the two will be silent. He will not speak until the first one passes away."


Sulaym Al-Shamy said, "I asked Muhammad bin Aboo Bakr. I said, 'Alee (a.s) was a Muhaddith?' He said, 'Yes.' I said, 'And do the Angels narrate on the Prophets (a.s)?' He said, 'Have you not read {22:52}: 'And We did not send before you any Rasool or Prophet or Muhaddith?' I said, 'So, Ameer ul Mo'mineen (a.s) was a Muhaddith?' He said, 'Yes, and Faatima (s.a) was a Muhaddithat, and she was not a Prophetess.'"

Source: Al-Ikhtisaas. Pg. # 315 - 316.




Hadeeth # 42:

Sheikh Al-Kulayni:

Alee ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Hammad ibn Isa from Ibrahim ibn Umar Al-Yamani from Aban ibn Abi Ayyash from Sulaym ibn Qays; and Muhammad ibn Yahya from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn Aboo Umayr from Umar ibn Udhayna and Alee ibn Muhammad from Ahmad ibn Hilal from ibn Aboo Umayr from Umar ibn Udhayna from Aban ibn Abi Ayyash from Sulaym ibn Qays who has said the following: I heard Abd Allah ibn Ja'far Al-Tayyar say, "Once Al-Hassan (a.s), Al-Hussain (a.s), recipients of divine supreme covenant, Abd Allah ibn Abbas, Umar ibn Umm Salamah and Usama ibn Zayd and I were in the court of Mu'awiyah. A conversation started between Mu'awiyah and I said to Mu'awiyah, 'I heard the Messenger of Allah (saw) say, 'I have more authority over the believers souls than they themselves do. Then my brother Alee ibn Aboo Talib (a.s), recipient of divine supreme covenant, will have more authority over the believers souls than they themselves will have. When Alee (a.s), recipient of divine supreme covenant, will become a martyr, Al-Hassan ibn Alee (a.s) will have more authority over the believers souls than they themselves will have. Thereafter my son Al-Hussain (a.s), after him (Al-Hassan (a.s)) will have more authority over the believers souls than they themselves will have. When he will become a martyr, his son Alee ibn Al-Hussain (a.s) after him (Al-Hussain (a.s)) will have more authority over the believers souls than they themselves will have. O Alee (a.s), you will see him (Alee ibn Al-Hussain (a.s)). Thereafter his son Muhammad ibn Alee (a.s) will have more authority over the believers souls than they themselves will have. O Al-Hussain (a.s), you will see him. Then the twelve will complete the number of A'immah (Leaders with Divine Authority). Nine will be of the descendents of Al-Hussain (a.s).'"

Abd Allah ibn Ja'far said, "I asked Al-Hassan (a.s), Al-Hussain (a.s), Abd Allah, ibn Abbas, Umar ibn Umm Salamah and Usama ibn Zayd to bear witness. They all bore witness for me before Mu'awiyah." Sulaym ibn Qays has said, "I heard such Hadeeth from Salman, Aboo Dharr and Al-Miqdad who said that they heard such Hadeeth from the Messenger of Allah (saw)."

Source: Al-Kafi. Vol. 1, H. # 4, Pg. # 339 - 340.


Al-Nu'mani:

Muhammad bin Ya'qoob narrated from Alee bin Ibraheem bin Hashim from his father from ibn Aboo Umayr from Aban bin Ayyash that Sulaym bin Qays Al-Hilali had said: I have heard Abdullah bin Ja'far at-Tayyar saying:

One day Al-Hassan (a.s), Al-Hussain (a.s), Abdullah bin Abbas, Umar bin Umm Salamah, Usama bin Zayd and I were with Mu'awiyah. I said to him: I have heard the Prophet (s) saying: "I am worthier of the believers than themselves then my brother Alee bin Aboo Talib (a.s) will be worthier of the believers than themselves. If he is martyred then his son Al-Hassan (a.s) will be worthier of the believers than themselves, then after him Al-Hussain (a.s) will be worthier of the believers than themselves. If he is martyred, his son Alee bin Al-Husssain (a.s) will be worthier of the believers than themselves, then his son Muhammad bin Alee (a.s) will be worthier of the believers than themselves then the rest of the twelve Imams, nine of whom are from the progeny of Al-Hussain (a.s)." I asked Al-Hassan (a.s), Al-Hussain (a.s), Abdullah bin Abbas, Umar bin Umm Salamah and Usama bin Zayd to witness of that (the Prophet (saw) had said so) and they witnessed. Sulaym said: "I have heard that from Salman Al-Farsi, Al-Miqdad and Aboo Dharr that they heard it from the Prophet (saw)."

Source: Al-Ghaybah Al-Nu'mani. Pg. # 63 - 64.


Sheikh Al-Sadooq:

(The compiler of the book narrated) that his father - may God be pleased with him - narrated the following on the authority of Sa'eed ibn Abdullah who quoted Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Isa, on the authority of Muhammad ibn Abi Umayr, on the authority of Umar ibn Uzaina, on the authority of Aban ibn Abi Ayyash, on the authority of Salim ibn Qays Al-Hilali. The same has also been narrated by Muhammad ibn Al-Hassan Al-Walid - may God be pleased with him - on the authority of Muhammad ibn Al-Hassan Al-Saffar who quoted Ya'qoob ibn Yazid and Ibrahim ibn Hashim, on the authority of Hammad ibn Isa, on the authority of Ibrahim ibn Umar Al-Yamani, on the authority of Aban ibn Abi Ayyash, on the authority of Salim ibn Qays Al-Hilali that he had heard Abdullah ibn Ja'far Al-Tayyar say:

"I was in the presence of Mu'awiyah along with Al-Hassan (a.s), Al-Hussain (a.s), Abdullah ibn Abbas, Umar ibn Abi Salamah and Usamah ibn Zayd. There was an argument between me and Mu'awiyah. I told him, 'I myself heard God's Prophet (saw) say, 'I am closer to the believers than their own selves {33:8}.' Then my brother Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s) is the closest one to the believers than their own selves. Then after Alee (a.s) gets martyred, Al-Hassan ibn Ali (a.s) is the closest one to the believers than their own selves. Then Alee's (a.s) son Al-Hussain (a.s) is the closest one to the believers than their own selves. Then after he (a.s) is martyred, his son Alee ibn Al-Hussain Al-Akbar (a.s) is the closest one to the believers than their own selves. Then my (grand)son Muhammad ibn Alee Al-Baqir (a.s) is the closest one to the believers than their own selves. O Hussain (a.s)! You shall understand him! Then there will be twelve Divine Leaders, nine of whom shall be from the progeny of Al-Hussain (a.s).'"

Source: Al-Khisal. Pg. # 477.


Sheikh Al-Tusi:

As for the narrations that have been narrated through the Shi'a, they are more than to be counted, however we mention just some of them: Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Ja'far Al-Himyari has narrated as a group of our companions have narrated from Abil Mufaddal Al-Shaybani from his father from Muhammad ibn Al-Hussain from Muhammad ibn Abi Umayr; And narrated to us a group of narrators from our a group of our companions from Muhammad ibn Ya'qoub from Muhammad ibn Yahya from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn Aboo Umayr from Umar ibn Udhayna and Alee ibn Muhammad from Ahmad ibn Hilal from ibn Aboo Umayr from Umar ibn Udhayna from Aban ibn Aboo Ayyash from Sulaym ibn Qays who has said the following:


I heard Abd Allah ibn Ja'far Al-Tayyar say, "Once Al-Hassan (a.s), Al-Hussain (a.s), recipients of divine supreme covenant, Abd Allah ibn Abbas, Umar ibn Umm Salamah and Usama ibn Zayd and I were in the court of Mu'awiyah. A conversation started between Mu'awiyah and I said to Mu'awiyah, 'I heard the Messenger of Allah (saw) say, 'I have more authority over the believers souls than they themselves do. Then my brother Alee ibn Aboo Talib (a.s), recipient of divine supreme covenant, will have more authority over the believers souls than they themselves will have. When Alee (a.s), recipient of divine supreme covenant, will become a martyr, Al-Hassan ibn Alee (a.s) will have more authority over the believers souls than they themselves will have. Thereafter my son Al-Hussain (a.s), after him (Al-Hassan (a.s)) will have more authority over the believers souls than they themselves will have. When he will become a martyr, his son Alee ibn Al-Hussain (a.s) after him (Al-Hussain (a.s)) will have more authority over the believers souls than they themselves will have. O Alee (a.s), you will see him (Alee ibn Al-Hussain (a.s)). Thereafter his son Muhammad ibn Alee (a.s) will have more authority over the believers souls than they themselves will have. O Al-Hussain (a.s), you will see him. Then the twelve will complete the number of A'immah (Leaders with Divine Authority). Nine will be of the descendents of Al-Hussain (a.s).'"


Abd Allah ibn Ja'far said, "I asked Al-Hassan (a.s), Al-Hussain (a.s), recipients of divine supreme covenant, Abd Allah, ibn Abbas, Umar ibn Umm Salamah and Usama ibn Zayd to bear witness. They all bore witness for me before Mu'awiyah." Sulaym ibn Qays has said, "I heard such Hadeeth from Salman, Aboo Dharr and Al-Miqdad who said that they heard such Hadeeth from the Messenger of Allah (saw)."

Source: Al-Ghaybah Al-Tusi. Pg. # 137 - 138.


Attestation of Sayyed Al-Khoei For The Above Chains:

Muhammad ibn Ya'qoub (Al-Kulayni) has narrated through two Saheeh (authentic) chains and through another chain from Aban ibn Abi Ayyash from Sulaym ibn Qays Al-Hilali who said: I heard Abd Allah ibn Ja'far Al-Tayyar say, "Once Al-Hassan (a.s), Al-Hussain (a.s), recipients of divine supreme covenant, Abd Allah ibn Abbas, Umar ibn Umm Salamah and Usama ibn Zayd and I were in the court of Mu'awiyah. A conversation started between Mu'awiyah and I said to Mu'awiyah, 'I heard the Messenger of Allah (saw) say, 'I have more authority over the believers souls than they themselves do. Then my brother Alee ibn Aboo Talib (a.s), recipient of divine supreme covenant, will have more authority over the believers souls than they themselves will have. When Alee (a.s), recipient of divine supreme covenant, will become a martyr, Al-Hassan ibn Alee (a.s) will have more authority over the believers souls than they themselves will have. Thereafter my son Al-Hussain (a.s), after him (Al-Hassan (a.s)) will have more authority over the believers souls than they themselves will have. When he will become a martyr, his son Alee ibn Al-Hussain (a.s) after him (Al-Hussain (a.s)) will have more authority over the believers souls than they themselves will have. O Alee (a.s), you will see him (Alee ibn Al-Hussain (a.s)). Thereafter his son Muhammad ibn Alee (a.s) will have more authority over the believers souls than they themselves will have. O Al-Hussain (a.s), you will see him. Then the twelve will complete the number of A'immah (Leaders with Divine Authority). Nine will be of the descendents of Al-Hussain (a.s).'"

Sulaym ibn Qays has said, "I heard this Hadeeth from Salman, Aboo Dharr and Al-Miqdad who said that they heard such Hadeeth from the Messenger of Allah (saw)."

And Al-Nu'mani has narrated it in the book Al-Ghaybah from Muhammad ibn Ya'qoub likewise. And Al-Sadooq has narrated it in Al-Khisal in the chapter of twelve things, Hadeeth 41, through two Saheeh (chains) from Aban ibn Abi Ayyash from Sulaym ibn Qays Al-Hilali likewise.

Source: Mu'jam Rijal Al-Hadeeth. Vol. 9, Pg. # 233 - 234.


Hadeeth # 77

Sheikh Al-Sadooq:

Narrated to us my father: Narrated to us Sa'ad bin Abdullah: Narrated to us Ya'qoob bin Yazid from Hammad bin Isa from Abdullah bin Muskan from Aban bin Taghlib from Sulaym bin Qays Hilali from Salman Farsi (r.a.) that he said: "I came to the Prophet (saw) to find Imam Hussain (a.s.) seated in his lap, and the Prophet (saw) was kissing him and saying: 'You are a Sayyid, son of a Sayyid. You are an Imam son of an Imam, brother of an Imam and father of Imams. You are the proof of Allah (swt), son of His Proof and father of nine proofs from your loins, the ninth of whom will be Qa'im.'"

Source: Kamaaluddin wa Tamaamun Ni'ma. Pg. # 250, H. # 9.


Sheikh Al-Mahuzi:

Ibn Babawayh (father of Al-Sadooq): Narrated Sa'ad bin Abdullah: Narrated to us Ya'qoob bin Yazid from Hammad bin Isa from Abdullah bin Muskan from Aban bin Taghlib from Sulaym bin Qays Hilali from Salman Farsi (r.a) that he said: "I came to the Prophet (saw) to find Imam Hussain (a.s) seated in his lap and the Prophet (saw) was kissing him and saying: "You are a Sayyid son of a Sayyid. You are an Imam son of an Imam, brother of an Imam and father of Imams. You are the proof of Allah (swt), son of His Proof and father of nine proofs from your loins, the ninth of whom will be Qa'im."

Footnote: Its chain is Saheeh (Authentic) and its narrators are trustworthy.

Source: Arba'oon Hadeethan Mu'tabaran. Pg. # 226.


Al-Khazzaz Al-Qummi:

Narrated to us Muhammad ibn Alee who said: Narrated to us my father: Narrated to us Sa'ad bin Abdullah: Narrated to us Ya'qoob bin Yazid from Hammad bin Isa from Abdullah bin Muskan from Aban bin Taghlib from Sulaym bin Qays Hilali from Salman Farsi (r.a) that he said: I came to the Prophet (saw) to find Imam Hussain (a.s) seated in his lap and the Prophet (saw) was kissing him and saying: "You are a Sayyid son of a Sayyid. You are an Imam son of an Imam, brother of an Imam and father of Imams. You are the proof of Allah (swt), son of His Proof and father of nine proofs from your loins, the ninth of whom will be Qa'im."

Source: Kifayatul Athar. Pg. # 105 - 106.



Muhammad ibn Shazaan Al-Qummi:

Narrated to us Aboo Muhammad Al-Hassan ibn Alee ibn Abdullah Al-Tabari, may Allah bless his soul, from Ahmad ibn Abdullah from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from his father from Hammad ibn Isa from Umar ibn Uzaina from Aban ibn Abi Ayyash from Sulaym ibn Qays Hilali from Salman Al-Muhammadi (r.a) that he said: "I came to the Prophet (saw) to find Imam Hussain (a.s) seated in his lap and the Prophet (saw) was kissing his eyes and saying: "You are a Sayyid son of a Sayyid, father of Sadaat. You are an Imam son of an Imam, brother of an Imam and father of Imams. You are the proof of Allah (swt), son of His Proof and father of nine proofs from your loins, the ninth of whom will be Qa'im."

Source: Mi'a Manqaba. Pg. # 113.



Sheikh Al-Mufid narrates it through another chain from Imam Al-Sadiq (a.s) from Salman (r.a):

Sheikh Al-Mufid:

Proving the Imamate of the Twelve Imams (a.s):

Narrated Aboo Ja'far Muhammad ibn Ahmad Al-Alawi who said: Narrated to me Ahmad ibn Alee ibn Ibraheem ibn Hashim from his father from his grandfather from Hammad ibn Isa from his father from Imam Al-Sadiq (a.s) who said: Salman Al-Farsi (r.a) said: I saw Hussain ibn Alee (a.s) in the room of the Prophet (saw) and the Prophet (saw) was kissing his eyes and his mouth and saying: "You are a Sayyid son of a Sayyid, father of Sadaat. You are the proof of Allah (swt), son of His Proof and father of proofs. You are an Imam son of an Imam, and father of nine Imams from your loins, the ninth of whom will be Qa'im."

Source: Al-Ikhtisaas. Pg. # 204.


Summary On The Authenticity Of The Book of Sulaym

- The companions of the Imams (a.s) would collect Hadeeth in books called 'Asl' (the plural being 'Usool').

- The companions of the Imams (a.s) inherited these books from the previous generations.

- Many of these Usool were presented to the Imams of Ahlulbayt (a.s) by those who inherited them.

- Four hundred of these Usool were reliable among our early scholars and were were acted upon during the lifetime of the Imams (a.s) and after the occultation of the twelfth Imam(ajf).

- The book of Sulaym is one of the oldest and greatest of those Usool which the Shi'a would act and rely upon a long time before the birth of Imam Al-Mahdi (ajf).

- The Book of Sulaym is the Alphabet of the Shi'a.

- Sulaym ibn Qays himself was a close, trustworthy companion and narrator of the Commander of the Faithful (a.s).

- Aban ibn Abi Ayyash; the person who inherited the book from Sulaym has been weakened and attacked by some scholars of the so-called 'Ahl Al-Sunnah' and praised by others.

- Shu'ba ibn Hajjaj is the source of those attacks on Aban and the later scholars followed his opinion. The main objection of Shu'ba was based on conjecture, envy and concealment of truth.

- The opinions of some Shi'a scholars who have weakened Aban are apparently borrowed from the scholars of the opponents who have attacked him. This is why some scholars such as Mamaqani who is a great Rijali scholar rejects these opinions and authenticates Aban ibn Abi Ayyash.

- Aban passed to Umar Ibn Uzaina the original manuscript of Sulaym's book, so the existence of Aban in the chains of the Book does not harm it at , even if we agree that he was weak and untrustworthy.


Furthermore the existence of twelve Imams(a.s) is a great sign of the authenticity of the book, because Aban who has been accused of fabricating the book died long before witnessing all of the 12 Imams(a.s), so how come what he supposedly had fabricated came true?!

- Among the narrators who have narrated the Book of Sulaym are five companions of the Ahlulbayt (a.s) who are of the 'As'haab Al-Ijmaa.'

- The 'As'haab Al-Ijmaa' are those companions of the Ahlulbayt (a.s) upon whose  trustworthiness and knowledge there is scholarly consensus.

- The narrations which have been narrated by the 'As'haab Al-Ijmaa' are considered authentic and reliable; thus the Book of Sulaym which has been narrated through them is also reliable.

- The existing manuscripts of the Book of Sulaym go back to two of these 'As'haab Al-Ijmaa' i.e. Muhammad ibn Abi Umayr and Hammad ibn Isa and there are several reliable chains up to them for the book.

- A group of the existing manuscripts of the book go through the revered scholars of the so-called 'Ahl Al-Sunnah', such as Abdul Razzaq Al-San'ani and Ma'mar ibn Rashid.

- As an example, the chains of one of the existing manuscripts from Allamah Al-Majlisi was analyzed, and the existence of 16 authentic, connected and reliable chains was proven up to Sulaym.

- The Book of Sulaym was presented to the Imams (a.s) by the author Sulaym himself, then after his death by Aban ibn Abi Ayyash, the narrator from Sulaym, and also through other companions of Ahlulbayt (a.s).

- Hadeeth # 10 which is a key narration of the book was presented to Imam Al-Sadiq (a.s) by Hammad ibn Isa, and the Imam (a.s) attested Sulaym.

- That Hadeeth proves the authenticity of the book itself and refutes the accusation that it has been fabricated by Aban ibn Abi Ayyash.

- That narration has been narrated also by many of our early scholars and it mentions the Twelve Imams (a.s) and that Sulaym had heard narrations from those companions who are mentioned in his b.

- We presented more than thirty scholars throughout history who have authenticated the Book of Sulaym.

- The Rijali scholar, ibn Al-Ghazairi has accused Aban of fabricating the book and there stands two objections against the book. Firstly, that it contains the mention of thirteen Imams (a.s) and secondly, that it contains the conversation of Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr with his father on his deathbed while he was still a child and hence cannot be trusted.

- Firstly, it is proven that the Rijal of ibn Al-Ghazairi itself is a very doubtful book, and it is not known whether this book actually belongs to ibn Al-Ghazairi.

- Secondly, there is no mention of thirteen Imams in the book, it is just an imagination.

- Thirdly, the talking of Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr with his father Aboo Bakr is firm through the witnesses and supporting narrations that exist both in the Shi'a books as well as in the books of our opponents and also in the evidences that exist in the narration itself. Thus we conclude that in any case, Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr was at an age to comprehend and talk to his father.

- Fourthly, the entire Musnad of Ahmad, a collection of 30,000 narrations, has been narrated through a 4 - 5 year old child with a chain of narrators which contain several serious defects, yet all scholars of our opponents act upon it and do not cast any doubt on it.

- The scholars of our opponents mention that the fame of a book is enough for its reliability and that it does not need a chain to rely on it.

Thus, we can safely conclude that the Book of Sulaym is one of the oldest and greatest Usool which has been narrated through the great companions of the Ahlulbayt (a.s) and to which the Ahlulbayt (a.s) themselves have authenticated its content as well as its chains. Besides that, its fame among our scholars and their trust upon it is recorded throughout history.

To conclude this part, we shall present a part of Hadeeth # 25 from the book of Sulaym famously known as, 'Hadeeth Al-Thaqalayn.' This hadeeth has been narrated in the books of both schools, however, this particular hadeeth serves as a clarification and closes the door of any argument for any Muslim who is sincerely searching for the truth.

Hadeeth Of The Twelve Imams (a.s) And Imam Al-Mahdi (ajf) Is The Last Of Them



Sulaym bin Qays Al-Hilali (d. 77 A.H):

Hadeeth Al-Thaqalayn (The Two Weighty Things) and the text of the names of the twelve Imams (a.s)

Alee (a.s) said: "I adjure you all to Allah (zwj), do you know that Rasool Allah (saw) stood up to preach – and he never preached after it – and said: 'O you people! I am leaving among you all two commands, you will not stray if you attach yourselves to these two – the Book of Allah (swt) and my family, the people of my household, for it has been promised to me by the Kind, the Aware (swt) that these two will never separate until they return to meet at the Fountain?' They said, 'Our Allah (zwj), yes, we have heard all of that from Rasool Allah (saw).'

Alee (a.s) said: 'Allah (swt) is Sufficient for me.' Twelve from the group of the people of Badr stood up and said, 'We testify that when Rasool Allah (saw) preached on the day in which he passed away, Umar bin Al-Khattab stood up angrily and said, 'O Rasool Allah (saw)! All the people of your household?' He (saw) said: 'No, but my successors. My brother among them, who is my Vizier, and my inheritor, and my Caliph in my community, and the Guardian of every believer after me, and eleven from his sons (a.s).'

This (Alee (a.s)) is the first of them and the best of them, then two of my sons, these two – and indicated by his hand to Al-Hassan (a.s) and Al-Hussain (a.s) – then the successors of my son who will be named with the name of my brother Alee (a.s), and he will be the son of Al-Hussain (a.s), then the successor of Alee (a.s) and he is his son and his name is Muhammad (a.s), then Ja'far ibn Muhammad (a.s), then Musa ibn Ja'far (a.s), then Alee bin Musa (a.s), then Muhammad ibn Alee (a.s), then Alee ibn Muhammad (a.s), then Al-Hassan ibn Alee (a.s), then Muhammad ibn Al-Hassan Al-Mahdi (ajf) of the community.

His (a.s) name is like my name and his clay (Tennat) is like my Tennat. He will order what Isa (a.s) ordered, and prevent what Isa (a.s) prevented. He will fill the earth with fairness and justice just as it had been filled with inequity and injustice. One of them will rise after the other, one after another until they return to me at the Fountain. They are the witnesses of Allah (zwj) in His earth, and His Proofs over His creatures. The one who obeys them has obeyed Allah (swt), and the one who disobeys them (a.s) has disobeyed Allah (swt). So the remainder of the seventy people of Badr, and like of them from the later ones stood up and said, 'You (a.s) have reminded us of what we had forgotten. We testify that we have heard that from Rasool Allah (saw).'"

Source: Kitab Sulaym ibn Qays. H. # 25, Pg. # 763 - 764.












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