Saturday, 25 October 2014

Imam Al-Mahdi (ajf) Part III





Hadeeth Of The Twelve Leaders


وَلَقَدْ أَخَذَ اللَّـهُ مِيثَاقَ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ وَبَعَثْنَا مِنْهُمُ اثْنَيْ عَشَرَ نَقِيبًا

"Surely Allah (swt) foretime took a covenant from the Children of Israel and We appointed twelve leaders among them"

Holy Qur'aan {5:12}



In this article we shall be examining the concept of the twelve Imams (a.s) from the perspective of the so-called 'Ahl Al-Sunnah,' using their own academic sources. It is established that both Shi'a Ithna Ashari (twelvers) and Sunnis agree that there will be twelve leaders (a.s) after the Prophet (saw), however, they do not agree on who those twelve are. 

It is famously accepted that the Prophet (saw) delivered a sermon on Arafat during his Farewell Hajj Pilgrimage. During his speech he gave special emphasis on the following, "Hadeeth Thaqalayn" (Two Weighty Things), the Book of Allah (swt) (Holy Qur'aan) and his progeny 'Ahlulbayt' (a.s) and during this occasion he also addressed them as the 'Two Khalifahs.' He made a promise they would never separate until they reach the lake-font in paradise. 

This establishes that the Khilafah's are placed side by side, and would continue unbroken until the day of Judgement. It should be noted on this blessed day, the Prophet (saw) also made mention of the Twelve leaders of this Ummah who would come to pass. This is very important since we know Imam Al-Mahdi (ajf) is the last of those twelve Caliphs. 

Firstly, we shall take a look at what the so-called 'Ahl Al-Sunnah' interpret the 'Khalifa' as and then go on to present narrations which mention this very term and how the two correlate with one another.


Ibn Taymiyyah:

Ibn Hazm: The meaning of Al-Khalifa in literature is someone whom the person appoints as his successor, not someone who succeeds the person without being appointed by him. This is not allowed in literature without any dispute. 

We say: Such and such appointed such and such as his successor, so he will be his Caliph (successor) and he will be someone who succeeds him. If someone succeeds someone else without his own appointment, he is only called someone that that person has left behind.   

Source: Minhaj Al-Sunnah Al-Nabawiyyah. Vol. 1, Pg. # 494.


Al-Haythami:

Zaid ibn Thabit from the Prophet of Allah (saw) he said: "am leaving among you Khalifatayn (i.e. two Khalifahs). The book of Allah (swt) and my progeny Ahlulbayt (a.s) and they will not separate until they return to me at the pond (of Kawthar in paradise)."

Footnote: The Narrators are Jayyid (Good).

Source: Majma Al-Zawa'id. Vol. 9, Pg. # 256, H. # 14957.



Al-Suyuti:

Prophet of Allah (swt) he said: "I am leaving among you Khalifatayn (i.e. two Khalifahs). The book of Allah (swt) and my Ahlulbayt (a.s) and they will not separate until they return to me at the Pond (of Kawthar in paradise)."

Footnote: Al-Albani comments both Hadeeth as being Saheeh (Authentic). 

Source: Jami'a Al-Sageer. Vol. 1, Pg. # 482, H. # 2457 - 2456.


Ibn Abi Hasim:

Narrated Zaid ibn Thabit: Allah's Apostle (saw) said: "I am leaving among you THE two Khalifahs after me: The Book of Allah (swt) and my Itrah (Ahlulbayt (a.s)). Both shall never separate until they meet me at the lake-fount."
 
Source: Zilal Al-Jannah. Vol. 2, Pg. # 643, H. # 1049.   


Shuaib Al-Arna'ut:

Zayd ibn Thabit said: The Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "I am leaving among you two successors, the book of Allah (swt) and my Ahlulbayt (a.s), and they will not separate from each other until they enter upon me together on the fount-lake."

Footnote:  Shuaib Al-Arna'ut says: This narration is Saheeh (Authentic) with its witnesses (i.e. other narrations that support it), with the exception of the last part: "And they will not separate from each other until they enter upon me together on the fount-lake."

Source: Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal (Published in 1995). Vol. 35, Pg. # 512, H. # 21654.



Shuaib Al-Arna'ut authenticates the complete narration including the last sentence later in his works.

Al Tirmidhi:

Alee ibn Munzir Al-Kufi narrated from Muhammad ibn Fudayl narrated from, Al­-A'mash narrated from Atiyyah from Aboo Sa'id and Al­-A'mash narrated Habib ibn Abi Thabit narrated Zayd ibn Arqam, they both said; the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "I am leaving among you [two things] that if you adhere to it then you should never go astray after [my death], and one is greater than the other, the Book of Allah (swt), which is an extended rope from the sky to the land, and my family whom they are my household, and both of them will never separate till they come back to me at lake-font, therefore be careful about how you would succeed about them."

Al-Tirmidhi: This is Hasan (Reliable) in this form.

Footnote: The narration through Zayd ibn Arqam it is Saheeh (Authentic) and was also recorded by Muslim  (2408), Al-Nasa'i in Al-Kubra (8148) & (8175) & (8464), also found in 'Al-Musnad' (19265) & (19313) and 'Saheeh ibn Hibban' (123). As for the hadeeth through Aboo Sa'eed, it is Saheeh (Authentic) according to its other witnesses, (even though) its chain is weak and it is found in Al-Musnad (11104).

Source: Jami'a Tirmidhi Sunan Al-Tirmidhi. (Published 2009) Vol. 6, Pg. # 337, H. # 4122.



Ibn Hajar:

Ahmad and Al-Bazzaar have narrated from ibn Mas'oud through a Hasan (Reliable) chain, that he was asked: "How many Khalifahs will rule this Ummah?" Abd Allah ibn Mas'oud replied: "Verily, we asked Allah’s Apostle (saw), and he said: "Twelve, like the captains of Banu Isra'eel."

Source: Fath Ul-Bari Fi Sharh Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Vol. 17, Pg. # 68.



Ahmad ibn Hanbal:

Narrated to us Hassan ibn Musa from Himad ibn Zayd from Al-Mujalid from Al-Sha'bee from Masruq who said: "We were sitting with Abd Allah ibn Mas'oud and he was reciting the Qur'aan to us. Then a man said to him: "O Aboo Abd Al-Rahman! Did you (companions) ask Allah's Apostle (saw), the number of Khalifahs that will rule this Ummah?" Abd Allah ibn Mas'oud replied: "None before you has ever asked me concerning this since I arrived in Iraq. Verily, we asked Allah's Apostle (saw), and he said: "Twelve, like the captains of Banu Isra'eel."

Footnote:  Narration is Saheeh (Authentic) according to Ahmad Shakir.

Source: Musnad ibn Ahmad. Vol. 4, H. # 3781, Pg. # 28 - 29.

 


Are The Quraysh Natural Leaders?


Can we safely say that all members of the Quraysh are leaders? Or was it that the Prophet (saw) was referring only to a specific group? We find that the Prophet (saw) certainly narrated, "The tribe of Quraysh were leaders" but this of course does not mean ALL the tribes. Similarly, when the Prophet (saw) mentioned his progeny to be the Khalifas, he did not mean that all his progeny are successors but rather, the successors are from amongst them.

Here we find that the Prophet (saw) indicates that the Quraysh are not to be lead, rather they are the ones to lead.

Al-Albani:

The Prophet (saw) said, "Put the Quraysh in your front and do not lead them. Also, learn from Quraysh and never (attempt to) teach them."

Footnote: Narration is Saheeh (Authentic).


Source: Sahih Al-Jami' Al-Saghir. Vol. 2, Number 4383, Pg. # 809.


But here we find that from amongst the same Quraysh are some youngsters who would cause destruction.

Al-Bukhari:

Narrated Sa'id Al-Umawi: I was with Marwan and Aboo Hurayra and heard Aboo Hurayra saying, I heard the trustworthy, truly inspired one (i.e. the Prophet (saw)) saying, "The DESTRUCTION of my followers will be brought about by the hands of some youngsters from Quraysh." Marwan asked, "Youngsters?" Aboo Hurayra said, "If you wish, I would name them: They are the children of so-and-so and the children of so-and-so."

Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. # 887, H. # 3605.



Al-Bukhari:

Narrated Aboo Huraira: I heard the truthful and trusted by Allah (swt) (i.e. The Prophet (saw)) saying, "The DESTRUCTION of my followers will be through the hands of young men from Quraysh."

Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. # 1748, H. # 7058.


These youngsters from amongst the Quraysh are certainly not those mentioned in the Hadeeth wherein the Quraysh are referred to as guides and more knowledgeable than all others and in which it is said, "Obeying them leads to guidance, while disobeying them leads to misguidance." Henceforth, the Prophet (saw) made the distinction very clear between those who were given the position of leadership due to their virtue, over those who did not possess these qualities.


The Imams From The Quraysh Are Virtuous

Abi Dawood Al-Tialesi:

The Imams are from Quraysh if they act upon three things: Narrated to us Aboo Dawood from Sukayn ibn Abdul-Aziz from Sayyar ibn Salama from Abi Barza who said: The Prophet (saw) said: "The Imams are from the Quraysh if they act upon three things."

Footnote: The narration is Saheeh (Authentic).


Source: Musnad Aboo Dawood Al-Tialesi. Vol. 2, Pg. # 240, H. # 968.



Abi Ya'laa:

Narrated to us Aboo Khaythama from Jarir from Al-A'mash from Bakir Al-Jazari from Sahl ibn Abil Aswad from Anas ibn Malik who said: We were in the house that the Messenger of Allah (saw) came and stopped at the door and said: "The Imams are from Quraysh. I have a right upon you, and they will have a right upon likewise if they act upon three things: When they are asked for mercy, they show mercy; when they rule, they do justice; when they make a covenant, they fulfill it. If one of them does not act upon them, so curse of Allah (swt) and the Angels and all people be upon them."

Footnote: The narration is Saheeh (Authentic).

Source: Musnad Abi Ya'laa. Vol. 7, Pg. # 94, H. # 4032 / 1277.



Al-Hakim:

Narrated by Jabir ibn Abdullah that the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "There will be a Caliph in my Ummah who will generously distribute wealth without keeping a record of it. And I swear by the One who controls my life! Certainly that the dominance (of Islam) will return (that is, Islam will recapture its lost glory and retrieve its status during his reign)."

Al-Hakim graded it Saheeh (Authentic) according to the conditions of Muslim. Al-Dhahabi kept quiet about it.

Source: Al-Mustadrak Alaa Al-Sahihayn. Vol. 4, Pg. # 501, H. # 108 / 8400.

  
Furthermore, Banu Hashim was a clan in the Quraysh tribe. The Prophet (saw) and the Holy Imams of the Ahlulbayt (a.s) were members of this clan; their great-grandfather was Hashim, from whom the clan is named. Members of this clan are referred to as Hashimites and Allah (swt) chose and elevated the status of the Hashimites from all other tribes of Quraysh.


Muslim ibn Hajjaj:

Wathila b. Al-Asqa reported: I heard Allah's Messenger (saw) as saying: Verily Allah (swt) granted eminence to Kinanah from amongst the descendants of Isma'il and He granted eminence to the Quraysh amongst Kinanah and He granted eminence to the Quraysh amongst Banu Hashim and he granted me eminence from the tribe of Banu Hashim.

Source: Saheeh Muslim. Pg. # 1080, H. # 2276 / 1.



Al-Albani:

Narrated to us Khallad ibn Aslam from Muhammad ibn Mus'ab from Al-Awza'ee from Abi Ammar from Wathilah bin Al-Asqa: That the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "Indeed Allah (swt) has chosen Isma'il from the children of Ibraheem, and He chose Banu Kinanah from the children of Isma'il, and He chose the Quraysh from Banu Kinanah, and He chose Banu Hashim from Quraysh, and He chose me from Banu Hashim."

Al-Albani: It is Saheeh (Authentic), without the part "Allah (swt) has chosen Isma'il from the children of Ibraheem."

Al-Tirmidhi: This narration is a Hasan Saheeh (Authentic).

Narrated to us Muhammad ibn Isma'eel from Sulayman ibn Abdul-Rahman Al-Dimashqi from Al-Walid ibn Muslim from Al-Awza'ee from Shaddad Abu Ammar from Wathilah bin Al-Asqa: That the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "Indeed Allah (swt) has chosen Banu Kinanah from the children of Isma'il, and He chose the Quraysh from Banu Kinanah, and He chose Hashim from Quraysh, and He chose me from Banu Hashim."

Al-Albani: It is Saheeh (Authentic).

Al-Tirmidhi: This narration is a Hasan Saheeh (Authentic) Gharib.

Source: Saheeh Al-Tirmidhi. Vol. 3, H. # 3605 / 3606, Pg. # 483.


Ahmad ibn Hanbal:

Narrated Abul Mughira from Al-Awza'ee from Abu Ammar Shaddad from Wathilah bin Al-Asqa: That the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "Indeed Allah (swt) has chosen Banu Kinanah from the children of Isma'il, and He chose the Quraysh from Banu Kinanah, and He chose Banu Hashim from Quraysh, and He chose me from Banu Hashim."

Shuaib Al-Arna'ut: Its chain is Saheeh (Authentic) by the criteria of Muslim.

Source: Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Vol. 28, H. # 16986, Pg. # 193.


Twelve Leaders Of The Ummah Will Be From The Quraysh


Ahmad ibn Hanbal:

Narrated to us ibn Numayr from Majalid from Amir from Jabir ibn Samura Al-Suwahi who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (saw) in the Farewell Hajj: "This religion will not stop being dear and invulnerable and it shall overcome all its enemies; the opposition and heretics cannot harm it, until there come twelve leaders from my Ummah, all of them." Then I could not hear what the Messenger of Allah (saw) said, my father was closer to the position of the Messenger of Allah (saw), so I asked: "O father, what did the Messenger of Allah (saw) say?" He said: "He (saw) said: 'All of them will be from Quraysh.'" He said: "So I testify about it what my father understood from it that, all of them will be from Quraysh."

Footnote: The narration is Saheeh (Authentic).

Source: Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Vol. 34, Pg. # 429, H. # 20841.


Ahmad ibn Hanbal:

Narrated to us Abdullah from Khalaf ibn Hisham Al-Bazzar Al-Muqri from Hammad ibn Zayd from Mujalid from Al-Sha'bi from Jabir ibn Samura who said: The Messenger of Allah (saw) preached for us in the Arafaat and said: "This religion will not stop being dear and invulnerable and it shall overcome all its enemies; the opposition and heretics cannot harm it, until there come twelve leaders from my Ummah, all of them will be from Quraysh." Or as he said.

Footnote: The narration is Saheeh (Authentic).

Narrated to us Yunus ibn Muhammad from Hammad ibn Zayd from Mujalid from Al-Sha'bi from Jabir ibn Samura who said: The Messenger of Allah (saw) preached for us in the Arafaat and said: "This religion will not stop being dear and invulnerable and it shall overcome all its enemies; all of them…" But I could not hear what he said after that, so I asked my father: "What did he say after, 'all of them?' He said: "All of them will be from Quraysh."

Footnote: The narration is Saheeh (Authentic).

Source: Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Vol. 34, H. # 20904, Pg. # 461.


Al-Bukhari:

Narrated Jabir bin Samura: I heard the Prophet (saw) saying, "There will be twelve Amirs (commanders)." He then said a sentence which I did not hear. My father said, "All of them will be from Quraysh."

Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. # 1784, H. # 7222 - 7223.


If Only Two People Remained On Earth One Would Be The leader From Quraysh


Al-Bukhari:

Narrated ibn Umar: The Prophet (saw) said, "Authority of ruling will remain with Quraysh, even if only two of them remained (on the earth)."

Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. # 866, H. # 3501.


Al-Albani:

"The Caliphate will remain among the Quraysh even if only two persons are left (on the earth)."

It has been narrated by Al-Bukhari, Muslim, ibn Hibban, Al-Tiyalisi, ibn Abi Shaybah and Ahmad through Asim ibn Muhammad from his father from Abdullah ibn Umar in Marfu' [i.e. from the Prophet (saw)].

Source: Silsilat Al-Ahadeeth Al-Saheehah. Vol. 1, H. # 375, Pg. # 718. 


Muslim ibn Hajjaj:

It has been narrated on the authority of Aboo Hurayra that The Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "People are subservient to the Quraysh: The Muslims among them being subservient to the Muslims among them, and the disbelievers among the people being subservient to the disbelievers among them."

It has been narrated on the authority of Hammam ibn Munabbih who said: This is one of the traditions narrated by Aboo Hurayra from the Messenger of Allah (saw) who said: "People are subservient to the Quraysh: The Muslims among them being subservient to the Muslims among them, and the disbelievers among them being subservient to the disbelievers among them."

It has been narrated on the authority of Jabir ibn Abdullah that the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: People are the followers of Quraysh in good as well as evil (i. e. in the customs of Islamic as well as pre-Islamic times). It has been narrated on the authority of Abdullah that the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "The Caliphate will remain among the Quraysh even if only two persons are left (on the earth)."

It has been narrated on the authority of Jabir ibn Samura who said: I joined the company of the Prophet (saw) with my father and I heard him say: "This Caliphate will not end until there have been twelve Caliphs among them." The narrator said: Then he (the Holy Prophet (saw)) said something that I could not follow. I said to my father: "What did he say?" He said: "He has said: 'All of them will be from the Quraysh.'"

It has been reported on the authority of Jabir ibn Samura who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (saw) say: The affairs of the people will continue to be conducted (well) as long as they are governed by twelve men. Then the Prophet (saw) said words which were obscure to me. I asked my father: "What did the Messenger of Allah (saw) say?" He said: "All of the (twelve men) will be from the Quraysh."

Source: Saheeh Muslim. H. # 1818/1 - 1821/6, Pg. # 882.


Disloyalty Towards The Twelve Caliphs


Ahmad ibn Hanbal:

Narrated to us Abdullah from Ubaydallah Al-Qawariri from Sulaym ibn Akhdhar from ibn Awn from Al-Sha'bi from Jabir ibn Samura who said: The Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "This religion will not stop being dear and invulnerable and it shall overcome all its enemies; until there come twelve Caliphs." He said: Then people started to stand up and sit down.

Shuaib Al-Arna'ut: Its chain is Saheeh (Authentic) by the criteria of Muslim.

Source: Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Vol. # 34, Pg. # 477, H. # 20939.



Noise And Disorder When The Prophet (saw) Wished To Mention The Caliphs

According to the followers of the Ahlulbayt (a.s), the only legitimate rulers after the Prophet (saw) are the twelve Imams (a.s), who are the immediate descendants of the Prophet (saw) irrespective of whether they ruled directly or indirectly. All other rulers, from the time of Aboo Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Mu'awiyah, Yazid and so on, are considered usurpers and oppressors of the people. No ambiguity can exist in regards to the messenger of Allah (saw) wanting to announce his twelve successors by name, this, to prevent the Ummah from falling into confusion and turmoil. 

Ahmad ibn Hanbal:

Narrated to us Abdullah from Ubaydallah Al-Qawariri from Sulaym ibn Akhdhar from ibn Awn from Al-Sha'bi from Jabir ibn Samura who said: The Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "This religion will not stop being dear and invulnerable and it shall overcome all its enemies; until there come twelve caliphs." He said: Then people started to stand up and sit down.

Shu'aib Al-Arna'ut: Its chain is Saheeh (Authentic) by the criteria of Muslim.

Source: Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Vol. 34, H. # 20939. Pg. # 477.


Will The Ummah Unite Upon The Leaders Of Quraysh?

The divine leaders are leaders regardless of whether or not the people of the earth accept them as such. Whether they rule as a Caliph or stay silent and guide the Ummah secretly, as the Imams of Ahlulbayt (a.s) did, does not change the fact that they are the appointed divine leaders. When the Commander of the Faithful (a.s) had the chance, he took the responsibility of the leadership, while other Imams did not since they did not have the same opportunity. In short, if some of the Imams of Ahlulbayt (a.s) did not rule, it does not mean that they were not the appointed Khalifahs by the Prophet (saw), or should we say by Allah (swt) through His Prophet (saw).

Ibn Taymiyyah:

Allah Almighty says: "And We made of them Imams to guide by Our command when they were patient, and they were certain of Our communications." Holy Qur'aan {32:24} and He Almighty says to Ibraheem (a.s): "Surely I will make you an Imam of men." Holy Qur'aan {2:124} and that was not that He made him a man of sword who fights with it with all people, He rather made it obligatory over people to follow him, whether they obey or disobey him.

Source: Minhaj Al-Sunnah Al-Nabawiyyah. Vol. 4, Pg. # 108 - 109.


Ibn Taymiyyah:

So what the Sadiq Al-Masduq [i.e. the Prophet (saw)] says is proven on its own, whether we know that he has said the truth or not. The one that Allah Almighty sends to people, he is His Messenger, whether people know that he is the Messenger or not, and what he says is truth, even if people do not admit him. And what he orders from Allah (swt), Allah (swt) has ordered him to do so, even if people do not obey him. So the proof of Divine Authority and that the Prophet (saw) says the truth and what he orders on its own, does not depend on our existence, let alone that it depends on our intellects or on the speculations that are the product of our intellects. This is the same as the existence of the Almighty Lord and what He has of the attributes, which are evident on their own, whether He lets us know or not.    

Source: Dar'u Ta'arudh Al-Aql Wa Al-Naql. Vol. 1, Pg. # 88.


Al-Tabarani:

Ibraheem bin Hameed from Isma'eel bin Abi Khalid from his father (Abi Khalid) Jabir bin Samura who narrated that Holy Prophet (saw) said: "This religion will remain until there comes twelve Caliphs." Isma'eel said: "It is my conjecture that my father said that the whole Ummah will agree upon them."

Source: Mu'jam Al-Kabir. Vol. 2, Pg. # 207 - 208, H. # 1849.



A Group From The Ummah Will Continue To Prevail On The Basis Of Truth



Muslim ibn Hajjaj:

It has been narrated on the authority of Thauban that the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "A group of people from my Ummah will always remain triumphant on the right path and continue to be triumphant (against their opponents). He who deserts them shall not be able to do them any harm. They will remain in this position until Allah's (swt) Command is executed (i.e. Qiyamah is established)." In Qutayba's version of the tradition, we do not have the words: "They will remain in this position."

Source: Saheeh Muslim. Pg. # 925, H. # 1920 / 170.


Ahmad ibn Hanbal:

Narrated to us Hisham, from Zuhayr, from Ziyad bin Khaythama, from Al-Aswad bin Sa'eed Al-Hamdani, from Jabir ibn Samura, who said: I've heard the Prophet (saw) say: "There will be 12 Caliphs after me, all of them from Quraysh." Then he (saw) went back to his house, so Quraysh went to him, and said: "Then what will happen?" He (saw) said: "Then there will be Harj (deceit and killings)." 

Shu'ayb Al-Arna'ut: It is Saheeh (Authentic), but without his (saw) saying: "Then there will be Harj (deceit and killings)." 

 Source: Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Vol. 34, Pg. # 439 - 440, H. # 20860.


The Last One Of Them Will Lead Isa (a.s) In Prayer

We will Insha'allah Ta'Ala prove later that the leader behind whom Isa (a.s) performs prayers, is Imam Al-Mahdi (ajf). But for now we shall present the narrations pertaining to the fact that he is the last person of those who will continue to prevail on the basis of truth, and if people abandon him (ajf) and the Imams (a.s) not in the least will they be harmed.


Muslim ibn Hajajj:

Jabir b. Abdullah reported: I heard the Messenger of Allah (saw) say: A section of my people will not cease fighting for the Truth and will prevail till the Day of Resurrection. He said: Jesus (a.s) son of Mary (s.a) would then descend and their (Muslims) commander would invite him to come and lead them in prayer, but he would say: "No, some amongst you are commanders over some (amongst you)." This is the honour from Allah (swt) for this Ummah.

Source: Saheeh Muslim. H. # 156 / 247, Pg. #  81 - 82.



Al-Albani:

Narrated Imran ibn Hussain: The Prophet (saw) said: "A section of my community will continue to fight for the right and overcome their opponents till the last of them fights with the Antichrist."


Al-Albani: It is Saheeh (Authentic).

Source: Saheeh Sunan Abi Dawood. Vol. 2, H. # 2484, Pg. # 91.


The Imams (a.s) Are Not Harmed By People Abandoning Them


Al-Tabarani:

Narrated to us Ibraheem ibn Hashim Al-Baghawi from Muhammad ibn Abdul-Rahman from Muhammad ibn Sawa from Sa'eed from Qatada from Al-Sha'bi from Jabir ibn Samura who said: I was with my father in the presence of the Prophet (saw), so he said: "There will be twelve guardians (Qayyim) for this Ummah, people abandoning them does not harm them." Then the Messenger of Allah (saw) silently said something, I asked my father: "What was that sentence the the Prophet (saw) said silently?" He said: "All of them will be from Quraysh."

Source: Mu'jam Al-Kabir. Vol. 2, Pg. # 196, H. # 1794.  


Analysis Of The Chain Of Narrators 


1 - Ibraheem ibn Hashim Al-Baghawi
2 - Muhammad ibn Abdul-Rahman 
3 - Muhammad ibn Sawa 
4 - Sa'eed from Qatada 
5 - Al-Sha'bi 
6 - Jabir ibn Samura

1 - Ibraheem ibn Hashim Al-Baghawi

Ibn Al-Jawzi:

Ibraheem ibn Hashim ibn Al-Hussain ibn Hashim, Aboo Is'haq Al-Bay, known as Al-Baghawi. He was born in the year 207 A.H. He had heard from Alee ibn Ja'd, Ahmad ibn Hanbal and others, and he was trustworthy. He died in the Jamadi Al-Akhira of the year 297 A.H.

Source: Al-Muntadham. Vol. 13, Pg. #  97, Person # 2036.



2 -  Muhammad ibn Abdul-Rahman 

Qutlubgha Al-Hanfi:

Muhammad ibn Abdul-Rahman Al-Allaaf, from Basra. He narrates from Muhammad ibn Sawa, Abil Asim. Al-Hassan ibn Sufyan has narrated to us from him.

Source: Al-Thiqat Mimman Lam Yaqa Fil Kutub Al-Sittah. Vol. 8, Pg. # 430. Person # 10134.


Ibn Hibban:

Muhammad ibn Abdul-Rahman Al-Allaaf, from Basra. He narrates from Muhammad ibn Sawa, Abil Asim. Al-Hassan ibn Sufiyan has narrated to us from him.

Source: Kitab Al-Thuqat (The Authenticated Ones). Vol. 9, Pg. # 98. 



3 - Muhammad ibn Sawa 

Ibn Hajar:

Muhammad ibn Sawa, Al-Sadusi, Al-Anbari, Abul Khattab Al-Basri, he is truthful; he has been accused of believing in Qadr. He was from the 9th generation. He died after 180 A.H. Al-Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmidhi, Nasa'i and Ibn Majah have narrated from him.

Shuaib Al-Arna'ut  and others: He was rather trustworthy, a group of trustworthy narrators have narrated from him. Ahmad has put him in the level of Sa'eed ibn Abi Uruba. Ibn Zari says: Narrate from him. Ibn Hibban and ibn Shaheen have mentioned him among Al-Thuqat (i.e. in their books about trustworthy narrators). Ibn Ma'een says: He was intelligent similar to Qutada. Al-Dhahabi says in Al-Mizan: He is one of the famous trustworthy narrators.

Source: Tahrir Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Vol. 3, Pg. # 253 - 254, Person # 5939.


4 - Sa'eed from Qatada 

Ibn Hajar:

Sa'eed ibn Abi Uruba, Mihran Al-Yashkari, their servant. Aboo Nadhr Al-Basri. He is a trustworthy Hafidh and he has written books, he used to do Tadlees and confuse narrations, but he was the most authentic narrators in narration from Qatada. He is of the sixth generation. He died in the year 156 or 157 A.H. And all the authors of the Saheeh Sittah have narrated from him.

Source: Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Pg. # 179, Person # 2365.


Ibn Hajar:

Qatada ibn Da'ama ibn Qatada Al-Sadusi, Abul Khattab Al-Basri. He is a firm and trustworthy narrator. It is said that he was born blind. He is from the early narrators of the 4th generation. He died after the year 120 A.H. All the authors of the Saheeh Sittah have narrated from him.

Source: Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Pg. # 389, Person # 5518.


5 - Al-Sha'bi 

Ibn Hajar:

Amer ibn Sharahil Al-Sha'bi, Aboo Amr. He is a famous, trustworthy and a learned jurist, from the 3th generation. Al-Mak'hul says: I have not seen a better jurist than him. He died after the year 100 A.H. at the age of about 80. All the authors of the Saheeh Sittah have narrated from him.

Source: Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Pg. # 230, Person # 3092.



In conclusion, we can establish the following points:

  • The meaning of Khalifah is someone whom the person appoints as his successor
  • The Prophet (saw) mentioned the Khalifas in his sermon at his Farewell Hajj.
  • The Prophet appointed his Ahlulbayt (a.s) as his Khalifahs who will not separate from the Holy Qur'aan till they reach lake-fount.
  • The Caliphs will be twelve like Nuqabah of Bani Isra'eel. 
  • The Khalifahs consist of twelve men and all of them are from the Quraysh.
  • It does not harm the Khalifas if people abandon them.
  • The Khalifas do not need to learn from people, but people need to learn from them. 
  • The existence of humanity and Islam depends on the existence of these twelve men. 
  • Even if two people remain on earth, one of them will be a Caliph from Quraysh.
  • They will continue to prevail on the basis of Truth, until the last one of them (Imam Al-Mahdi (ajf)) fights with Dajjal.
  • The last one of them (Imam Al-Mahdi (ajf)) is the one behind whom Prophet Isa (a.s) performs prayers. 
  • Islam will continue to exist as long as there are Twelve Khalifahs since Islam will exist until Qiyamah, and according to the teachings of the Ahlulbayt (a.s) the last of them is Imam Al-Mahdi (ajf).


Confusion In Identifying The Twelve Caliphs


The Quraysh were a powerful merchant tribe that controlled Makkah and its Ka'ba, and according to traditions descended from Isma'eel (a.s). The Prophet (saw) was from the Banu Hashim clan of the Quraysh tribe which branched out in to various sub-clans. The following is a list of only some of those tribes:

Banu Abbas - 'Al-Abbas ibn Abd Al-Muttalib' was a paternal uncle of the Prophet (saw). This later formed the sub-clan of the Abbasi Caliphate
Banu Abd-Al-Dar 
Banu Abd Manaf 
Banu Nawfal 
Banu Muttalib 
Banu Abd Shams — parent clan of Banu Umayyah.
Banu Umayyah — sub-clan of Banu Abd Shams, clan of Aboo Sufyan, Mu'awiyah, Yazid, Uthman ibn Affan etc.
Banu Makhzum 
Banu Zuhrah 
Banu Taym - Clan of Aboo Bakr
Banu Adi — sub-clan of Quraysh, clan of Umar ibn Al-Khattab
Banu Asad 
Banu Jumah 
Banu Sahm 



Family Tree Of The Quraysh Tribes




The Prophet (saw) gives us the promise of the religion remaining intact until the day of resurrection, and alongside it the Caliphate of twelve Caliphs. It is necessary for one of these Caliphs to have along enough life span to last this long period of time. Thus, it is for this very reason the followers of the Ahlulbayt (a.s) believe it to be the last living Imam, Imam Al-Mahdi (ajf) who is in occulation.

Now it is necessary for us to also pay attention to this sensitive point; and that is to see how these type of Hadeeth were narrated or in other or better words, how it was set at liberty from the claws of the strict censorship and stern oppression in the Caliphates administration, particularly that of the Ummayads. 

Many of the later Caliphs were long after the death of Prophet Muhammad (saw), and many were not from the Quraysh. We shall now present a list of these rulers and in which years they ruled for:

  • Aboo Bakr ibn Quhafah (632–634 CE)
  • Umar ibn Al-Khattab (634–644 CE)
  • Uthman ibn Affan (644–656 CE)
  • Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s) (656–661 CE)
  • Hassan ibn Alee (a.s) (661 CE)


33 Umayyad Caliphs (661–750/1031 CE)

14 Caliphs of Damascus (661–750 CE)


  • Mu'awiyah ibn Aboo Sufyan (661–680 CE): Founder of the Umayyad dynasty
  • Yazid ibn Mu'awiyah (680–683 CE)
  • Mu'awiyah II ibn Yazid (683–684 CE)
  • Marwan I (684–685 CE)
  • Abd Al-Malik (685–705 CE)
  • Al-Walid I (705–715 CE)
  • Sulayman (715–717 CE)
  • Umar II (717–720 CE)
  • Yazid II (720–724 CE)
  • Hisham (724–743)
  • Al-Walid II (743–744 CE)
  • Yazid III (744 CE)
  • Ibrahim (744 CE)
  • Marwan II (744–750 CE)



This continued;


  • 11 Caliphs of Cordoba (756–929 CE)
  • 54 Abbasid Caliphs (750–1258/1517 CE)
  • 37 Caliphs of Baghdad (750–1258 CE)
  • 17 Caliphs of Cairo (1261–1517 CE)
  • 13 Al-Mohad Caliphs (1145–1269 CE)
  • 29 Ottoman Caliphs (1453–1924 CE)


Al-Bukhari:

Narrated Muhammad bin Jubair bin Mu'tim: That while he was with a delegation from the Quraysh to Mu'awiyah, the latter heard the news that Abdullah bin Amr bin Al-As said that there would be a king from the tribe of Qahtan. On that, Mu'awiyah became angry, got up and then praised Allah (swt) as He deserved, and said, "Now then, I have heard that some men amongst you narrate things which are neither in the Holy Book, nor have been told by Allah's Messenger (saw). Those men are the ignorant amongst you. Beware of such hopes as make the people go astray, for I heard Allah's Messenger (saw) saying, 'Authority of ruling will remain with Quraysh, and whoever bears hostility to them, Allah (swt) will destroy him as long as they abide by the laws of the religion.'"

Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. # 865 - 866, H. # 3500.


Narrated Aboo Hurayra: Allah's Messenger (saw) said, "The Hour will not be established (day of judgement) till a man from Qahtan appears, driving the people with his stick."

Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. H. # 3517, Pg. # 869.


Ibn Abi Asim:

Narrated Aboo Bakr from Aboo Usama from Hashim from Muhammad ibn Sireen from Uqba ibn Aws Al-Sadusi from Abdullah ibn Amr who said: "There will be twelve caliphs, Aboo Bakr, you accepted his name, Umar Al-Farooq, a horn of iron, you accepted his name, Uthman ibn Affaan Dhul Nurayn, he will be given two shares of reward. He was killed innocent, you accepted his name."

Al-Albani: Its chain is Saheeh (Authentic).

Source: Al-Sunnah of ibn Abi Asim. Vol. 2, Pg. # 548 - 549, H. # 1154.


Ahmad ibn Hanbal:

Narrated Abdullah: Narrated my father from Abdul Razaq from Ma'mar from Ayoub from ibn Sireen from Uqba ibn Aws from Abdullah ibn Amr who said: I found in some books (i.e books of Jews) on the day that we conquered Al-Yarmuk: Aboo Bakr Al-Siddiq, you accepted his name, Umar Al-Farooq, a horn of iron, you accepted his name, Uthman ibn Affaan Dhul Nurayn, he will be given two shares of reward, because he will be killed innocently. Then he said: "Then a man will rule the holy land and his son." Uqba said: "I asked ibn Al-Aas: 'Name them as you name the others.' He said: 'Mu'awiyah and his son (Yazid).'"

Footnote: Its chain is Saheeh (Authentic).

Source: Fada'il Al-Sahaba. Vol. 1, Pg. # 125.


Biography Of Abdullah ibn Amr

Al-Dhababi:

He (i.e. Abdullah ibn Amr ibn Al-Aas) used to narrate also from Aboo Bakr, Umar, Ma'aaz, Suraqa ibn Malik and his father Amr, Abdul Rahman ibn Awf, Abil Durdaa and some others and also from the People of the Book (i.e. Jews and Christians), and he was addicted to look into their books, and used to pay their books great attention.

Source: Siyar A'lam An-Nubala. Vol. 3, Pg. # 81. 


Abdullah ibn Amr was heavily influenced by Jewish scriptures. Had such information been contained within these texts, the Jews would have been proud of it and would have used it in an attempt to prove their religion to be correct.

It would also imply a conspiracy of Abdullah ibn Amr and his associates. Announcing the events before it took place would make the companions believe in what Abdullah ibn Amr predicted and what he claimed to be recorded in these Jewish texts, therefore making him a reliable source for future information. Such confidence would enable him to interfere in major events and suggest the name of the future Caliphs. 

On the other hand, if the above prediction is false and a pure fabrication, then it shows how much Abdullah ibn Amr was able to fabricate things to elevate the position of these usurpers and to manipulate the history of Islam.

Abdullah ibn Amr even oddly prophesied that the leader would originate from the tribe of Qahtan. This angered Mu'awiyah and he strongly insisted that the leaders would only come from the Quraysh tribe and no other. He went a step further by insinuating that anyone that said otherwise was indeed an ignorant fool amongst men and that this view had no basis from the Holy Qur'aan or hadeeth. He quoted the Prophet (saw) saying, "Authority of ruling will remain with Quraysh, and whoever bears hostility to them, Allah (swt) will destroy him as long as they abide by the laws of the religion." Of course it is not difficult to ascertain that Mu'awiyah himself had a conflict of interest here, nevertheless he strongly rejected ibn Amr's claim.

Incidentally previous to this incident, the first and second 'Caliphs,' Aboo Bakr and Umar, also mentioned the hadeeth of the Prophet (saw) regarding the rulers being from the Quraysh, only to legitimise and support their weak claims about their entitlement to the Caliphate during the incident of Saqifah. This of course does not mean that they were worthy and deservant of such positions. However, time has shown that many of the so-called companions have been wrong on many occasions.

Mu'awiyahs statement implicating anyone of holding such views as being ignorant and incompetent could also apply to Aboo Hurayra, since he contradicted Mu'awiyah as he famously narrated in Bukhari that the Prophet (saw) said, "The Hour will not be established (day of judgement) till a man from Qahtan appears, driving the people with his stick." This could be seen as an acute embarrassment for the so-called 'Ahl Al-Sunnah' as they view Aboo Hurayra to be a respected companion.

This raises interesting questions about the validity of Bukhari and other Hadeeth that have been narrated on the authority of the Prophet (saw) which have contradictory reports.

The Interpretation Of The Hadeeth Concerning The Twelve Leaders and the Perplexity of Its Commentators

In reference to the Hadeeth regarding the 12 Imams, the so-called 'Ahl Al-Sunnah' commentators and experts have reached a dead end. A sensible conclusion as to whom these 12 Imams refer to has not yet been established nor their precise identities. Additionally, it has not been made clear how a group of twelve consecutive leaders could endure and remain until resurrection day, or what special characteristics this group possessed seeing that Islams honour and dignity was linked to them. One must question what requirements would one must attain to hold such a position. Could it belong to any average person or would the position be given to one who is just and righteous?

Ibn Battaal (D. 449 A.H):

Al-Muhallab said: I have not met anyone who could come to a certain conclusion about this hadeeth. Some say: These will be twelve leaders after the Caliphate. Some say: They will live in the same time, every one of them will claim to be Caliph, but the more apparent guess is that he (the Prophet (saw)) foretold strange things and turmoil that would happen after he was gone, to the extent that the people would be divided among twelve rulers at the same time. If he had meant something other than that, he would have said, there will be twelve leaders who will do such and such. Because he did not tell us about them, we know that he meant that they would come at the same time. Allah (swt) knows best.

Source: Sharh Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Vol. 8, Pg. # 287.


Ibn Arabi Al-Maliki (D. 543 A.H):

Aboo Isa (i.e. Al-Tirmidhi) has narrated from Jabir ibn Samura who said: The Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "There will be twelve Amirs, all of them will be from Quraysh." It is Saheeh (Authentic). 

So We have counted twelve Amirs after the Messenger of Allah (saw), we found them as follows:  Aboo Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Alee (a.s), Al-Hassan (a.s), Mu'awiyah, Yazid, Mu'awiyah ibn Yazid, Marwan, Abdul-Malik ibn Marwan, Yazid ibn Abdul-Malik, Marwan ibn Muhammad ibn Marwan, Al-Saffah, Al-Mansoor, Al-Mahdi, Al-Hadi, Al-Rashid, Al-Amin, Al-Ma'moon, Al-Mu'tasam, Al-Wathiq, Al-Mutawakkil, Al-Muntasar, Al-Musta'een, Al-Mu'taz, Al-Muhtadi, Al-Mu'tazid, Al-Muktafi, Al-Muqtadir, Al-Qahir, Al-Radhi, Al-Muttaqi, Al-Mustakfi, Al-Muti', Al-Ta'he', Al-Qadir, Al-Qa'im, Al-Muqtadi, I witnessed his time in the year 484 A.H. and he appointed Al-Mustadh'har Ahmad, his son, and he died in the Muharram of the year 486 A.H. Then Al-Mustadh'har took allegiance for his son Abi Mansoor Al-Fadhl and I left them in the year 495 A.H. If we count twelve we can reach only till Sulayman ibn Abdul-Malik. If we take the literal meaning we have only five of them and to these we add the four Righteous Caliphs, and Umar bin Abd Al-Aziz, and I cannot understand the meaning of this Hadeeth."

Source: Aridhatul A'wazi Sharh Sunan Al-Tirmidhi. Vol. 9, Pg. # 68 - 69.


Ibn Al-Jawzi (D. 597):

In the second narration: "There will be twelve Amirs (commanders)." He then said a sentence which I did not hear. My father said, "All of them will be from Quraysh."

In another narration: "The affairs of the people will continue to be conducted (well) as long as they are governed by twelve men, All of the (twelve men) will be from the Quraysh."

In another narration: "The Islamic religion will continue until the Hour has been established, or you have been ruled over by twelve Caliphs, all of them being from the Quraysh."

In another narration: "This religion would continue to remain powerful and dominant until there have been twelve Caliphs, all of them will be from the Quraysh."

I researched about this narration for a long time, and searched about its meaning and asked about it, but I have not seen anyone who has found out its meaning. Its wordings are diverse and I do not doubt that it is due to the confusion of the narrators. I could not find any meaning for it for a while, then I found something, but I concealed it, then I found out that Aba Sulayman Al-Khattabi has come to the same conclusion. Then I saw the explanation of Al-Hussain ibn Al-Munadi over this narration from another viewpoint. Then I found the narration that gave me a hint to a third meaning. Here are the three views that I want to mention:

The first explanation: It is the same conclusion that Al-Khattabi found out: and that is that the Messenger of Allah (saw) is pointing to what will happen after him and his companions, because the rule of his companions is connected to his own rule, so he (saw) talked about the rule that will happen after them and that it will be fulfilled about its rulers within that time, then the emirate will be transferred to Bani Umayyah and that is where he says: "This religion would continue to remain…" i.e. the emirate and rule, until there come to pass twelve Caliphs and then the emirate will be transferred and this is the description of the continuation of the reign, not the praise of the rule of Bani Umayyah. So the first one of them is: 


  • Yazid ibn Mu'awiyah


    then his son:


    • Mu'awiyah ibn Yazid 


    Ibn Al-Zubayr is not one of them, because he is of the companions and also not Marwan ibn Al-Hakam, because he was paid allegiance after the allegiance of ibn Al-Zubayr and ibn Al-Zubayr had more right on it than Marwan, so he was a usurper. Then the following:


    • Abdul-Malik
    • Al-Walid 
    • Sulayman 
    • Umar ibn Abdul-Aziz 
    • Yazid ibn Abdul-Malik 
    • Hisham ibn Abdul-Malik 
    • Al-Walid ibn Yazid, 
    • Yazid ibn Al-Walid ibn Abdul-Malik
    • Ibraheem ibn Abdul-Malik
    • Marwan ibn Muhammad 


    So these are twelve.

    Then they lost the Caliphate and it went to Bani Abbas. And what strengthens this explanation is what Aboo Dawood narrates through ibn Mas'oud from the Prophet (saw) that he said: "The mill of Islam will go round till the year thirty-five, or thirty-six, or thirty-seven; then if they perish, they will have followed the path of those who perished before them, but if their religion is maintained, it will be maintained for seventy years."   

    Al-Khattabi has narrated through ibn Mas'oud too, he says in it: "It will be maintained for seventy years." They said: O Messenger of Allah (saw), in addition to the thirty three years? He said: "Yes."

    I say: In the year 35 A.H. or 36 A.H. Uthman was killed, so the "The mill" could refer to the continuation of the authority, or the end of it because of the statement: "The mill of Islam will stop after thirty-five years, thirty-six, thirty-seven." The mention of it coming to an end is more obvious and the meaning of it is: the stability of the mill will come to an end. If the narration is about the year thirty-five, it is the coming of the people of Egypt and that they besieged Uthman, if it the year twenty-six, it is the year that Talha and Zubayr set out for battle of Jamal and if it is the year thirty-seven, it is the year of the battle of Siffeen. Then the situation changed with these occasions and then the formation of the reign of Bani Umayyah and the end of it and the reappearance of troubles.   

    According to some wordings: "The mill of Islam will stop after the year thirty-five, if they establish peace among themselves, they might be fortuned with seventy years of continuous prosperity, but if they fight, they will follow the way of the nations before them." Al-Khattabi said: "The mill of Islam will continue is a metaphor for war. He has compared it to the mill which grinds the seed, because in a war the lives end...[ ]

    The second explanation: That Abul Hussain ibn Al-Munadi has said about this narration: "There will be twelve caliphs after me." He says: This will be after the death of Al-Mahdi (ajf) who appears in the End of Times. He says: We found in the book of Danial: "When Al-Mahdi (ajf) dies, five men of the progeny of the Sibt Al-Akbar, i.e. Al-Hassan ibn Alrr will rule, then after them five men of the progeny of Sibt Al-Asghar will rule, then the last one of them will appoint a man of the progeny of Sibt Al-Akbar as Caliph, then he will rule." Ibn Al-Munadi says: And we found in the narration of Abi Saleh from ibn Abbas where he mentions Al-Mahdi (ajf), he says: His name is Muhammad ibn Abdullah and he is a man of the medium height with a slightly red skin. Allah (swt) will wipe out the sorrow from this Ummah through him and through his justice He cures all the tyranny, then twelve men will succeed him for for one hundred and fifty years. Six of the progeny of Al-Hassan (a.s) and one from Aqeel ibn Abi Talib and five from the progeny of Al-Hussain (a.s), then the time of troubles will repeat itself and the disasters return. He says and Ka'ab Al-Ahbar said: "Here will be twelve Mahdis, then the Spirit of Allah (i.e. Isa (a.s)) will come down and kill the Dajjal." He said: "It was as if he was pointing out that, "There will be no Mahdi without Isa (a.s)" i.e. no Prophet will appear except him.

    The third explanation: He meant that there will be twelve Caliphs till the Day of Judgment; they will act upon righteousness, even if their time does not last for long. A man can be just and then someone may come after him who acts with tyranny, then again someone who acts with justice. Anyhow, the justice will be established through twelve until the Day of Judgment and the following narration supports it: Narrated to us Aboo Bakr Ahmad ibn Alee ibn Thabit from Alee ibn Ahmad ibn Umar Al-Muqri from Muhammad ibn Abdullah Al-Shafi'i from Ma'aaz ibn Al-Muthanna from Musaddad from Yahya ibn Abi Yunus from Aboo Bahr from Abal Mujlid and he swore that: This Ummah will not perish until twelve Caliphs rule, all of them act upon the religion of truth. Two of them will be from the Household of the Prophet (saw), one of them will live forty years and the other thirty years...[ ]  

    Source: Kashf Al-Mushkil Min Hadeeth Al-Sahihayn. Vol. 1, Pg. # 449 - 455.



    Ibn Taymiyyah (D. 728 A.H):

    In Saheehayn (i.e. Bukhari and Muslim) it has been narrated from Jabir ibn Samura that the Prophet (saw) said: "This order will continue to be dominant until there have been twelve Caliphs, that all of them (Caliphs) would be from the Quraysh."

    In another narration: "Twelve Amirs (leaders)."

    In another narration: "This order will not stop going, while twelve men rule them."

    And in another narration: "Islam will continue to be dominant until there have been twelve Caliphs, all of them (Caliphs) would be from the Quraysh." So the Caliphs are:


    • Aboo Bakr
    • Umar
    • Uthman
    • Alee (a.s)
    Then whoever that people gathered around in consensus and dominance and glory was with him:
    • Mu'awiyah
    • His son:
    • Yazid
    Then:
    • Abdul Malik

    And his four sons

    Umar ibn Abdul-Aziz. Is also one of them. And after that there has been shortcoming in the Islamic governments till today, because Bani Umayyah ruled over the entire earth and the rule in their time was glorious.

    Source: Minhaj Al-Sunnah. Vol. 8, Pg. # 238.



    Ibn Kathir (D. 774 A.H):

    Explanation of the narrations of the Twelve Imams who are from the Quraysh:

    They are not the twelve that the Rafidha claim them to be Imams, because these who they claim have not ruled over people except for Alee Abi ibn Abi Talib (a.s) and his son Al-Hassan (a.s) and the last one of them according to them is Al-Mahdi Al-Muntadhar (The Rightly Guided Awaited One), according to them he is in the cellar (Al-Sirdaab) in Samarra, but he does not exist and no one has seen him and there is no trace of him. Rather, the twelve Imams (leaders) that the narrations speak about are the four Imams; 
    • Aboo Bakr
    • Umar 
    • Uthman 
    • Alee (a.s)

    Umar ibn Abdul-Aziz; is also one of them without any dispute among scholars according to both opinions of the Ahl Al-Sunnah in the interpretation of these twelve, as we will mention it after presenting the narration:

    It is firm in Saheeh Al-Bukhari through the narration of Shu'ba and in Muslim through the narration of Sufyan ibn Uyaina, both of them from Abdul-Malik from Jabir ibn Samura who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (saw) saying: "There will be twelve Caliphs," then he said something that I could not hear, then I asked my father, what did he say? He said: "All of them will be from Quraysh."

    Na'eem ibn Hammad says in the book Al-Fitan Wa Al-Malahim: Narrated to us Isa ibn Yunus from Mujalid from Al-Sha'bi from Masrooq from Abdullah ibn Mas'oud who said: The Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "There will be twelve Caliphs after me, like the number of the Nuqaba (chieftains) of the companions of Musa (a.s)." and it has been narrated like this through Abdullah ibn Umar and ibn Abbas and Ka'ab Al-Ahbaar, their opinion.

    And Aboo Dawood said: Narrated to us Amr ibn Uthman from Marwan ibn Mu'awiyah from Isma'eel ibn Abi Khalid from his father from Jabir ibn Samura who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (saw) saying: "This religion will continue to be established till there are twelve Caliphs over you, and the whole community will agree on each of them." I then heard from the Prophet (saw) some remarks which I could not understand. I asked my father: "What is he saying?" He said: "All of them will belong to Quraysh."

    Aboo Dawood has also narrated: Narrated to us ibn Nifayl from Zuhayr ibn Mu'awiyah from Ziyad ibn Khaythama from Al-Aswad ibn Sa'eed Al-Hamdani from Jabir ibn Samura who said: The Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "The affairs of this Ummah will continue established, victorious over its enemies, until twelve Caliphs pass from them. All of them will be from Quraysh." He said: When he went back home, the Quraysh went to him and said: "Then what will happen?" He said: "Then there will be chaos."

    Al-Bayhaqi said: "In the first narration there is the mention of the number, in the second narration there is the mention of the chaos which is killing after them, and this number has been passed with that description till the time of Al-Walid ibn Yazid ibn Abdul-Malik, then chaos prevailed and a huge trouble as this narration has reported, then the reign of Abbasids began." As he mentioned in chapter of Al-Qibla, but the mentioned number will exceed if we consider the condition that has been mentioned in the narration. And the Prophet (saw) has said: "This affair will be among Quraysh, even if only two persons remain."

    Then after that Al-Bayhaqi mentions the narration of Asim ibn Muhammad from his father from ibn Umar from the Prophet (saw); and then he mentions the narration. And in Saheeh Al-Bukhari through Al-Zuhri from Muhammad ibn Jubayr ibn Mu'tim from Mu'awiyah ibn Abi Sufyan who said: The Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "Authority of ruling will remain with Quraysh, and whoever bears hostility to them, Allah (swt) will destroy him as long as they abide by the laws of the religion."

    Al-Bayhaqi says: It means that if they establish its teachings, even if they come short in acting upon them personally, then he mentions the narrations that support what he says. Allah (swt) knows best. This explanation of Al-Bayhaqi, with the fact that a group of scholars have confirmed his conclusion, is that the meaning of those twelve Caliphs who are mentioned in that narration are the Caliphs up to the time of Al-Walid ibn Yazid ibn Abdul-Malik, the fasiq (public sinner), whom we mentioned previously and the narration that rebukes and slanders him. 

    This explanation is doubtful and also the fact that the number of Caliphs up to the time of Al-Walid ibn Yazid exceeds twelve, every way you count them. And his argument that the Caliphate of the first four Caliphs; Aboo Bakr, Umar, Uthman and Alee (a.s) is something established by the narration of Safina: "The Caliphate after me will be thirty years." And then after them Al-Hassan ibn Alee (a.s), as it happened, because Alee (a.s) appointed him and the people of Iraq paid him allegiance and then he set out and people set out with him to fight against the people of Shaam, until he and Mu'awiyah entered into a peace treaty and he left the Caliphate for Mu'awiyah, as the narration of Abi Bakra in Saheeh Al-Bukhari mentions it.

    Then Mu'awiyah became Caliph, then Yazid his son, then Mu'awiyah son of Yazid and then Marwan ibn Al-Hakam, then his son Abdul-Malik ibn Marwan, then his son Al-Walid ibn Abdul-Malik, then Sulayman ibn Abdul-Malik, then Umar ibn Abdul-Aziz, then Yazid ibn Abdul-Malik, then Hisham ibn Abdul-Malik; so these are fifteen and then Al-Walid ibn Yazid ibn Abdul-Malik, if we take the Caliphate of ibn Al-Zubayr before Abdul-Malik they will become sixteen; however they will be already twelve before Umar ibn Abdul-Aziz; this is his conclusion that he enters Yazid ibn Mu'awiyah among them and excludes Umar ibn Abdul-Aziz about whom all scholars are in agreement that he was a praiseworthy ruler, even at the level of Khulafa Al-Rashideen (four rightly guided Caliphas) and there is consensus about his justice and that his time was the best time from the viewpoint of justice, even the Rafidha confess to this fact. 

    If someone says: "We do not accept this unless for the Caliphs over whose Caliphate the entire Ummah were in consensus." Then this will mean that Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s) and his son are not of those (twelve promised Caliphs), because the people, all of them did not gather around them and the majority of people of Shaam did not pay allegiance to them. Then Mu'awiyah and his son Yazid and his son Mu'awiyah ibn Yazid will be counted and Marwan and ibn Zubayr will not be counted among them, because the entire Ummah did not gather around any one of them, so according to this the Caliphs will be: Aboo Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Mu'awiyah, Yazid, then his son Mu'awiyah, then Abdul-Malik, Al-Walid, Sulayman, Umar ibn Abdul-Aziz, Yazid and then Hisham, so these are twelve, then after them Al-Walid ibn Yazid ibn Abdul-Malik, the fasiq (the public sinner), but this explanation is not acceptable, because it necessitates to exclude Alee (a.s) and his son Al-Hassan (a.s)from those twelve, and that is against what the Sunni scholars and even the Shi'a scholars have narrated. It is also against what the narration of Safina mentions; from the Messenger of Allah (saw) that he said: "The Caliphate after me will be thirty years, after that it will be a severe kingdom."

    He (Al-Bayhaqi) has mentioned this narration of Safina and explained the thirty years as the Caliphate of the first four Caliphs, as we mentioned Al-Hassan (a.s) to be one of them too and it was about six months, then the authority went to Mu'awiyah when Al-Hassan ibn Alee (a.s) passed it to him. This narration denies for Mu'awiyah to be called a Caliph; that is because the narration says that the Caliphate will come to an end after thirty years, not in absolute terms, rather its continuation was interrupted and it does not deny the coming of rightly guided Caliphs after that, as the narration of Jabir ibn Samura shows it.

    And Nu'aym ibn Hammad said: Narrated to us Rishdin ibn Sa'd from ibn Lahi'a from Khalid ibn Abi Imran from Hudhayfah ibn Al-Yaman who said: "There will be twelve kings after Uthman from among Bani Umayyah." He was asked if they were Caliphs? He said: "No, rather kings."

    And Al-Bayhaqi through Hatam ibn Abi Saghira from Abi Bahr from Abul Jald his neighbor, he heard him swearing that this Ummah will not be destroyed until there is twelve Caliphs in it, all of them will act upon guidance and true religion, two of them will be from among Ahlulbayt (a.s), one of them lives for forty years  and the other one thirty years. Then Al-Bayhaqi explains to refute what Abul Jald has said with irrelevant arguments and that is strange from someone like him; even a group of scholars have agreed with what Abul Jald has said and probably his opinion is more preferable about what we mentioned, because he might have looked into some older books.

    And the Torah that is in the hands of the People of the Book supports it; that Allah Almighty gave to Ibraheem (a.s) glad tidings about Isma'eel (a.s), and He will spread his progeny and he will appoint twelve chiefs from among them. Our knowledgeable Sheikh Abul Abbas ibn Taymiyyah said: These twelve are the same are promised in the narration of Jabir ibn Samura and has promised that they will be spread (from the viewpoint of time) in this Ummah and they will live before the Day of Judgment comes. He says: and many of the Jews have mistaken in their conversion to Islam, because they thought these twelve are the same twelve that the Rafidha believe in, so they followed them.  

    Nu'aym ibn Hammad said: Narrated to us Dhamura from ibn Shawdhab from Abil Nuhal from Abi Ziyad from Ka'ab who said: "Allah (swt) has bestowed upon Isma'eel (a.s) twelve guardians from his descendants; the best of them are Aboo Bakr, Umar and Uthman." And Nu'aym said: Narrated to us Dhamura from ibn Shawdhab from Yahya ibn Abi Amr Al-Saybani who said: "He who does not rule over the two mosques; Masjid Al-Haram and Masjid Al-Aqsa; is not of the Caliphs."

    Source: Al-Bidayah Wa'an-Nihayah. Vol. 9, Pg. # 283 - 289.


    Al-Suyuti (D. 911 A.H):

    Chapter: Duration of Caliphate in Islam:

    Al-Imam Ahmad and Al-Tirmidhi have said: Narrated to us Bahz from Himad ibn Salama from Sa'eed ibn Jamhan from Safina who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (saw) saying: "The Caliphate is for thirty years, then it will be Kingdom." 

    Narrated the authors of Sunan and also authenticated by ibn Hibban and others. The scholars say: In the thirty years after the Prophet (saw) there were no other than the four Caliphs and the time of Al-Hassan (a.s).

    Al-Bazzar said: narrated to us Muhammad ibn Sikkeen from Yahya ibn Hassaan from Yahya ibn Hamza from Mak'hool from Abi Thalaba from Abi Ubayda ibn Al-Jarrah who said: The Messenger of Allah (saw): "Verily the start of your religion began with Prophethood and mercy, then it will be Caliphate and mercy and then it will be kingdom and tyrants." Its chain is Hasan (Good).

    And Abdullah ibn Ahmad said: Narrated to us Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr Al-Muqaddimi from Yazid ibn Zari from Aboo Awn from Al-Sha'bi from Jabir ibn Samura from the Prophet (saw): "This religion will not stop being dear and invulnerable and it shall overcome all its enemies, until there come twelve Caliphs, all of them will be from Quraysh."

    It has been narrated from the two Sheikhs, Al-Bukhari and Ahmad and others, it has different chains and wordings, one of them: 'This religion will not stop being righteous' and 'This religion will not stop going on' narrated by Ahmad, and also by Muslim 'This affair will not come to an end until twelve men rule them.' And also, 'This affair will not come to an end until twelve Caliphs appear among them.' And also 'Islam will not stop being dear and invulnerable, until twelve Caliphs come to pass.' And also by Al-Bazzar: 'The affairs of my Ummah will not come to an end until twelve Caliphs come to pass, all of them will be from Quraysh.' And also by Abi Dawood with the addition: 'When he went back home, the Quraysh went to him and asked: What will happen after that? He will say: There will be chaos.' And also 'This religion will remain established until twelve Caliphs have ruled over you. The Ummah will be united on all of them.' By Ahmad and Al-Tirmidhi. And by Ahmad and Al-Bazzar through a Hasan chain from ibn Mas'oud who was asked: How many Caliphs will rule this Ummah? He said: We asked about it to the Messenger of Allah (saw) and he said: "Twelve, like the number of the Nuqaba (captains) of Bani Isra'eel."

    Qadhi Ayadh said: Maybe the aim about these twelve in these narrations and alike is that they are those in whose reign the Caliphate will be glorious, and Islam will be strong and its affairs will be upright and there will be consensus over those who possess the Caliphate. This sign has been found in those that people were in consensus about and gathered around them, until the reign of Bani Umayyah agitated and conflicts appeared among them during the time of Al-Walid ibn Yazid, it continued that way until the reign of Abbasids was established and their affairs faded out.

    Sheikh Al-Islam ibn Hajar says in Sharh Al-Bukhari: The explanation of Qadhi Ayadh is the best explanation about this hadeeth and the most preferable one, because it agrees with the fact that it has been narrated through some authentic chains that, 'The Ummah will gather around them all.' And the description of this is that it refers to the consensus of people in paying allegiance to them, as people gathered upon Aboo Bakr, Umar, Uthman and then Alee (a.s), until it ended in the occasion of the two judges in Siffeen, and Mu'awiyah was called as Caliph. Then people gathered around Mu'awiyah when Hassan (a.s) entered a peace treaty with him. Then people gathered around his son Yazid and it did not happen for Al-Hussain (a.s) because he was killed before that. Then when Yazid died, people conflicts emerged, until they gathered around Abdul Malik ibn Marwan after the killing of ibn Al-Zubayr, then they gathered around his four sons: Al-Walid, then Sulayman, then Yazid then Hisham, Umar ibn Abdul-Aziz interrupted between Sulayman and Yazid, so these are the seven after the Khulafa Al-Rashideen, and the twelfth is Al-Walid ibn Yazid ibn Abdul Malik, people gathered around him when his uncle Hisham died, so he ruled for about four years, then people revolted against him and killed him, and the trouble and conflicts emerged and situation changed since then, and people did not gather around any Caliph in consensus after that, because Yazid ibn Al-Walid who revolted against his cousin Al-Walid ibn Yazid, his days did not last long, because the cousin of his father Marwan ibn Muhammad ibn Marwan revolted against him and when Yazid died, he appointed his brother Ibraheem, but Marwan overcame him, and then Bani Abbas revolted against Marwan, until he was killed. Then the first caliph of the Bani Abbas was Al-Saffah, his days did not last long and many revolted against him, then Al-Mansoor his brother succeeded him and he ruled for a long time, but the western territories were lost, because Marwaniyeen conquered the Andulus and it was in their hands and they called it Caliphate afterwards, and it continued that way until from Caliphate remained nothing but just a name in some countries, after it was preached in the name of Caliph in the time of the children of Abdul Malik ibn Marwan from the east to the west of the earth, from the right to the left, in all countries that were in the hands of Muslims, and no one ruled over a land except through a permission from the Caliph, but the affairs went to extreme to the extent that in the fifth century in Abdulus alone, there were six people, every one of them called himself the Caliph, with the addition of the ruler of Egypt Al-Ubaydi and Al-Abbasi in Baghdad, this is beside other ones out of these territories from among the Alawiyya and Khawarij who claimed Caliphate. He said: So this is the meaning of the statement of the Prophet (saw): 'Then there will be chaos.' i.e. vast killings as a result of these many conflicts and it continued and increased as it was said. It is also said that the meaning of the narration could be pointing to existence of these twelve Caliphs in the entire duration of existence of Islam until the day of judgment, who will be acting upon righteousness, even if their day did not last for long, and what Musaddad has narrated supports this opinion: 'This Ummah will not perish until twelve Caliphs among them rule. Every one of them will act upon guidance and upright religion, two of them will be from among Ahulbayt (a.s)' so according to this 'Then there will be chaos' i.e. conflicts will be close to the Day of Judgment; like the appearance of Dajjal and what happens after that. I say: According to this opinion those twelve Caliphs would be: 


    The first four Caliphs, 



    • Al-Hassan (a.s), 
    • Mu'awiyah, 
    • Ibn Al-Zubayr, 
    • Umar ibn Abdul-Aziz, 


    These are eight, and it is also possible to add: 


    • Al-Muhtadi 
    from the Bani Abbas to them, because he was like Umar ibn Abdul-Aziz from among Bani 
    Umayyah, and likewise: 


    • Al-Tahir 

    because of his justice, and there remains two others, one of them is: 


    • Al-Mahdi (ajf)

    because he is of the Ahlulbayt (a.s) of Muhammad (saw).

    Source: Tarikh ul Khulafa. Pg. # 13 - 15.




    Muqbil Al-Wade'ie (Contemporary Wahabi Scholar):

    Question: Why Muslim scholars do not explain the hadeeth of the Imams from Quraysh? 

    Answer: This issue is becoming related with politics more and more, that is why many scholars are not able to talk about it. Some respected scholars who taught us in the Islamic School when we were learning about the history of the Caliphs and the history after that, this issue was eluded and the teacher himself used to elude this issue, because the Muslim rulers do not like this matter that the Imams are from Quraysh, but it was said to them: "If anyone of you remains on the straight path and the unity is established through him and people gather around him and they are able to stand against the enemies of Islam, then may Allah (swt) grant them success."   

    Source: Ijabatul Sahil Ala Aham Al-Masahil. Pg. # 438.




    The Twelve Sunni Caliphas

    Biography Of The First and Second Caliphas, 'Aboo Bakr & Umar ibn Al-Khattab'

    Al-Bukhari:

    Narrated Yahya ibn Bakir from Laith from Oqail from ibn Shahab (Al-Zuhri) from Urwa from A'isha who said: Faatima (s.a) daughter of the Messenger of Allah (saw) sent somebody to Aboo Bakr asking him to give her her inheritance from the Prophet (saw) from what Allah (swt) had given to His Apostle through Fai (i.e. booty gained without fighting). She asked for the Sadaqah (i.e. wealth assigned for charitable purposes) of the Prophet (saw) at Madinah, and Fadak, and what remained of the Khumus (i.e. one-fifth) of the Khaybar booty. Aboo Bakr said, "Allah's Apostle (saw) said, 'We (Prophets (a.s)), our property is not inherited, and whatever we leave is Sadaqah, but Muhammad's (saw) family can eat from this property, i.e. Allah's (swt) property, but they have no right to take more than the food they need. By Allah (swt)! I will not bring any change in dealing with the Sadaqah of the Prophet (saw) (and will keep them) as they used to be observed in his (i.e. the Prophet's (saw)) life-time, and I will dispose with it as Allah's Apostle (saw) used to do.' Faatima (s.a) was angered on Aboo Bakr and quit talking to him till she died; and she lived for 6 months after the death of Holy Prophet (saw); when she died, Alee (a.s) buried her in night and did not allow Aboo Bakr to take part in her funeral; and prayed on her. Alee (a.s) had a status in the life of Faatima (s.a), but when she died, people negated his status so he asked for a treaty with Aboo Bakr and to pledge allegiance; since Alee (a.s) had not pledged allegiance all those months, so he sent someone to Aboo Bakr to come alone and do not bring anyone since he disliked the presence of Umar, then Umar said to Aboo Bakr: "No, By Allah (swt)! Do not enter unto them alone." Aboo Bakr said: "What do you think they would do with me? By Allah (swt), I will go." Alee (a.s) said: "We know your virtues and what Allah (swt) has given to you and we don't feel any envy to goodness that Allah (swt) gave to you, but you carried out tyranny over us and we seen that we have right in that, due to our kinship to the Messenger of Allah (saw)."

    Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. # 1040, H. # 4240 - 4241.



    Muslim ibn Al-Hajjaj:

    Narrated Muhammad ibn Rafeh from Hojain from Laith from Oqail from ibn Shahab from Urwa ibn Zubair from A'isha who said: Faatima (s.a) daughter of the Messenger of  Allah (saw) sent somebody to Aboo Bakr asking him to give her her inheritance from the Prophet (saw) from what Allah (swt) had given to His Apostle through Fai (i.e. booty gained without fighting). She asked for the Sadaqah (i.e. wealth assigned for charitable purposes) of the Prophet (saw) at Madinah and Fadak, and what remained of the Khumus (i.e. one-fifth) of the Khaybar booty. Aboo Bakr said, "Allah's Apostle (saw) said, 'We (Prophets (a.s)), our property is not inherited, and whatever we leave is Sadaqah, but Muhammad's (saw) family can eat from this property, i.e. Allah's (swt) property, but they have no right to take more than the food they need.' By Allah (swt)! I will not bring any change in dealing with the Sadaqah of the Prophet (saw) (and will keep them) as they used to be observed in his (i.e. the Prophet's (saw)) life-time, and I will dispose with it as Allah's Apostle (saw) used to do.'" Faatima (s.a) was angered on Aboo Bakr and quit talking to him till she died; and she lived for 6 months after death of Holy Prophet (saw); when she died, Alee (a.s) buried her in the night and did not inform Aboo Bakr about her death; and he offered funeral prayers himself. Alee (a.s) had a status in the life of Faatima (s.a), but when she died, people negated his status so he asked for a treaty with Aboo Bakr and to pledge allegiance; since Alee (a.s) had not pledged allegiance all those months, so he sent someone to Aboo Bakr to come alone and do not bring anyone since he disliked the presence of Umar, then Umar said to Aboo Bakr: "No, By Allah (swt)! Do not enter unto them alone." Aboo Bakr said: "What do you think they would do with me? By Allah (swt), I will go." Alee (a.s) said: "We know your virtues and what Allah (swt) has given to you and we don't feel any envy to goodness that Allah (swt) gave to you, but you carried out tyranny over us and we seen that we have right in that, due to our kinship to the Messenger of Allah (saw).

    Source: Saheeh Muslim. Vol. 2, Pg. # 841, H. # 1759 / 52.


    Ibn Hibban:

    Umar said..."And both of you (i.e. Alee (a.s) and Al-Abbas) thought him (Aboo Bakr) to be an oppressor and evil doer concerning it (Fadak), and Allah (swt) knows that he was truthful, virtuous and a follower of the truth. Then I became its (Wali) after Aboo Bakr. Two years into my rule, I did the like of what the Messenger of Allah (saw) and Aboo Bakr did concerning it. And both of you (Al-Abbas & Alee (a.s)) thought me to be an omitter and evil-doer concerning it (Fadak), and Allah (swt) knows that I am truthful, virtuous and a follower of the truth."

    Shu'aib Al-Arnaut: The hadeeth is Saheeh (Authentic).

    Source: Saheeh ibn Hibban. Vol. 14, Pg. # 577 - 578.


    Abi Aw'wanah:

     ...Umar said, "So both of you (i.e. Alee (a.s) and Al-Abbas) thought him (Aboo Bakr) to be a liar, sinful, treacherous and dishonest."

    Narration is Saheeh (Authentic).

    Source:  Musnad Abi Aw'wanah. Vol. 4, Pg. # 245 - 247, H. # 6666.



    List Of The Umayyad Caliphs

    Biography Of The First Calipha, 'Mu'awiyah ibn Abi Sufyan' 661 - 680

    Ibn Kathir:

    The Khalifahs from Banu Umayyah were like this; their number was like the number of Rafidhiyah but the time was incomplete from a fixed hundred years. ALL OF THEM were Nasibis, except Imam Umar (Abdul Aziz) the Pious: Mu'awiyah then his son Yazid, then his grandson Mu'awiyah Al-Sadid; Marwan, then his son Abd Al-Malik the fighter against ibn Zubayr, until he killed him then he was independent after him in his reign in all countries without any doubt, then Al-Walid the builder of the Jame Mosque; there is no building like it, then Sulayman the generous and Umar, then Yazid and Hisham the treacherous person, then Al-Walid ibn Yazid the openly sinner, then Yazid ibn Al-Walid the successful his nickname is defective, but he is complete then Ibraheem and he was intelligent then Marwan the donkey with curly hair he was the last of them, this is enough said about them.

    Source: Al-Bidayah Wa'an-Nihayah. Vol. 17, Pg. # 375.


    This is an explicit testimony from a high-ranking classical scholar of the so-called, 'Ahl Al-Sunnah Wa Al-Jamaah' that Mu'awiyah was a Nasibi. His loyal son and successor, Yazid b. Mu'awiyah, equally belonged to the Nasibi movement. Something comes to mind here: How did Yazid acquire Nasibism? Of course, all evidence points towards his father Mu'awiyah who initiated him into Nasibism and nurtured him into its depths. After all, it was Mu'awiyah himself who brought up his son in the same way Aboo Sufyan raised Mu'awiyah!

    Al-Dhahabi: 

    Mu'awiyah had behind him a huge number of people who loved him, and who went to extreme lengths in their views of him, and who placed him above (Alee (a.s)). It was either because he ruled them with honour, clemency and generosity, or because they were born in Syria upon love of him, and they raised their children upon that (i.e. love of Mu'awiyah). Among them were a small group of the companions, and lots of the Tabi'een and the people of merit. They fought on his side against the people of Iraq (i.e. Imam Alee (a.s) and his army), and they were reared upon Nasb.

    Source: Siyar A'lam Al-Nubala. Vol. 3, Pg. # 128.


    The following narration is very vague. However, we shall go on to shed some further light on it to reveal that which the so-called 'Ahl Al-Sunnah' wish to conceal.

    Al-Haythami:

    Narrated Safina: The Prophet (saw) was sitting when a man passed by on a camel, someone was leading him from the front and someone was following him from behind. Then the Prophet (saw) said: "May Allah (swt) curse the leader, the follower and the sitting person."

    Al-Haythami: Al-Bazzaar has narrated it and its narrators are trustworthy.

    Source: Majma Al-Zawa'id. Vol. 1, H. # 437, Pg. # 148.



    We can safely say that the above narration has been tampered with. Our opponents have a habit of distorting that which goes against a companion. They tend to remove the name and replace it with "so and so." However, we can reveal what they have hidden through their other books.

    Al-Baladhari:

    Narrated Khalaf from Abdul-Warith ibn Sa'eed ibn Jumhan from Safina, the servant of Umm Salama (s.a), who said: The Prophet (saw) was sitting when Aboo Sufyan passed by on a camel, accompanied by Mu'awiyah and his brother, one of them was leading the camel and one of them was following from behind. Then the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "May Allah (swt) curse the rider, the leader and the follower."

    Source: Ansab Al-Ashraaf. Vol. 5, Pg. # 1980.


    The first two narrators of the above narration is different from the one that has been narrated by Al-Bazzaar, hence we shall present their status:

    Ibn Hajar:

    Khalaf ibn Hisham ibn Tha'lab, Al-Bazzaar, Al-Muqri, Al-Baghdadi; He is trustworthy and he has an exclusive Qira'at of Qur'aan. He was of the 10th generation. He died in the year 229 A.H. Muslim and Abi Dawood have narrated from him. 

    Source: Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Pg. # 135, Person # 1737.


    Ibn Hajar:

    Abdul-Warith ibn Sa'eed ibn Zakwan Al-Anburi, their servant, Aboo Ubayda Al-Tannuri, Al-Basri, he is a firm trustworthy narrator, he has been accused of Qadr, but it is not proven. He was of the 8th generation, he died in the year 180 A.H. The Jama'ah have narrated from him (i.e. Bukhari, Muslim and thr four Sunan).

    Source: Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Pg. # 135, Person # 4251.


    Al-Haythami:

    Narrated Abi Mujliz: Amr ibn Aas and Al-Mughira ibn Shu'ba said to Mu'awiyah that Al-Hassan ibn Alee (a.s) is an inarticulate man, he thinks he has an opinion and can talk and we know what he says, so we can refute his statement and make him stunned. Mu'awiyah said: "Don't do that." But they did not listen, then Amr climbed the pulpit and mentioned Alee (a.s) and insulted him, then Al-Mughira ibn Shu'ba climbed the pulpit and praised Allah (swt) and glorified Him and then insulted Alee (a.s), then it was said to Al-Hassan (a.s) to climb the pulpit and talk, so Al-Hassan (a.s) said: "I won't climb and talk unless you promise me that if I said the truth you should confirm it, and if I said something false, you deny it and say I am a liar." They agreed, so he climbed the pulpit and praised Allah (swt) and glorified Him, he then said: "I ask you by Allah (swt) O Amr and Mughira! Do you know that the Messenger of Allah (saw) cursed the rider and the follower, one of them was so and so (i.e. Mu'awiyah)?" They both said: "By Allah (swt)! It is true." He then said: "I ask you by Allah (swt) O Mu'awiyah and Mughira! Do you know that the Messenger of Allah (saw) cursed Amr for every verse of his poetry one curse?" They both said: By Allah (swt) it is true." Then he said: "I ask you by Allah (swt) O Amr and Mu'awiyah ibn Abi Sufyan! Do you know that the Messenger of Allah (saw) cursed the family of this man (i.e. Mughira)?" They both said: "Yes, it is true." Then Al-Hassan (a.s) said: "I thank Allah (swt) that you put yourself among those who disassociate themselves from this man" and then he mentioned the Hadeeth.

    Al-Haythami: Al-Tabarani has narrated it from his Sheikh Zakariyyah ibn Yahya Al-Saaji, Al-Dhahabi says: He was one of the firm reliable scholars and there is no proven critic against him. Ibn Al-Qattan says: There is difference of opinion about his narrations, a group of scholars have authenticated him and another group have weakened him, the rest of its narrators are the narrators of Saheeh.

    Source: Majma Al-Zawahid. Vol. 7, H. #12075, Pg. # 352.


    Ibn Hajar:

    Zakariyya ibn Yahya ibn Dawood, the Hafidh, Aboo Yahya Al-Saaji, Al-Basri, one of the firm reliable scholars, there is no critic against him at all. Abul Hassan ibn Al-Qattan says: "A group of scholars have authenticated him and another group have weakened him, he died in the year 300 A.H."

    But no one should pay attention to what ibn Al-Qattan says, he has indeed exaggerated, no one has weakened this Al-Saaji at all, as the author (i.e, Al-Dhahabi) has mentioned, he was beside his knowledge about Fiqh and Hadeeth and his book in Ikhtilaaf is famous, and in Ilal, his other book, its chains are best high chains.

    Source: Lisan Al-Mizan. Vol. 3, Pg. # 520 - 521, Person # 3233.


    Let us now take a look at another narration regarding Aboo Sufyan and Mu'awiyah which will serve as a reminder of being able to recognise how the Sunni scholars adopt a certain method in hiding the truth.

    Al-Haythami:

    Nasr ibn Asim Al-Laythi has narrated from his father who said: I entered in the mosque and heard people saying: "We seek refuge with Allah (swt) from the wrath of Allah (swt) and wrath of His Messenger (saw)," then I asked: "What is the matter?" They said: "The Messenger of Allah (saw) was preaching on the pulpit that a man (i.e. Aboo Sufyan) took the hand of his son and went out of the mosque, then the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "May Allah (swt) curse the one who stood up, wow to this Ummah from so and so (i.e. Mu'awiyah) the owner of the big buttocks."

    Al-Haythami: Al-Tabarani has narrated it and its narrators are trustworthy.

    Source: Majma Al-Zawahid. Vol. 5, H. # 9240, Pg. # 313.


    Now let us see another scholars account of the narration which reveals the names that were previously kept hidden.

    Ibn Sa'd:

    Abi Malik Kathir ibn Yahya Al-Basri said: Narrated to us Ghassan ibn Madhar from Sa'eed ibn Yazid from Nasr ibn Asim Al-Laythi from his father who said: I entered in the mosque of the Messenger of Allah (saw) and the companions of the Prophet (saw) were saying: "We seek refuge with Allah (swt) from the wrath of Allah (swt) and wrath of His Messenger (saw)," I asked: "What is the matter?" They said: Mu'awiyah walked out of the mosque holding the hand of his father walking in front of him, while the Messenger of Allah (saw) was preaching on the pulpit, then the Messenger of Allah (saw) said something about them.

    Source: Tabaqat ibn Sa'd. Vol. 9, Pg. # 77, H. # 3772.


    It is rather ridiculous how one of them conceals the names but reveals the curse of the Prophet (saw) on them while the other reveals the names but conceals that the Prophet (saw) cursed them. This is as such, in order that the readers never find out that it was Aboo Sufyan and his son Mu'awiyah who were cursed by the Prophet (saw).

    Now we shall present a third narration relating to this occasion from another scholar who reveals both the names and the curse from another companion through a complete different chain.

    Al-Ruyani:

    Narrated to us Muhammad ibn Is'haq from Is'haq ibn Ibraheem from Salama from Muhammad ibn Is'haq from Ibraheem ibn Al-Baraa ibn Azib from his father who said: Aboo Sufyan ibn Harb walked away from the Messenger of Allah (saw) and Mu'awiyah after him, while the Messenger of Allah (saw) was on the pulpit, and Mu'awiyah was a man with big buttocks, then the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "O Allah (swt)! Curse the owner of the big buttocks."

    Source: Musnad Al-Ruyani. Vol. 1, H. # 335, Pg. # 235.


    We now come to a narration wherein the Prophet (saw) is in clear dismay due to Mu'awiyah's behaviour towards him. Mu'awiyah's love for food and his ignorance towards the Holy Prophet (saw) led the Prophet (saw) to wish that his belly should never remain full thus, living a sordid life of gluttony.

    Muslim ibn Hajjaj:

    Ibn Abbas reported: I was playing with children that Allah's Messenger (saw) happened to pass by (us). I hid myself behind the door. He (the Prophet (saw)) came and patted my shoulders and said: "Go and call Mu'awiyah." I returned and said: "He is busy in taking food." He again asked me to go and call Mu'awiyah to him. I went (and came back) and said that he was busy in taking food, whereupon he said: "May Allah (swt) not fill his belly!" Ibn Muthanna, said: I asked Umm Umayya what he meant by the word Hatani. He said: It means "he patted my shoulders."

    Source: Saheeh Muslim. H. # 2604 /96, Pg. # 1206.


    Ibn Kathir:

    Al-Bayhaqi has narrated from Al-Hakim from Alee ibn Hamshaz from Hisham ibn Alee from Musa ibn Isma'eel from Abi Uwana from Abi Hamza who said: I was playing with children that Allah's Messenger (saw) came to us. I said to myself, he hasn't come except for me, so I hid myself behind the door. He (the Prophet (saw)) came and patted my shoulders and said: "Go and call Mu'awiyah" because he used to write the revelation. He said: I went and called him, but they said he is eating, I returned to the Messenger of Allah (saw) and said that he is busy eating. He again asked me to go and call Mu'awiyah to him. I went the second time and asked, they said he is busy eating, I returned and told him (saw), he sent me the third time, and then said: "May Allah (swt) not fill his belly!" Ibn Abbas said: "And he never felt full in his belly after that."

    Ibn Kathir: I say: Mu'awiyah indeed never felt full after that, and this supports the fact that it is said during his Caliphate he used to eat food with meat every day seven times and still say: "By Allah (swt) I got tired but I do not feel full yet."

    Source: Al-Bidayah Wa'an-Nihayah. Vol. 9, Pg. # 86.



    Ibn Abi Shaybah:

    Narrated to us Jarir from Mughira from Al-Sha'bi who said: "Mu'awiyah was the first person who started giving Sermon while sitting, and this happened at that time when Mu'awiyah got the thick layers of fat and his stomach grew large.

    Source: Al-Musannaf ibn Abi Shaybah. Vol. 13, Pg. # 6, H. # 36746. 


    The Holy Prophet (saw) himself prayed that the belly of Mu'awiyah should never become full which indeed was fulfilled by proof of the above narrations pertaining to the fact that Mu'awiyah was obese. The Prophet (saw) being aware of Mu'awiyah's eating habits also informs us of those who eat too much, and one who does so is quite clearly a Kafir. Henceforth, not only do we have the Prophet (saw) cursing this individual, we also have evidence that he indeed was a Kafir.

    Al-Bukhari:

    Narrated Amr: Aboo Nahik was avaricious eater. Ibn Umar said to him, "Allah's Messenger (saw) said, "A Kafir (unbeliever) eats in seven intestines (eats much)." On that Aboo Nahik said, "But I believe in Allah (swt) and His Apostle (saw)."

    Narrated Aboo Hurayra: Allah's Messenger (saw) said, "A Muslim eats in one intestine (i.e. he is satisfied with a little food) while a Kafir (unbeliever) eats in seven intestines (eats much)."

    Narrated Aboo Hurayra: A man used to eat much, but when he embraced Islam, he started eating less. That was mentioned to the Prophet (saw) who then said, "A believer eats in one intestine (is satisfied with a little food) and a Kafir eats in seven intestines (eats much)."


    Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. # 1375, H. # 5395 - 5397.



    Mu'awiyah And His Shi'a Cursing Imam Alee (a.s)


    Ibn Taymiyyah:

    This was why placing Alee (a.s) above him (i.e. Mu'awiyah) was not a popular opinion in it (i.e. Syria) as opposed to the cursing of Alee (a.s) which had become a custom among the followers of Mu'awiyah. This was despite that Alee (a.s) and his companions were closer to the Haqq (truth), and were more upon the Haqq (truth) than Mu'awiyah and his companions, as is documented in the two Saheeh's (Bukhari and Muslim).

    Source: Majmu Al-Fatawa. Vol. 4, Pg. # 436 - 437.

     

    Ibn Tayimiyyah:

    As for the hadeeth of Sa'd, when Mu'awiyah ordered him to curse (Alee (a.s)); and he refused and as a result, Mu'awiyah asked, "What prevents you from cursing Alee b. Abi Talib (a.s)?" He (Sa'd) replied, "Because of three things which the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said, I will never curse him. If I had just one of them, it would be more beloved to me than a red camel." This hadeeth is Saheeh (Authentic). Muslim recorded it in his Saheeh, and in it are three merits of Alee (a.s).

    Source: Minhaj Al-Sunnah Al-Nabawiyyah. Vol. 5, Pg. # 42.


    Imam Alee (a.s) Denouncing Mu'awiyah And His Shi'a


    Ibn Abi Shaybah:

    Narrated Abi Shaybah from Hushaym he said; Hussain told us; he said; Abdul-Rahman ibn Me'qal narrated us he said: "I prayed the morning [Fajr] prayer with Alee (a.s)." He added, then he made Qunut [supplication during the prayer] then he said in his Qunut; "Oh Allah (swt)! May you (judge and penalize) Mu'awiyah and his sect [followers], and Amr ibn Al-Aas and his followers and Abi Al-Awar Al-Salami and his followers and Abdullah ibn Qays and his followers. 

    Source: Al-Musannaf ibn Abi Shaybah. Vol. 2, Pg. # 273, H. # 7116



    Analysis Of The Chain Of Narrators:

    The status of these four narrators in the books of Rijal:

    1 -  Abi Shaybah
    2 -  Hushaym ibn Bashir 
    3 -  Hussain ibn Abdul Rahman 
    4 -  Abdul Rahman ibn Me'qal 

    1 -  Abi Shaybah

    Ibn Hajr:

    Abdullah ibn Muhammad ibn Ibraheem ibn Uthman ibn Khawasty Al-Absi, Aboo Bakr ibn Abi Shaybah (235 Hijri) trustworthy, memorizer, has many compositions, among the men of Al-Bukhari and Muslim and three of the Sunans.

    Source: Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Pg. # 262, Person # 3575.


    2 -  Hushaym ibn Bashir 

    Hushaym ibn Bashir ibn Al-Qasim Al-Sulami, Aboo Mu'awiyah, son of Abi Khazim Bimujamatayn Al-Wasiti. He is trustworthy, he used to do tadlees and narrate minor mursal narrationsHe is from the 7th generation. He died 183 A.H. near the age of 80.

    Source: Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Pg. # 504, Person # 7312.


    3 -  Hussain ibn Abdul Rahman 

    Al-Salami, Aboo Al-Hadheel Al-Kufi [43-136 Hijri]; Trustworthy, his memorizing changed at his final days, among the men of the "six" (narrators of the Sittah).

    Source: Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Pg. # 109, Person # 1369.


    4 -  Abdul Rahman ibn Me'qal 

    Ibn Moqren Al-Mazani, Aboo Assem Al-Kufi. He is trustworthy, some have taken his narrations from his father, because he was very young and whoever has mentioned him among companions has mistaken. He was of the 3rd generation. He is amongst the men (narrators) of Aboo Dawood.

    Source: Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Pg. # 292, Person # 4012.



    Biography Of The Second Calipha 'Yazid ibn Mu'awiyah' 680 - 683

    Al-Suyuti:

    Nawfl bin Abi Furaat said that once he was sitting with Caliph Umar bin Abdul Aziz when a man called Yazid as, "Ameer ul Mo'mineen Yazid bin Mu'awiyah." At this, (Umar bin Abdul Aziz said in anger): "You call this person as Ameer ul Mo'mineen?!' And then he ordered that person to be "lashed 20 times."

    In 63 A.H, Yazid was informed that people of Madinah have rejected him and are preparing to wage war upon him. Knowing this, Yazid sent a huge army to Madinah and declared war upon the people of Madinah. After looting Madinah, he sent the army to fight Abdullah bin Zubayr in Makkah and so the incident of Harrah took place. Do you know what Harrah is? Regarding it, Hassan (Al-Basri, a Tabi'ee) said: "By Allah (swt)! When Madinah was attacked, there remained not a single person who was safe from it, a group of companions and others were killed and Madinah was looted and thousands of virgin girls were raped." Inna Lillahi Wa Inna Ilaihi Raji'oon...The Prophet (Peace be upon him) said: "Whosoever frightens people of Madinah, then Allah (swt) will frighten them (the attackers) plus Curse (La'nah) of Allah (swt), his Angels and all the people is upon such a person (Saheeh Muslim). The reason why people of Madinah did not give Ba'yah to Yazid was because he was indulged in "too many sins."

    Imam Waqidi narrates from Abdullah bin Hanzala son of Al-Ghasil (a companion) that he said: "By Allah (swt)! We did not revolt against Yazid until we feared that, "WE WILL BE SHOWERED WITH STONES FROM SKY." He was a man who used to penetrate his mothers (his father's wives), sisters and daughters, and he used to drink openly and neglected prayers!"

    Imam Dhahabi said: When Yazid did such things with people of Madinah although "he was indulging in drinking and other evil deeds even before," then the people of Makkah also revolted against him and rose against him from 4 sides, and then Allah (swt) did not put Barakah in life of Yazid and then the army of Harrah went to Makkah to fight ibn Al-Zubayr. Then the commander of the army died on the way, then someone else succeeded him and and then they went to Makkah and surrounded ibn Al-Zubayr and fought with him and threw on them fireballs with catapults, and that happened in the month Safar of the year 64 A.H, and as a result, their fire covered the Kaaba, its roof and the horn of the goat which was sacrificed for Isma'eel which was on the roof all burned down. Then Allah (swt) destroyed Yazid in the middle of the month Rabi'ul Awwal of that year, and the news of his death came to Makkah when the fight was still going on. Then ibn Zubayr announced: "O people of Shaam, your tyrant died!" They were disturbed and people arrested them. Then ibn Al-Zubayr called people to pay him allegiance and called himself Caliph, and the people of Shaam paid allegiance to Mu'awiyah son of Yazid, but his reign was not so long as it will be mentioned later.

    Source: Tarikh ul Khulafa. Pg. # 167.


    Al-Dhahabi:

    I (Al-Dhahabi) say: He was strong and brave, he had a mind of his own and was a strong willed person, intelligent, eloquent, a good poet. He was a Nasibi*, rough, hard-hearted, lunatic, used to drink alcohol, and do unlawful things.

    *Footnote: Nasibiyyah are the hypocrites and the enmity towards Alee (a.s) is their religion.  They are called that name, because they manifest enmity towards him.

    He began his reign by killing the Martyr Al-Hussain (a.s) and ended it with the event of Al- Harra. For that, people hated him and he was not blessed with his age. More than one person revolted against him. Like the people of Madinah who revolted against him for the sake of Allah (swt) and Mirdaas ibn Udiyya Al-Hanzali Al-Basari and Nafi' ibn Al-Arzaq and Tawaf ibn Ma'alla Al-Sadusi and ibn Zubayr in Makkah.

    Narrated ibn Awn from ibn Sireen from Uqba ibn Aws from Abdullah ibn Amr, when Aboo Bakr's name was mentioned in front of him, so he said: You accepted him, then said: Umar Al-Faruqa, horn of iron, you accepted his name, Uthman ibn Affan Dhul Nurayn, he was killed innocently, Mu'awiyah and his son (Yazid) the kings of the holy land. Al-Saffah, Salam, Mansoor, Jabir, Al-Mahdi and Al-Amin and Amir Al-Asb, all of them are from the children of Bani Ka'ab ibn Luwa, all of them are righteous, there will be no one like him. Hasham has narrated it too.

    And Yalaa ibn Ata has narrated from his uncle who said: I was with Abdullah ibn Amr when Yazid sent him to ibn Al-Zubayr, I heard him say: I found in books that you will claim Caliphate, but you are not a Caliph, I found that Yazid is a Caliph. Al-Hassan says: Al-Mughira ibn Shu'ba advised Mu'awiyah to take allegiance for his son, and he did it. It was said to him: "Why did you do that?" He said: "I put the feet of Mu'awiyah on a false pedal, that he will never manage to come out of it till the day of Judgment." Al-Hassan said: "That is why these (i.e. Umayyad Caliphs) took allegiance for their sons, if it wasn't for that, choosing a Caliph would have been by Shura (i.e. by consultation).

    Source: Siyar A'lam Al-Nubala. Vol. 4, Pg. # 37 - 39.


    Mahmud Al-Alusi:

    The Proof of sending La'nah upon Yazid is derived from this (ayah), as was mentioned by Al-Barzanji in his Al-Ashaat and Imam al-Haythami in As-Sawa'iq from Imam Ahmad that his son Abdullah asked him about sending La'nah on Yazid, (Imam Ahmad) said: "Why cannot La'nah be sent on him when Allah (swt) has sent La'nah on him in Qur'aan?" Abdullah asked: "Recite the Kitab of Allah (swt) so that I know how La'nah is sent on Yazid?" Imam Ahmad mentioned these verses: 'Would ye then, if ye were given the command, work corruption in the land and sever your ties of kinship? Such are the men whom Allah has cursed… Holy Qur'aan {47:22-23}.' Hence what could be a bigger Strife than what Yazid did?

    Source: Ruh Al-Ma'ani Fi Tafseer Al-Qur'aan. Vol. 26, Pg. # 72.


    Ibn Hajar:

    Yahya ibn Abdul-Malik ibn Abi Ghania, who was a trustworthy person, said: Narrated to us Nawfal ibn Abi Aqrab, who was trustworthy: Once I was in the presence of Umar Bin Abdul Aziz, a man mentioned the name of Yazid ibn Mu'awiyah saying: "The commander of the faithful Yazid." Umar said: "You said commander of the faithful?!" Then he ordered him to be lashed twenty lashes.

    Source: Tahdheeb Al-Tahdheeb. Vol. 4, Pg. # 429.


    Al-Hakam ibn Abi Al-As ibn Umayyah

    Al-Hakam ibn Abi Al-As ibn Umayyah was the father of the Umayyad Caliph Marwan I, and an uncle of Uthman ibn Affan. 

    Al-Dhahabi:

    In this year died Al-Hakam ibn Abil Aas ibn Umayyah ibn Abd Al-Shams ibn Abd Manaf Al-Amawi, father of Marwan. He had twenty sons and eight daughters. He converted to Islam in the year of the conquest of Makkah and came to Madinah. It is said about him that he used to reveal the secrets of the Messenger of Allah (saw), so he (saw) expelled him and swore on him and sent him to Tahif, he remained there expelled until Uthman became Caliph, so he brought him to Madinah and fulfilled the obligation of his relationship with him and gave him one hundred thousand Dirham, because he was the uncle of Uthman ibn Affan. It is said that the Messenger of Allah (saw) explelled him to Tahif, because he used to mimic the Prophet (saw) in his walking and some of his movements.

    There have been narrated some Munkar narrations in cursing him, but it is not allowed to take them as proof, however in brief, the companionship (of the Prophet (saw) about him is in general form, not in particular. 

    Hammad ibn Salama and Jarir have narrated from Ata ibn Al-Sahib from Abi Yahya Al-Nakha'ee who said: I was in the presence of Mawar, Al-Hassan (a.s) and Al-Hussain (a.s), Al-Hussain (a.s) was swearing on Marwan, Marwan then said: "You are an accursed household" whereupon Al-Hassan (a.s) became angry and said: "By Allah (swt), verily Allah (swt) has cursed you through the tongue of his Prophet (saw) while you still was in the loins of your father."  Aboo Yahya is unknown.

    Al-Alaa has narrated from his father from Aboo Hurayra who said: The Messenger of Allah (saw) saw the progeny of Al-Hakam jumping over his pulpit, then he woke up in a sorrowful state and said: "What happened, I saw in my dream that the progeny of Al-Hakam jump over my pulpit as monkeys."

    Footnote: Al-Haythami says in Majma Al-Zawahid: Narrated by Abi Ya'laa and its narrators are the narrators of Saheeh (Bukhari and Muslim), except Mus'ab ibn Al-Zubayr, and he is Thiqah (Trustworthy).

    Source: Tarikh Al-Islam. Vol. 3, Pg. # 365 - 366.


    Al-Suyuti:

    Ibn Jarir has narrated from Sahl ibn Sa'd who said: The Messenger of Allah (saw) saw in a dream that the children of so and so were jumping over his pulpit like monkeys, he became very sad about it and he was never seen laughing again until he died, and then Allah (swt) revealed: "We granted the vision which We showed thee, but as a trial for men." Holy Qur'aan {17:60}.

    And ibn Abi Hatam narrates from ibn Amr that the Prophet (saw) said: "I saw the children of Al-Hakam ibn Abil Aas over my pulpit in the form of monkeys." Then Allah (swt) revealed about it: "We granted the vision which We showed thee, but as a trial for men, - as also the Cursed Tree in the Holy Qur'aan." {17:60}, i.e. Al-Hakam and his children.

    And Ibn Abi Hatam also narrates from Ya'laa ibn Marra who said: The Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "I saw Bani Umayyah over the pulpits of the earth, they will rule, and you will find them evil rulers." The Messenger of Allah (saw) became very sad about it, then Allah revealed: "We granted the vision which We showed thee, but as a trial for men" Holy Qur'aan {17:60}.

    And ibn Mardawaih narrates from Al-Hussain ibn Alee (a.s) that the Messenger of Allah (saw) woke up once, while he was very sad, he was asked: WWhat is wrong O Messenger of Allah (saw)?" He said: "I saw Bani Umayyah in a dream that they are fighting over this pulpit of mine." They said: "O Messenger of Allah (saw), do not be sad, this is dunya which they get," then Allah (swt) revealed: "We granted the vision which We showed thee, but as a trial for men" Holy Qur'aan {17:60}.

    And Ibn Abi Hatam, ibn Mardawaih, Al-Bayhaqi in Al-Dalahim and ibn Asakir narrate from Sa'eed ibn Musayyib who said: The Prophet (saw) saw Bani Umayyah over his pulpit in a dream, and became very sad about it, then Allah (swt) revealed to him, that this is only Dunya that they are given, then the Prophet (saw) became happy and that is the saying of Allah: "We granted the vision which We showed thee, but as a trial for men." Holy Qur'aan {17:60}, i.e. a disaster for people. Ibn Mardawaih narrates from A'isha that she said to Marwan: I heard the Messenger of Allah (saw) saying about you and your father: "You are the cursed tree in Qur'aan."

    Source: Tafsir Al-Durr Al-Manthur. Vol. 9, Pg. # 391.


    Ibn Abdul Barr:

    Al-Hakam ibn Abil Aas ibn Umayyah ibn Abd Al-Shams ibn Abd Manaf ibn Qasiy Al-Qurashi Al-Amawi, he was uncle of Uthman ibn Affan and father of Marwan ibn Al-Hakam. He was of the converts to Islam in the year of the conquest of Makkah. The Messenger of Allah (saw) expelled him from Madinah to Tahif and his son was expelled with him. It is also said that Marwan was born in Tahif. Al-Hakam was in Tahif until Uthman became Caliph, so he brought him to Madinah. He lived in Madinah until he died at the end of the Caliphate of Uthman, some months before the revolution against Uthman apparently. There is difference of opinion as in regard to the reason of him being expelled by the Messenger of Allah (saw). 

    It is said that he used to conspire and spy and eavesdrop what the Messenger of Allah (saw) used to say to his close companions about the polytheists of Makkah and other disbelievers and hypocrites. So he used to reveal it to others, until he was exposed and he also used to mimic the the way of the walking of the Prophet (saw) and his movements and some other things, that we dislike to mention. It is said that when the Messenger of Allah (saw) walked, Al-Hakam ibn Abil Aas used to mimic him from behind, the Prophet (saw) saw him one day doing that, so he said: "Remain that way," so Al-Hakam remained moving right and left and started to shake from that day on. So Abdul-Rahman ibn Hassan ibn Thabit used to mock him, saying to Abdul-Rahman ibn Al-Hakam belittling him in a poetry:

    "Verily your father is the accursed whose bones were smashed into pieces
    Who was trembling and moving right and left like a mad
    His heart was empty of the deeds of righteous people
    He was full of filthy deeds which filled his stomach."

    Source: Al-Isti'ab. Vol. 1, Pg. # 359 - 360.


    Al-Dhahabi:

    Al-Sha'bee says: I heard ibn Al-Zubayr saying: By the Lord of this House, Al-Hakam ibn Abil Aas and his progeny are cursed by the tongue of Muhammad (saw).

    Al-Dhahabi: Its chain is Saheeh (Authentic).

    Source: Tarikh Al-Islam. Vol. 3, Pg. # 368.

    Al-Hakim:

    Narrated to us Abul Hassan Alee ibn Muhammad ibn Uqba Al-Shaybani in Kufa, from Ibraheem ibn Is'haq Al-Zuhri Al-Qadhi from Muhammad ibn Ja'far from his father from Is'haq ibn Yusuf Al-Arzaq from Is'haq ibn Yusuf from Shareek ibn Abdullah from Al-A'mash from Shaqiq ibn Salama from Hallam ibn Jazal Al-Ghifari who said: I heard Aboo Zarr Jundab ibn Junada Al-Ghifari saying: I heard the Messenger of Allah (saw) say: "When the children of Abil Aas (grandfather of Marwan) reaches to thirty men, they will take the wealth that belongs to Allah (swt) as their property, and the servants of Allah (swt) as their slaves and the religion of Allah (swt) as a tool for their deception."

    Some people did not accept what Abi Zaar said, so Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s) testified that he heard the Messenger of Allah (saw) saying: "There is no one more truthful in speech, nor in fulfilling of promises, that sky has covered and the earth has carried, than Abu Dharr." and I bear witness that the Messenger of Allah (saw) said it.

    Al-Hakim: This narration is Saheeh (Authentic) by the criteria of Muslim, but they (i.e. Al-Bukhari and Muslim) have not narrated it.

    Footnote: Al-Dhahabi: It is Saheeh (Authentic) by the criteria of Muslim.

    Narrated to us Aboo Ahmad Alee ibn Muhammad Al-Arzaqi in Marw from Ja'far Muhammad ibn Isma'eel ibn Salim Al-Sahigh in Makkah from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Al-Walid Al-Arzaqi, the announcer of Adhaan in Masjid Al-Haram, from Muslim ibn Khalid Al-Zanji from Al-Alaa ibn Abdul Rahman from his father from Aboo Hurayra who said: The Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "I saw in my dream that the children of Al-Hakam ibn Abil Aas jumped over my pulpit like monkeys jump." He said: After that dream the Prophet (saw) was never seen happy and laughing until he died.

    Al-Hakim: This narration is Authentic (Saheeh) by the criteria of Al-Shaikhayn (i.e. Al-Bukhari and Muslim), but they have not narrated it.

    Footnote: Al-Dhahabi: It is Saheeh (Authentic) by the criteria of Muslim.

    Source: Al-Mustadrak Alaa Al-Sahihayn. Vol. 4, H. # 186 / 8478 & 189 / 8481, Pg. # 526 - 527.



    Aboo Ya'la Al-Mawsili:

    Narrated Mus'ab ibn Abdullah from ibn Abi Hazim from Al-Alaa from his father from Abi Hurayra who said: The Messenger of Allah (saw) saw in a dream that the progeny of Al-Hakam were jumping over his pulpit and come down, so he woke up in a very sorrowful state, and said: "What did I see in my dream, the progeny of Al-Hakam were jumping over my pulpit as monkeys?!" He said: The Messenger of Allah (saw) was never seen laughing again after that, until he died.

    Footnote: Its chain is Saheeh (Authentic).

    Source: Musnad Aboo Ya'la. Vol. 11, Pg. # 348.


    Ahmad ibn Hanbal:

    Narrated to us ibn Umayr from Uthman ibn Hakim from Abi Umama ibn Sahl ibn Unayf from Abdullah ibn Amr, who said: We were sitting in the presence of the Prophet (saw), then Amr ibn Aasi wore his garments to join us, then the Prophet (saw) said while we were sitting in his presence: "An accursed man will enter upon you." By Allah (swt) we did not move, watching who enters and who goes out, until we saw so and so entered, i.e. Al-Hakam.

    Shuayb Al-Arna'oot: Hadeeth is Saheeh (Authentic) by by the criteria of Muslim.

    Source: Musnad ibn Ahmad. Vol. 11, Pg. # 71, H. # 6520.



    The Monkeys Who Jumped From The Prophet's (saw) Pulpit


    Biography Of The Fourth Calipha 'Marwan ibn Al-Hakam' 684 - 685


    Ibn Hajar: 

    Marwan ibn Al-Hakam ibn Abil Aas ibn Umayyah ibn Abd Al-Shams ibn Abd Manaf Al-Qurashi Al-Amawi, nicknamed Aba Abdul-Malik. He is cousin the of Uthman and his writer during his Caliphate.

    It is said that he was born two years after Hijrah (migration) or after four years. Ibn Shaheen says: "The Prophet (saw) died while Marwan was eight years old. So the year of his birth would be two years after Hijrah." He says: "And I heard ibn Abi Dawood saying: 'He was born in the year of the battle of Uhud, i.e. the third year after Hijrah.'"

    Ibn Abi Dawood says: He was at an age to recognize and distinguish things in the year of conquest of Makkah and in the Farewell Hajj. But it is not known, whether he has heard anything from the Prophet (saw) or not.

    Ibn Tahir says: He and Al-Miswar ibn Mikhrama were born two years after Hijrah without any dispute.

    That is said, but it is false, the opposite of it is firm. The story of the conversion of his father in the year of conquest, if it is true, shows that he was at an age of distinguishing things at that time, so he is of the first category, but we cannot be certain about his companionship, he might have been too young for thatAfter the conquest he and his father were expelled to Tahif and he was with him, so more than seeing the Prophet (saw) is not certain about him.

    Source: Al-Isaba Fi Tamyiz Al-Sahaba. Vol. 10, Pg. # 388 - 389, Person # 8355.

    Ibn Hajar:

    Is'haq said: Narrated to us Sulayman ibn Harb from Himad ibn Salama from Ata ibn Al-Sahib from Abi Yahya who said: I was in the presence of Al-Hasan (a.s) and Al-Hussain (a.s), and Marwan was swearing on Al-Hussain (a.s). Al-Hassan (a.s) told Al-Hussain (a.s) to ignore him, then Marwan became angry and said: "An accursed household." Whereupon Al-Hassan (a.s) became angry and said: "Did you say, an accursed household?! By Allah (swt)!Verily Allah (swt) has cursed you while you still was in the loins of your father." 

    Footnote: It is Saheeh (Authentic) through this chain, because all of its narrators are trustworthy.

    Source: Al-Matalib Al-Aliya. Vol. 18, H. # 4455, Pg. # 265.


    Marwan was not one from amongst the innocent, he was the killer of Talha ibn Ubaydullah (one of the ten companions who was promised paradise according to the so-called 'Ahl Al-Sunnah').

    Ibn Hajar:

    Ibn Asakir has narrated through several chains that Marwan ibn Al-Hakam is the person who hit Talha and killed him. Abul Qasim Al-Baghawi has narrated through a Saheeh (Authentic) chain from Abil Jaroud ibn Abi Sabra who said: In the battle of Jamal, Marwan looked at Talha and said: "I can't take my revenge in another day." So he hit him with an arrow and killed him.

    Yaqub ibn Sufyan has narrated through a Saheeh (Authentic) chain from Qays ibn Abi Hazim that Marwan saw Talha among the people in the battefield and said: "He had conspired against Uthman," so he hit him with an arrow in his leg, the blood did not stop flowing until it killed him. He has narrated it from Abdul Hamid ibn Saleh from Waki from Isma'eel from Qays.

    And Al-Tabarani has narrated through Yahya ibn Sulayman Al-Ju'fi from Waki with the above chain, that he said: "I saw Marwan ibn Al-Hakam when Talha hit him with an arrow on that day. It hit his leg and the blood did not stop flowing until it killed him."

    Source: Al-Isaba Fi Tamyiz Al-Sahaba. Vol. 5, Pg. # 422 - 423.


    Biography Of The Fifth Calipha 'Abdul-Malik ibn Marwan' 685 - 705

    Now we come to Abdul Malik ibn Marwan who we find, like his father was a killer. He appointed the tyrant Hajjaj ibn Yusuf as a governor and the commander of his army. Both were responsible for the killing of millions of Muslims including Abdullah ibn Al-Zubayr.

    Ibn Asakir:

    Urwa ibn Al-Zubayr says: When Marwan died, (his son) Abdul-Malik claimed the Caliphate and stood up, people of Al-Shaam (i.e. Syria) accepted him, so he preached on the pulpit and said: "Who wants to suffice me about ibn Al-Zubayr?" Al-Hajjaj said: "Me O commander of the faithful." He said to him to be silent, then he repeated what he said again. Al-Hajjaj said again: "Me O commander of the faithful, I saw in a dream that I unclothed him and wore his garment." Then Abdul-Malik made him the commander of the army and sent him towards Makkah to fight against ibn Al-Zubayr, and he killed him by that army.

    Source: Tarikh ibn Asakir. Vol. 28, Pg. #  231.


    Ibn Al-Ibari:

    Marwan ibn Al-Hakam, he was paid allegiance in Jordan in the year 64 A.H. and he is the first person who took over the Caliphate with the sword. Al-Dhahak ibn Qays went to him and they fought in Maraj Rahat in the suburbs of Damascus, then Al-Dhahak was killed. 

    Then Sulayman ibn Surad Al-Khuza'i, 'the companion of the Prophet (saw)' revolted in Kufa with four thousand of Shi'a, seeking revenge for the blood of Al-Hussain (a.s), so Marwan sent Ubaydullah ibn Ziyad towards him and armies met in Ras Al-Ayn, as a result Sulayman was killed and his companions were dispersed. 

    Marwan died in Damascus and his Caliphate was seven months and and a few days. Then the people of Shaam (i.e. Syria) paid allegiance to Abdul-Malik ibn Marwan.

    Source: Tarikh Mukhtasar Al-Duwal. Pg. #  99.


    Ibn Al-Umrani:

    Abdul-Malik ibn Marwan, nicknamed Abul Walid, he was also nicknamed Abul Zubban (i.e. father of flies), because swarms of flies used to fly around his mouth for his bad breath. He was paid allegiance in the year 65 A.H. and he died on the thursday, mid Shawwal of the year 86 A.H. His Caliphate was 21 years and few days. 

    He made Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf governor over Iraq, Al-Haramayn (i.e. Makkah and Madinah) and Khorasan. He then killed and massacred people and destroyed the Ka'ba and fired it with catapult. He crucified Abdullah ibn Al-Zubayr there, whose mother was Asma bint Abi Bakr. He remained hung up there for one year until Abdul-Malik ibn Marwan went to Hajj and met Asma bint Abi Bakr on the way and she said to him: "Is it not the time for this crucified body to be brought down?" So he ordered to bring him down and gave his body to her. She put his bones in her house and in that state she experienced menstruation and her milk flew down, even though she was older than seventy. When she saw that in herself, she said: "Now that he has returned to me, his share of milk returned to him."

    During the reign of Abdul-Malik ibn Marwan the sanctity of Islam and Muslims was violated so much by Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf, may Allah Almighty's curse be upon him, that there is no benefit in mentioning them all.

    In summary, Al-Hajjaj, may Allah Almighty's curse be upon him, killed one million and six hundred Muslims during his authority. He died, may Allah (swt) not be pleased with him and humiliate him, while there were eighteen thousand people in his jails, the prisoners used to quench them with the urine of donkeys. Allah the Exalted and Almighty comforted Muslims with his death. With all that said, he was eloquent and generous, short and ugly and his sight was weak.

    Source: Al-Anbaa Fi Tarikh Al-Khulafa. Pg. # 49 - 50.


    Musim ibn Hajjaj:

    Aboo Naufal reported: I saw (the dead body) of Abdullah ibn Zubayr hanging on the road of Madinah (leading to Makkah). The Quraysh passed by it and other people too, that Abdullah ibn Umar happened to pass by it. He stood up there and said: May there be peace upon you, Aboo Khubaib (the Kunya of Hadrat Abdullah ibn Zubayr), may there be peace upon you Aboo Khubaib, may there be peace upon you, Aboo Khubaib! By Allah (swt)! I used to forbid you from this; by Allah (swt)! I used to forbid you from this, by Allah (swt)! I used to forbid you from this. By Allah (swt), so far as I know, you had been very much devoted to fasting and prayer and you had been paying very much care to cementing the ties of blood. By Allah (swt)! The group to which you belong (are labelled) as (a) wicked (person) is indeed a fine group. Then Abdullah b. Umar went away. The stand Abdullah (b. Umar) took in regard to the inhumane treatment (meted out to Abdullah b. Zubayr) and his words (in that connection) were conveyed to Hajjaj (b. Yusuf) and (as a consequence of that), he (the body of Abdullah b. Zubayr) was brought down from the stump (the scaffold) by which it was hanging and thrown into the graves of the Jews. He (Hajjaj) sent (his messenger) to Asma (bint Aboo Bakr, Abdullah's mother). But she refused to come. He again sent the messenger to her with the message that she must come, otherwise he would bring her forcibly catching hold of her hair. But she again refused and said: "By Allah (swt)! I will not come to you until you send one to me who would drag me by pulling my hair." Thereupon he said: "Bring me my shoes." He put on his shoes and walked on quickly swollen with vanity and pride until he came to her and said: "How do you find what I have done with the enemy of Allah (swt)?" She said: "I find that you wronged him in this world, whereas he has spoiled your next life. It has been conveyed to me that you used to call him (Abdullah b. Zubayr) as the son of one having two belts. By Allah (swt)! I am indeed (a woman) of two belts. One is that with the help of which I used to suspend high the food of Allah's Messenger (saw) and that of Aboo Bakr (making it out of the reach) of animals and, so far as the second belt is concerned, that is the belt which no woman can dispense with. Verily Allah's Messenger (saw) told us that in Thaqif, there would be born a great liar and great murderer. The liar we have seen, and as far as the murderer is concerned, I do not find anyone else besides you." Thereupon he (Hajjaj) stood up and did not give any reply to her.

    Source: Saheeh Muslim. H. # 2545 / 229, Pg. # 1185.


    Biography Of The Sixth Calipha 'Al-Walid ibn Abdul-Malik' 705 - 715

    Al-Suyuti:

    Al-Walid ibn Abdul-Malik: And Al-Walid was a tyrant oppressor. And Aboo Na'eem narrated in Al-Hilaya from Ibn Shawzab who said: Umar ibn Abdul-Aziz said, while Al-Walid was in Shaam, and Al-Hajjaj in Iraq, and Uthman ibn Hayyan in Hijaz and Qurra ibn Sharikh in Egypt, he said: "By Allah, the earth is full of oppression."

    Source: Tarikh ul Khulafa. Pg. # 178.



    Al-Dhahabi:

    Ma'mar has narrated from Al-Zuhri who said: I was in the presence of Al-Walid ibn Abdul-Malik while he was swearing on A'isha.

    Source: Siyar A'lam An-Nubala. Vol. 4, Pg. # 9.



    Biography Of The Seventh Calipha 'Sulayman ibn Abdul-Malik' 715- 717

    Al-Dhahabi:

    He (i.e. Sulayman ibn Abdul-Malik) was one of the famous gluttons, so much that is it said that he once ate fourty chickens. It is also said that he once ate a lamb and six chickens, then one rope of dry fruit from Tahif was brought to him and he ate that too.

    Source: Siyar A'lam An-Nubala.Vol. 5, Pg. # 112 - 113.


     


    Biography Of The Eighth Calipha 'Umar ibn Abdul-Aziz' 717 - 720

    The next Umayyad caliph is Umar ibn Abdul-Aziz, who was relatively better than the others, among the good things he did was that he returned Fadak to Imam Al-Baqir (a.s) and Zayd ibn Al-Hassan and stopped the Umayyad tradition of cursing the Commander of the Faithful Imam Alee (a.s) over the pulpits. However, he was still an usurper of the position of Ahlulbayt (a.s) and thus among those descendants of Al-Hakam ibn Abil Aas that the Prophet (saw) cursed. This is why we find that the Imams of Ahlulbayt (a.s) revealed such information to us.

    Al-Saffar:

    Ahmad Bin Muhammad, from Al-Hussain Bin Sa'eed, from Al-Qasim Bin Muhammad, from Suleyman Bin Dinaar, from Abdullah Bin Ata'a Al-Tameemy who said: I was with Alee ibn Al-Hussain (a.s) in the Mosque. Then Umar Bin Abdul Aziz passed by him, wearing trimmings of silver and he was young and the best looking among the people. Alee ibn Al-Hussain (a.s) looked towards me and said: "O Abdullah ibn Ata'a, do you see these luxuries? He will not die until he rules the people." I said, "This evil doer?!" He (a.s) said: "Yes. He will not be among them for long and will soon die. When he dies, the inhabitants of the sky will curse him and the inhabitants of the earth will seek forgiveness for him."

    Source: Basaa'ir Al-Darajat. Pg. # 205.


    Sayyed Hashim Al-Bahrani:

    He (i.e. Al-Khusaybi) has narrated through his chain from Jabir ibn Abdullah Al-Ju'fi from Abi Ja'far Al-Baqir (a.s), he said: I was with him in the mosque when Umar ibn Abdul-Aziz entered and he was young and wearing two yellow garments and he was leaning to a servant of his, then Aboo Ja'far (a.s) looked at him and said: "By Allah (swt)! It will not pass long before this young man rules and shows off justice and will live two years or less, because it is with Allah (swt), He might shorten it or lenghten it, then he will die and the people of the earth will weep on him while the people of the heaven will curse him." Jabir said: By Allah (swt), it did not take long until Umar ibn Abdul-Aziz became Caliph and manifested justice and lived as he (a.s) had said.

    Source: Madinatul Ma'aajiz. Vol. 3, Pg. # 224.


    Al-Dhahabi:

    Ma'mar has narrated from the brother of Al-Zuhri who said: Al-Walid wrote to Umar while he was the governor of Madinah to punish Khubayb ibn Abdullah ibn Al-Zubayr (the son of the companion of the Prophet (saw)), so he lashed him and made him stay in the cold, as a result of which he died.

    I (Al-Dhahabi) say: Whenever people praised Umar (Abdul Aziz), he used to say: Who would suffice me about Khubayb (ibn Abdullah ibn Al-Zubayr ) i.e, (you praise me, while I killed someone innocent and Allah (swt) will punish me for that and no one can prevent that punishment). May Allah (swt) be pleased with them.

    Source: Siyar A'lam An-Nubala. Vol. 5, Pg. # 120.



    Biography Of The Ninth Calipha 'Yazid II ibn Abdul-Malik' 720 - 724

    Al-Dhahabi:

    He (i.e. Yazid ibn Abdul-Malik) was not worthy of Imamate, he was busy all the time with debauchery and musicians. He appointed his brother Hisham as Caliph after himself, then to his son Al-Walid ibn Yazid that evil doer, and he left behind eleven sons. 

    Source: Siyar A'lam An-Nubala. Vol. 5, Pg. # 152.



    Biography Of The Tenth Calipha 'Hisham ibn Abd Al-Malik' 724 - 743

    Al-Dhahabi:

    Hisham ibn Abdul-Malik; Mus'ab Al-Zubayri said: They say that Abdul-Malik saw in a dream that he urinated in the the altar of the mosque four times, so he sent someone to ask Sa'eed ibn Mussayyib about its meaning, he said: "Four people will rule from among his descendants," and Hisham was the last one of them, he was greedy and used to collect wealth, he was intelligent and steadfast, a politician, there was oppression and justice in his leadership.

    Source: Siyar A'lam Al-Nubala. Vol. 5, Pg. # 351 - 352, Person # 162.


    Ibn Qutaybah:

    As for Zayd ibn Alee ibn Al-Hussain, he was nicknamed Abal Hassan, his mother was from Sind. He revolted during the Caliphate of Hisham in the year 122 A.H. So Yusuf ibn Umar Al-Thaqafi sent Al-Abbas Al-Murri to him, then a man of them hit him with an arrow and killed him, then he was crucified.

    Source: Al-Ma'arif. Pg. # 216.


    Al-Dhahabi:

    Al-Ma'afa says: I have collected the reports about Al-Walid II and his poetry that assures us about his debauchery, insanity and him being a lunatic, and what he explicitly points out of his disbelief in Qur'aan and disbelief in Allah (swt).

    Source: Siyar A'lam An-Nubala. Vol. 5, Pg. #372.


    Ibn Kathir:

    Qadhi Abul Faraj says: The reports about Al-Walid are many, I have collected them in an exclusive collection, and also about his life and what has been narrated about him and of his poetry that makes us sure about his debauchery, his insanity, his foolishness, his madness, his idle talk, his religiosity. He explicitly declares his disbelief in the noble Qur'aan and his disbelief in what Allah (swt) has revealed.

    Source: Al-Bidayah Wa'an-Nihayah. Vol. 13, Pg. # 172.


    Al-Suyuti:

    Al-Walid ibn Yazid ibn Abdul-Malik, he was an evil doer, he used to drink alcohol, and violate the things that Allah (swt) has forbidden, he wanted to perform Hajj and drink alcohol on the roof of Ka'bah, but people did not let him do it and revolted against him because of his evil nature, until he was killed in the Jamadi Al-Akhira of the year 126 A.H.

    Source: Tarikh ul Khulafa. Pg. # 199.


    Al-Dhahabi:

    The accusations of disbelief and atheism about Al-Walid is not true. Yes, he was famous in drinking and homosexuality, that is why people revolted against him.


    Source: Tarikh Al-Islam. Vol. 8, Pg. # 294.



    Biography Of The Twelfth Calipha 'Yazid ibn Al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik or Yazid III' 744 - 6 months

    Al-Suyuti:

    Yazid Al-Naqis (i.e reducer), Aboo Khalid, ibn Al-Walid: Yazid Al-Naqis, Aboo Khalid, ibn Al-Walid ibn Abdul-Malik, he was nicknamed Naqis, because he reduced the salary of the army. He took over the Caliphate by killing his cousin Al-Walid II, and then he became the ruler.

    Source: Tarikh Al-Khulafa. Pg. # 201.


    Biography Of The Thirteenth Calipha 'Ibraheem ibn Al-Walid' 744 - Few Weeks]

    Ibn Al-Athir:

    Caliphate of Ibraheem ibn Al-Walid ibn Abdul-Malik: When Yazid ibn Al-Walid died, his brother Ibraheem took over the leadership, but he could not bring it fully under his control, therefore sometimes he was saluted by Caliphate and sometimes by Emirate and sometimes without any title. He lasted four months. It is also said that he lasted seventy days and then the authority was conveyed to Marwan ibn Muhammad, so he discharged him of leadership, as we will mention it later. Then He lived until he died in the year 132 A.H. his nickname was Aboo Is'haq and his mother was a bondsmaid.

    Source: Al-Kamil Fi Tarikh. Vol. 4, Pg. # 499.



    Biography Of The Fourteenth Calipha 'Marwan II ibn Muhammad ibn Marwan' 744 - 750

    Al-Suyuti:

    Marwan Al-Himar (i.e. donkey);...when he was informed about the death of Yazid III, he robbed the treasuries, and fought Ibraheem ibn Walid and defeated him, then the allegiance was paid to Marwan in the mid Safar of the year 127 A.H. and he took over the Caliphate; the first thing he ordered was to dig out the grave of Yazid Al-Naqis, so his body was exhumed and crucified, because he had killed Al-Walid.

    But Marwan was not so lucky in Caliphate, because too many groups revolted against him from every corner until the year 132 A.H. Banu Abbas revolted against him under the command of Abdullah ibn Alee ibn Al-Saffah, so they fought each other, the two armies met in Mawsil and Marwan was defeated, so he went back to Shaam and Abdullah followed him, Marwan then fled to Egypt, then Saleh the brother of Abdullah followed him, then they met each other in the village of Busayr and Marwan was killed in it in the month Dhil Hijjah of that year.

    Source: Tarikh ul Khulafa. Pg. # 203.



    The Twelve Imams From The Ahlulbayt (a.s)

    It is fairly obvious that the given interpretations of the narrations regarding the '12 leaders' from the so-called 'Ahl Al-Sunnah' do not fit with the content, since one refutes the other and thus presents a convoluted conclusion. Evidently, no scholar yet has found a certain, fixed interpretation for these twelve individuals.

    However, it is most certainly bizarre that many of them are hasty in rejecting the twelve Imams of the Ahlulbayt (a.s) in which the Shi'a believe in and hold firmly to. This seems rather unreasonable as they themselves confess to their nobility, knowledge and other praiseworthy characteristics. One example is that of Al-Jahiz, who was contemporary to Imam Al-Askari (a.s) and died before him. He quite openly confesses the nobility of the Imams of Ahlulbayt (a.s), even though he is one very fanatic Mu'tazili scholar against the Shi'a. He died in the year 250 A.H. or 255 A.H. which is the year of the birth of Imam Al-Mahdi (ajf).

    Al-Jahiz:

    Who is like the one from Quraysh, who is also counted among Talibiyyun, ten in one manner, each one of them knowledgeable, a hermit worshipper, brave, generous, pure and intelligent? Among them there are Caliphs, and among them there are scholars, one son of the other in one connected lineage till ten generations and they are: Al-Hassan (a.s) son of Alee (a.s) son of Muhammad (a.s) son of Alee (a.s) son of Musa (a.s) son of Ja'far (a.s) son of Muhammad (a.s) son of Alee (a.s) son of Al-Hussain (a.s) son of Alee (a.s). This has not happened in any other family, neither among Arabs nor among non-Arabs.

    Source: Al-Rasa'il Al-Jahiz. Vol. 1, Pg. # 453.


    Attesting Al-Jahiz

    Al-Dhahabi:

    Al-Jahiz: The very skilled Allamah (i.e. very knowledgeable scholar), knowledgeable in many fields, Aboo Uthman Amr ibn Bahr ibn Mahboub Al-Basri Al-Mutazili. He has authored many books. He has narrated from Al-Nadhaam and from Abi Yusuf Al-Qadhi and Thumama ibn Ashras. He was a libertine man and not such a pious man. He has narrated rare narrations.

    He died in the year 250 A.H. or in the year 255 A.H. He has a book called "Al-Hayawan" in 7 volumes, and he has too many other books. He was a scholar of history. Skillful in many fields and he was good in literature and his intelligence was very obvious.

    Source: Tahdheeb Siyar A'lam An-Nubala. Vol. 1, Pg. # 442.



    Al-Dhahabi:

    Al-Muntadhar (the awaited one), the noble, Abul Qasim, Muhammad (ajf) son of Al-Hassan Al-Askari (a.s) son of Alee Al-Hadi (a.s) son of Muhammad Al-Jawad (a.s) son of Alee Al-Razi (a.s) son of Musa Al-Kadhim (a.s) son of Ja'far Al-Sadiq (a.s) son of Muhammad Baqir (a.s) son of Zayn Al-Abideen Alee (a.s) son of Al-Hussain (a.s), the martyr, son of Imam Alee bin Abi Talib (a.s), Al-Alawi, Al-Hussaini.

    The seal of the twelve masters, that the Imamiyyah believe in their infallibility, but there is no infallibility except for the Prophet (saw), and this Muhammad that they claim he is the Successor and the Proof, and that he is the master of the age, and that he is the owner of the cellar in Samarra, and that he is alive and will not die, until he comes out and  fills the earth with justice and fairness, as it was filled with injustice and oppression. We wish it was like that, by Allah (swt) they have been waiting for him for 470 years. If someone addresses you towards someone hidden, he has not been fair with you, let alone that he addresses you to something impossible?! Fairness is good, but we refuge to God from ignorance and passion.

    As for our master Imam Alee (a.s): He was one of the Rightly-Guided Caliphs, who has been promised the paradise, may Allah (swt) be pleased and we love him intensely, but we do not believe that he was infallible, nor we believe in the infallibility of Aboo Bakr Al-Siddiq. 

    As for his two sons; Al-Hassan (a.s) and Al-Hussain (a.s): They are the two grandsons of the Messenger of Allah (saw), and two masters of the youth of paradise. If they had become Caliphs, they were worthy of it.

    As for Zayn Al-Abideen (a.s), he is highly respectable, from the masters of the scholars who used to act upon their knowledge. He was fit for the Imamate, there are others like him, some others have more Fatwa than him and more narrations. 

    As for his son Aboo Ja'far Al-Baqir (a.s), he was a master, Imam, jurist, was worthy of Caliphate. 

    As for his son Ja'far Al-Sadiq (a.s); Highly honorable, from the Imams of knowledge, he was more worthy of leadership than Abi Ja'far Al-Mansoor.

    His son was Musa (a.s); Highly respectable, owner of good knowledge, he was more worthy for Caliphate than Harun, there are others like him in his nobility and virtues.

    As for his son Alee ibn Musa Al-Ridha (a.s); Highly honorable, owner of knowledge and preaching, people liked him, Ma'moun appointed him as his successor for his greatness. He died in the year 203 A.H.

    As for his son, Muhammad Al-Jawad (a.s); He was of the masters of his people, he had not reached the level of forefathers in knowledge and jurisprudence. Like his son nicknamed Al-Hadi, he was a noble and great person

    As his son Al-Hassan ibn Alee Al-Askari (a.s), may Allah Almighty have mercy on them.

    As for this Muhammad ibn Al-Hassan (a.s); Ibn Hazm mentions that Al-Hassan (a.s) died without having any descendants. He says: All Rafidha are certain that  Al-Hassan (a.s) had a son, whom he used to hide.

    It is also said that: He was born after his death, from a bondsmaid with the name: Narjis or Susan, more famous among them as Saqil. She claimed pregnancy after her master, so the verdict on his inheritance was interrupted for seven years, then his brother Ja'far ibn Alee claimed the inheritance against her, then a one group supported her radically and some other supported his brother. Then that pregnancy was dismissed, and invalidated. So Ja'far brother of Al-Hassan (a.s) took the inheritance, and the death of Al-Hassan (a.s) was in the year 260 A.H.

    Then ibn Hazm continues: And the fitna of the Rafidha was increased by Saqil and her claim, until that Al-Mu'tadid imprisoned her after more than twenty years from the death of her master, and put her in his castle until she died in the reign of Al-Muqtadir.

    I say: And they claim that Muhammad (ajf) entered a cellar in the house of his father, while his mother was looking at him, and he has not come out from it till now, he was nine years old in that time, and it is also said less than that age.

    Ibn Khallakan says: And it is said: He rather entered while he was seventeen years old in the year 275 A.H. And it is also said: Rather in the year 265 A.H. and that he is aliveAnd we seek refuge by Allah (swt) from the lack of intellect. Even if we suppose that has actually happened some impossible way, so who has seen him? And who can we rely upon that can say he is alive? And who has narrated the explicit text about his infallibility and that he knows everything? This is clear evil passion. If we accept it with our intellects, it will go astray and become confused. It rather makes every falsehood possible. We seek refuge with Allah (swt) and you from arguing with the impossible and with lying, or the disallowing of the sound truth as is the habit of the Imamiyyah.

    And from those who say that Al-Hassan Al-Askari (a.s) did not have progeny are: Muhammad ibn Jarir Al-Tabari and Yahya ibn Sa'eed, and they are enough for you to rely on  their knowledge and trustworthiness.

    Source: Siyar A'lam Al-Nubala. Vol. 13, Pg. # 119 - 122, Person # 60.


    Al-Dhahabi confesses to the nobility of the Imams of Ahlulbayt (a.s) despite his Nasibi nature, which in itself is the biggest proof for their great position, that even makes their enemies to confess to it. However the last part of what Al-Dhahabi asserts in regards to Imam Al-Mahdi (ajf) is infact slander but in the form of questions. This actually displays his ignorance because he judges before reading the arguments of his opponents. The points raised and hundreds more in regards to Imam Al-Mahdi (ajf) have been answered from an early age by Shi'a scholars, but Al-Dhahabi and his likes have not bothered with these or are simply afraid to read Shi'a books. His mentality in this regard has been reflected in what he says in the biography of Sheikh Al-Mufid.

    Al-Dhahabi:

    Al-Sheikh Al-Mufid

    The scholar of Rafidha, author of many books, Al-Sheikh Al-Mufid, known as ibn Al-Mu'allim. He was skillful in many fields and in debate and theology and in E'tizaal and in literature.

    Ibn Abi Tay has mentioned in Tarikh Al-Imamiyyah, after writing alot about him and amplifying him, he says: He was unique in every field of knowledge: In Qur'aan and Sunnah, in jurisprudence, in narrations, in Rijal, in Tafseer, in Arabic grammar and in poetry.

    He used to debate with every creed with honor during the reign of the Buwaihiyya and he was the owner of a high position among the Caliphs, and he was self-confident, very affectionate, very humble, used to do prayers and fasting alot, used to wear old cloths, used to study alot and learn, and was the best in memorization. It is said that he did not leave any book of the opponents, unless he memorized it, thus he was able to answer the objections of all people and he was the most struggling person in teaching. He has more than two hundred books.

    It is said that he has authored more than two hundred books, but I have not looked into any one of them, thanks to God, he was nicknamed Aba Abdullah.

    Source: Siyar A'lam Al-Nubala. Vol. 17, Pg. # 344 - 345, Person # 213.


    It is no secret that Sheikh Al-Mufid would not leave any book of his opponents unless he memorized it. While on the contrary, we find Al-Dhahabi being proud of his ignorance of not reading any book of his opponent Sheikh Al-Mufid. He then sadly goes further to give thanks to Allah (swt) for it. Thus we find his inappropriate questioning of the existence of Imam Al-Madhi (ajf) even after Shi'a scholars having answered them hundreds of years prior to him. Nevertheless, we may also answer them once again throughout these series Insha'Allah Ta'ala.

    1 comment:

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