Sunday, 15 December 2013

The Oppression Of Sayeda Faatima (s.a) Part VI



 The Concept of Imamah From The Holy Qur'aan



The claim that Imamah is not mentioned in the Holy Qur'aan is as hollow as the claim that the doctrine of Tawheed, and the fine details of Salaah or Hajj are not mentioned. The conceptions clearly exist therein and are supported by supplemental literature which further establish their reality. Infact, it is easier to derive the doctrine of Imamah than the methodology of Salaah or even Hajj. Nevertheless, we shall now present a few verses and solely depend on the book of Allah (swt) alone, without any secondary source to prove that this concept has not been concocted from thin air. 


There are two kinds of Imams which are mentioned out of the entire Holy Qur'aan. One kind is that which has been appointed by Allah (swt) and thus guide according to divine commands. The second kind are those who have declared themselves as Imams and call people to the Fire, they consider their own opinions and orders to supersede those of Allah (swt). They are those whom forge lies against Allah (swt). 


 وَجَعَلْنَـهُمْ أَئِمَّةً يَدْعُونَ إِلَى النَّارِ وَيَوْمَ الْقِيـمَةِ لاَ يُنصَرُونَ وَأَتْبَعْنَـهُم فِى هَذِهِ الدُّنْيَا لَعْنَةً وَيَوْمَ القِيَـمَةِ هُمْ مِّنَ الْمَقْبُوحِينَ 


And we made them Imams who call to the fire, and on the day of resurrection they shall not be assisted. And We made a curse to follow them in this world, and on the Day of Resurrection, they will be among disgraced.
  
Holy Qur'aan {28:41 - 42}
  

 وَجَعَلْنَا مِنْهُمْ أَئِمَّةً يَهْدُونَ بِأَمْرِنَا لَمَّا صَبَرُواْ وَكَانُواْ بِـَايَـتِنَا يُوقِنُونَ
  
And We made from among them Imams guiding by Our command when they were patient and [when] they were certain of Our signs.

Holy Qur'aan {32:23}


اللَّهُ لَطِيفٌ بِعِبَادِهِ يَرْزُقُ مَن يَشَآءُ وَهُوَ الْقَوِىُّ الْعَزِيزُ

Allah is very Gracious and Kind to His servants. He gives provisions to whom He wills. And He is the All-Strong, the Almighty. 

Holy Qur'aan {42:19}


This verse highlights the system of providence. No one has the power to change or remove something forcibly from Allah (swt) or prevent Him (swt) from providing for somebody. Allah (swt) keeps in view their most minute needs which none else can see, and He (swt) fulfills them in such a way that they themselves do not perceive as to which need of theirs has been fulfilled at what time and by whom. This providence is not solely for the believers alone, but to all servants.



اسْتِكْبَاراً فِى الاٌّرْضِ وَمَكْرَ السَّيِّىءِ وَلاَ يَحِيقُ الْمَكْرُ السَّيِّىءُ إِلاَّ بِأَهْلِهِ فَهَلْ يَنظُرُونَ إِلاَّ سُنَّةَ آلاٌّوَّلِينَ فَلَن تَجِدَ لِسُنَّةِ اللَّهِ تَبْدِيلاً وَلَن تَجِدَ لِسُنَّةِ اللَّهِ تَحْوِيلاً
  
These people used to swear on solemn oaths by Allah that if a warner had visited them, they would certainly have been better guided than any other nation in the world. But when a warner did come to them, it increased them in nothing but aversion to the Truth. They began to behave even more haughtily in the land and to plot evil, whereas the plotting of evil recoils only on the plotters themselves. Now, are these people awaiting that they should be dealt with (by Allah) in the like way as the preceding nations were dealt with? Well, you will never find any change in the Way of Allah's Sunnah, nor will you see that a power can turn the Way of Allah from its appointed course.
  
Holy Qur'aan {35:42}


  
Allah (swt) made successors to the previous nations of those who did not learn any lesson from the fate of the wrongdoers and then adopted the same conduct of disbelief. These communities forgot this position of vicegerency and became independent and adopted service of someone else. Allah (swt) sent guides to his previous nations as it would be unjust of Him to leave His community without a guide since it would inevitably lead to misguidance. Allah (swt) dealt with previous nations for a purpose, and this purpose remains unchanged.



وَإِذْ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلَـئِكَةِ إِنِّي جَاعِلٌ فِى الأَرْضِ خَلِيفَةً قَالُواْ أَتَجْعَلُ فِيهَا مَن يُفْسِدُ فِيهَا وَيَسْفِكُ الدِّمَآءَ وَنَحْنُ نُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدِكَ وَنُقَدِّسُ لَكَ قَالَ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ مَا لاَ تَعْلَمُونَ

And (remember) when your Lord said to the angels: "Verily, I am going to place a Khalifah on earth.'' They said: "Will You place therein those who will make mischief therein and shed blood, ـ while we glorify You with praises and thanks and sanctify You.'' He (Allah) said: "I know that which you do not know.' 

Holy Qur'aan {2:30}


The Khalifah in the Holy Qur'aan is quite clearly designated via Sovereign election. There is no room in the Holy Qur'aan for tribal chieftains to designate who their leader will be. The Holy Qur'aan in its Adamic verses is blatantly clear it is Allah (swt) who elects his caliph. In fact, reminiscent of the event of Saqifah, we see the angels themselves showing resistance to Allah's (swt) choice on his viceroy. Does Allah (swt) heed their call? The answer is, no. Allah (swt) chooses whom He wishes, irrespective of whether anyone, angel or human, demands otherwise.


إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَـلِمُ غَيْبِ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ إِنَّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِذَاتِ الصُّدُورِ 
هُوَ الَّذِى جَعَلَكُمْ خَلَـئِفَ فِى الاٌّرْضِ فَمَن كَفَرَ فَعَلَيْهِ كُفْرُهُ وَلاَ يَزِيدُ الْكَـفِرِينَ كُفْرُهُمْ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ إِلاَّ مَقْتاً وَلاَ يَزِيدُ الْكَـفِرِينَ كُفْرُهُمْ إِلاَّ خَسَاراً 


Verily, Allah is the All-Knower of the Unseen of the heavens and the earth. Verily, He is the All-Knower of that is in the breasts. He it is Who has made you successors generations after generations in the earth, so whosoever disbelieves, on him will be his disbelief. And the disbelief of the disbelievers adds nothing but hatred of their Lord. And the disbelief of the disbelievers adds nothing but loss.

 Holy Qur'aan {35:38-39}



Allah (swt) has delegated the Ummah with successors and those who forgot this position of vicegerency and became independent, or adopted service of someone else, apart from his real Master, would see the evil end.


وَقَالَ لَهُمْ نَبِيُّهُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ قَدْ بَعَثَ لَكُمْ طَالُوتَ مَلِكًا قَالُواْ أَنَّى يَكُونُ لَهُ الْمُلْكُ عَلَيْنَا وَنَحْنُ أَحَقُّ بِالْمُلْكِ مِنْهُ وَلَمْ يُؤْتَ سَعَةً مِّنَ الْمَالِ قَالَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ اصْطَفَـهُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَزَادَهُ بَسْطَةً فِي الْعِلْمِ وَالْجِسْمِ وَاللَّهُ يُؤْتِى مُلْكَهُ مَن يَشَآءُ وَاللَّهُ وَسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ 


And their Prophet said to them, "Indeed Allah has appointed Talut (Saul) as a king over you.'' They said, "How can he be a king over us when we are fitter than him for the kingdom, and he has not been given enough wealth.'' He said: "Verily, Allah has chosen him above you and has increased him abundantly in knowledge and stature. And Allah grants His kingdom to whom He wills. And Allah is All-Sufficient for His creatures' needs, All-Knower.'' 
  
Holy Qur'aan {2:247}



Saul (a.s) was appointed to be leader of Israel at the command of Allah (swt), but the Holy Qur'aan or the Traditions do not explicitly tell us whether he was appointed as a Prophet of God. His appointment as king by God does not necessary mean that he was also made a Prophet. But his appointment was by Allah (swt) who  increased him abundantly in knowledge and stature. It is important to point out that if the Sunni view of Saul not being a Prophet is true, then this becomes an example of Allah (swt) appointing non-Prophets as His viceroy as well.

 

وَاجْعَل لِّى وَزِيراً مِّنْ أَهْلِى  هَـرُونَ أَخِى اشْدُدْ بِهِ أَزْرِى وَأَشْرِكْهُ فِى أَمْرِى كَىْ نُسَبِّحَكَ كَثِيراً وَنَذْكُرَكَ كَثِيراً  إِنَّكَ كُنتَ بِنَا بَصِيراً

"And appoint for me a helper from my family. Aarun, my brother. Increase my strength with him And let him share my task that we may glorify You much and remember You much. Verily, You are ever seeing us.'' 



 Holy Qur'aan {20:29-35}


Aaron (a.s) was one of the appointed Prophets whom Allah (swt) bestowed on Musa (a.s). Aaron (a.s) was a follower of Musa (a.s) in all affairs, and Musa (a.s) was his leader. The reason why the word, 'minister' is mentioned in the verse, is because a minister carries out the heavy affairs and duties of their guardian, hence we see the Arabic word 'wazir' (minister). The appointment of a Caliph is not for the Prophets (peace be upon them all) to carry out, rather, this appointment is the responsibility of Allah (swt) alone.



Imamah Al-Ibraheemiyah 


وَإِذِ ابْتَلَى إِبْرَهِيمَ رَبُّهُ بِكَلِمَـتٍ فَأَتَمَّهُنَّ قَالَ إِنِّى جَـعِلُكَ لِلنَّاسِ إِمَامًا قَالَ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِى قَالَ لاَ يَنَالُ عَهْدِي الظَّـلِمِينَ

And (remember) when the Lord of Ibraheem (Abraham) tried him with (certain) commands, which he fulfilled. He (Allah) said (to him), "Verily, I am going to make you an Imam (a leader) for mankind (to follow you).'' (Ibraheem) said, "And of my offspring (to make leaders).'' (Allah) said, "My covenant includes not Zalimin (polytheists and wrongdoers) 

Holy Qur'aan {2:124}

This verse shows that a truth called Imamate indeed exists, and that it has existed not only during the period following the death of the Prophet (saw), but since the beginning of the existence of all Prophet's (a.s), and that it shall continue in Prophet Ibraheem's (a.s) progeny up until the Day of Resurrection. It also highlights Imamah was designated to Ibraheem (a.s) after he fulfilled Allah's (swt) command, and it is a status only bestowed by Allah (swt).

The following points can be deduced from the above verse:

  • Imamate is a very high level and position that Ibraheem (a.s) aquired only after passing some many difficult trials and tests.
  • Allah (swt) is The One Who chooses the Imam.
  • Imamate is the covenant of Allah (swt).
  • Imamate shall continue in Prophet Ibraheem's (a.s) progeny up until the Day of Resurrection.
  • Dhalimeen (wrongdoers) can not become an Imam.

Verse Of Obedience  



وَوَصَّيْنَا الإِنْسَـنَ بِوَالِدَيْهِ حُسْناً وَإِن جَـهَدَاكَ لِتُشْرِكَ بِى مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ فَلاَ تُطِعْهُمَآ إِلَىَّ مَرْجِعُكُمْ فَأُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ

And We have enjoined on man to be dutiful to his parents; but if they strive to make you associate with Me, which you have no knowledge of, then obey them not. Unto Me is your return and I shall tell you what you used to do. 

Holy Qur'aan {29:8}
  
The rights of parents among the creation of Allah (swt) are to be held as supreme, but if the parents force a person to adopt shirk, they should not be obeyed. Parents certainly have rights in that the children should serve them, respect them, and obey them in lawful things. But they do not possess the right that their children should obey them blindly.

If children become aware that their parents are following a false religion, they should abandon it and adopt the correct religion. They should not continue to follow the wrong path when falsehood has become clear to them even if their parents apply all kinds of pressure. This is not only confined to parents but it applies to all others who may be of influence also. 


 فَاصْبِرْ لِحُكْمِ رَبِّكَ وَلاَ تُطِعْ مِنْهُمْ ءَاثِماً أَوْ كَفُوراً

Therefore be patient with constancy to the command of your Lord, and obey neither a sinner nor a disbeliever among them.

Holy Qur'aan {76:24} 


يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ أَطِيعُواْ اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ الرَّسُولَ وَأُوْلِى الاٌّمْرِ مِنْكُمْ فَإِن تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِى شَىْءٍ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَالرَّسُولِ إِن كُنتُمْ تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الاٌّخِرِ ذلِكَ خَيْرٌ وَأَحْسَنُ تَأْوِيلاً

O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger, and those of you who are in authority. If you differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger, if you believe in Allah and in the Last Day. That is better and more suitable for final determination.

Holy Qur'aan {4:59}



In the above verse we have three infallible characters; Allah (swt), the Prophet (saw), and the Ulul-Amr (a.s). The so-called Sunni claim that the latter refers to their (scholars/heads of state) does not match the symmetry of this verse. Because Allah (swt) is infallible, so is His Prophet, and so must be those in authority, which is why they are in authority. To say two are infallible and one is not does not compute. The symmetry of the verse demands all three authorities to be infallible. If the intention was to claim the Ulul-Amr are the fallible scholars, then Allah (swt) could have avoided the confusion by revealing them in a separate verse rather than confining them to a verse that immediately gives one the impression of a 3rd infallible authority. As stated in the previously mentioned verse, Allah (swt) orders mankind to obey parents based on conditions. But here we find there is no mention of what the Ulul-Amr should or should not be obeyed on and so no conditions are put forth which require to be met.


It is understood from the above mentioned verse that the position and rank of Imamah has different meanings including:


  • Imams and Vicegerents are appointed by Allah (swt)
  • The Imams must be obeyed without any conditions 
  • Leadership in the worldly social affairs of people and authority over the religious affairs of people in this world 



Aboo Bakr And Umar ibn Al-Khattab Raise Their Voices Above The Prophet's (saw)
  
Another important chapter of the Holy Qur'aan is Surah Al-Hujurat wherein the importance of whom possesses the authority to select a leader is highlighted. Allah (swt) clears up many matters in this Surah. Now let us read the opening verses of this chapter and come to some sort of conclusion, Insha'Allah Ta'ala.


يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تُقَدِّمُوا بَيْنَ يَدَيِ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ  وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ  إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ

O ye who believe! Be not forward in the presence of Allah and His messenger, and keep your duty to Allah. Lo! Allah is Hearer, Knower.


Holy Qur'aan {49:1}



يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَرْفَعُوا أَصْوَاتَكُمْ فَوْقَ صَوْتِ النَّبِيِّ وَلَا تَجْهَرُوا لَهُ بِالْقَوْلِ كَجَهْرِ بَعْضِكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ أَنْ تَحْبَطَ أَعْمَالُكُمْ وَأَنْتُمْ لَا تَشْعُرُونَ

O ye who believe! Lift not up your voices above the voice of the Prophet, nor shout when speaking to him as ye shout one to another, lest your works be rendered vain while ye perceive not.

Holy Qur'aan {49:2}

  

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَغُضُّونَ أَصْوَاتَهُمْ عِنْدَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ امْتَحَنَ اللَّهُ قُلُوبَهُمْ لِلتَّقْوَىٰ لَهُمْ مَغْفِرَةٌ وَأَجْرٌ عَظِيمٌ

Lo! They who subdue their voices in the presence of the messenger of Allah, those are they whose hearts Allah hath proven unto righteousness. Theirs will be forgiveness and immense reward.

Holy Qur'aan {49:3}


The above Qur'aanic verses can be summarised in to the following points:

  • One must not put themselves forward or ahead of the Prophet (saw), i.e. No decision should be made before the decision of the Prophet (saw).
  • One must not raise their voice above the voice of the Prophet (saw).
  • One who raises their voice above the voice of the Prophet (saw) their deeds become null and void.
  • Those who do not raise their voices above the voice of the Prophet (saw) are true believers whose hearts have been tested for righteousness.

We will now take a closer look at why these initial verses of this Surah were revealed.

Al-Bukhari:

CHAPTER. "O you who believe! Raise not your voices above the voice of the Prophet..." (49:2)

Narrated ibn Abi Mulaika: The two righteous persons were about to be ruined. They were Aboo Bakr and Umar who raised their voices in the presence of the Prophet (saw) when a mission from Bani Tamim came to him. One of the two recommended Al-Aqra bin Habis, the brother of Bani Mujashi (to be their governor) while the other recommended somebody else. (Nafi, the subnarrator said, I do not remember his name). Aboo Bakr said to Umar, "You wanted nothing but to oppose me!" Umar said, "I did not intend to oppose you." Their voices grew loud in that argument, so Allah (swt) revealed: "O you who believe! Raise not your voices above the voice of the Prophet..." (V. 49:2) Ibn Az-Zubayr said, "Since the revelation of this Verse, Umar used to speak in such a low tone that the Prophet (saw) had to ask him to repeat his statements." But Ibn Az-Zubayr did not mention the same about his (maternal) grandfather (i.e. Aboo Bakr).

Source: Saheeh Bukhari. Pg. # 1222, H. # 4845. 

CHAPTER. "Verily! Those who call you from behind the dwellings, most of them have no sense." (49:4)

Narrated ibn Abi Mulaika that Abdullah Ibn Al-Zubayr reported: A group of Bani Tamim came to the Prophet (saw) (and requested him to appoint a governor for them). Aboo Bakr said, "Appoint Al-Qaqa bin Mabad." Umar said, "Appoint Al-Aqra bin Habis." On that Aboo Bakr said (to Umar), "You did not want but to oppose me!" Umar replied, "I did not intend to oppose you!" So both of them argued till their voices grew loud. So the following Verse was revealed: "O you who believe! Do not raise your voices above the voice of the Prophet...a great reward." (49:2-3).

Source: Saheeh Bukhari. Pg. # 1223, H. # 4847.



Al-Tabari:

Narrated to me Alee bin Sahl, who said: Narrated to us Mu'ammal, who said: Narrated to us Nafi bin Umar bin Hameel Al-Jumahi who said: Narrated to me Abi Mulaika, from ibn Al-Zubayr, who said: "There came a group of people to the Prophet (saw), among them was Al-Aqra bin Habis, and Aboo Bakr told the Prophet (saw) to appoint him over his folk. So Umar said: "Do not do that, O Messenger of Allah (saw)!" So they spoke until they raised their voices in front of the Prophet(saw). So Aboo Bakr said to Umar: "You only wanted to oppose me!" He (Umar) said: "I did not want to oppose you!" So the verse was revealed: {"O ye who believe! Be not forward in the presence of Allah and His messenger, and keep your duty to Allah. Lo! Allah is Hearer, Knower. O ye who believe! Do not raise your voices above the voice of the Prophet, and do not speak loud to him as you speak loud to one another, lest your deeds became null while you do not perceive. until the end of the verse 3 "and immense reward." [Surah 49:1-3]. After that, when Umar spoke before the Prophet (saw), his speech could not be heard until the Prophet (saw) told him he could not understand him, due to (Umar) lowering his voice to the Prophet (saw). And ibn Al-Zubayr did not mention his grandfather Aboo Bakr.

Source: Tafsir Al-Tabari. Vol. 21, Pg. # 342.

 

Ibn Asakir:

Aboo Bakr Al-Mazrafi told us, Aboo Al-Hussain bin Al-Muhtadi told us, Isa bin Alee told us, Aboo Al-Qasim Al-Baghawi told us, Dawud bin Amru Al-Dabbi told us, Abd Al-Jabbar bin Al-Ward told us from Ibn Abi Mulaika, who said: When some people of Bani Tamim came to the Messenger of Allah (saw), Aboo Bakr said: "O Messenger of Allah (saw)! Appoint Al Qa'qa' bin Zurarah over them, for he is the master of his people and the best of them!" So Umar said: "O Messenger of Allah (saw)! Appoint Al-Aqra bin Habis over them, for he is the master of his people and the best of them!" So Aboo Bakr said: "By Allah (swt)! You did not want (anything) by this except opposing me!" So he (Umar) said: "I did not want to oppose you, but it is my opinion!" They had a discussion about that until their voices were raised, so Allah (swt) revealed these two verses: {"O you who believe! Be not forward in the presence of Allah and His messenger, and keep your duty to Allah. Lo! Allah is Hearer, Knower. O you who believe! do not raise your voices above the voice of the Prophet (saw), and do not speak loud to him as you speak loud to one another, lest your deeds became null while you do not perceive.  until the end [49:1-3]. They would (thereafter) not say anything to the Prophet (saw) unless he (saw) would repeatedly tell them that he didn't understand what they said. Such has been narrated by Abd Al-Jabar, and it is Mursal. And ibn Juraij and Nafi narrated it from Umar Al-Jumahi from ibn Abi Mulaika from Abdullah bin Al-Zubayr.

Source: Tarikh Madina-Damishq. Vol. 9, Pg. # 190 - 191.
  


As can be seen, Aboo Bakr and Umar put themselves ahead of the Prophet (saw) regarding the matter of selecting a leader for a group of the believers. This occasion clearly shows that the Ummah have no right to put themselves ahead of the Prophet (saw) in merely selecting a leader for a group of believers, so how is it possible that they should select a leader for the entire Ummah?!

What is interesting is that the same two personalities who went ahead of the Prophet (saw) carried out the exact same thing in the Saqifah of Bani Sa'ida and selected a leader for the entire Ummah even though Allah (swt) forbid them to do so. This verse puts an end to the legitimacy of what occured in Saqifah.

The other important thing to note is that verses 49:2 and 3 expose the true colour of Aboo Bakr and Umar whose hearts were not proven to contain eemaan. 

Now let us see what ibn Taymiyyah says:

Ibn Taymiyyah:

The Seventh Proof: Raising ones voice above the Prophets voice (saw). It is feared one who does it that they become disbelievers, for it is proven that such hurting done on purpose is disbelief. 


The Almighty (swt) says, ''O you who believe! Do not raise your voices above the voice of the Prophet (saw), and do not speak loud to him as you speak loud to one another, lest your deeds became null while you do not perceive.''

Points of denotation: Allah (swt) forbade them to raise their voices above his (saw) voice, and forbade them from talking in a high voice to him like they do to each other, for raising voices in talking leads the deeds to get erased without the person realising it. For he forbade to them to talk in a high voice and left the choice for them to avoid nullification of deeds. And this act leads to disbelief, He(swt) says: ''Whoever of you turns back from his religion, then he dies while an unbeliever, for those, their deeds have become worthless in this world and the Hereafter'' {2:217}, and the Almighty says: ''And whoever denies the faith - his work has become worthless'' {5:5}. So if it is proven that a voice is raised above the Prophet's (saw) voice and talked in a high voice, it is feared for him that the person becomes a disbeliever without him knowing. And what is meant by that for him (saw) is glorification, admiration, honouring and having great respect with augustness and praising. But raising voices is considered hurting him, and not respecting him, while the raiser of voice might not mean it. If the hurting and not respecting is done with bad manners without intention of its speaker, it is disbelief, so hurting and not respecting that is done on purpose it is disbelief indeed.

Source: Saarim Al-Maslool. Pg. # 36 - 37.


 


Some may argue that the Qur'aanic verse {49:2} addresses Aboo Bakr and Umar with, "O you who believe," so it proves that both of them were believers. We will now present three responses to the above statement. Firstly, Allah (swt) addresses those who do not believe sincerely in Islam with, "O you who believe" in the following verse:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا آمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَالْكِتَابِ الَّذِي نَزَّلَ عَلَىٰ رَسُولِهِ وَالْكِتَابِ الَّذِي أَنْزَلَ مِنْ قَبْلُ وَمَنْ يَكْفُرْ بِاللَّهِ وَمَلَائِكَتِهِ وَكُتُبِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلَالًا بَعِيدًا

O you who believe! Believe in Allah and His Messenger and the Book which He has revealed to His Messenger and the Book which He revealed before; and whoever disbelieves in Allah and His angels and His messengers and the last day, he indeed strays off into remote error. 
Holy Qur'aan {4:136}

We see that the verse is addressing those in whose hearts have not sincerely accepted Islam in it's entirety. However, Allah (swt) still addresses them with, "O you who believe."

Secondly, it is possible the verse was directed at other Muslims as a warning that they should not follow suit of what Aboo Bakr and Umar did since their deeds became null.

Lastly, Allah (swt) in 49:3 says: "Lo! They who subdue their voices in the presence of the messenger of Allah, those are they whose hearts Allah hath proven true unto righteousness."

This verse shows that sincere eemaan did not exist in the hearts of Aboo Bakr and Umar due to their raising of voices before the Prophet (saw). Some may come back with the defence that the verse was revealed as a warning to Aboo Bakr and Umar, and that if they were to repeat the same mistake, their deeds would perish. Even if we accept this, we can quite easily point out the event of the pen and paper wherein they repeated this similar behaviour. Many are aware that the Prophet (saw) addressed Umar in a harsh manner and expelled him. We also find the two proceeded ahead of the Prophet (saw) in Saqifah by selecting a leader despite not being given the authority to do so. The conclusion of ibn Taymiyyah actually matches Aboo Bakr and Umar completely, which proves they were both disbelievers.


Imamah - A Fundamental Belief In Religion


Let us look at some scholars who have stated leadership is one of the fundamentals of religion and may we add, that the followers of the Ahlulbayt (a.s) are in total agreement with this, although a difference arises in that the Holy Qur'aan directly supports the Shi'ite view of Imamah. We see that the word, 'Caliph' is mentioned a fair number of times and each time it is, it is done so through Divine election. We find that there is no human intervention when an appointed figure is chosen by Allah (swt). This is the real reason that while the so-called 'Ahl ul Sunnah' come up with various contrasting views of leadership, they are not models that stand on Qur'aanic foundations.

Al-Mawardi: 

Imamate is prescribed to succeed prophethood as a means of protecting the deen and managing the affairs of this world. There is a consensus of opinion that a person who discharges the responsibilities of position must take on the contracts of leadership of the Ummah - although Asam, exceptionally differs in this matter. There is a difference of opinion, however, as to its obligation, that is whether it is obligatory for rational reasons or because it is prescribed in the Shari'ah. One group of Fuqaha says that it is obligatory for rational reasons, because of the natural inclination of men of sound mind to submit to the authority of a leader who thereby prevents mutual injustice and who decides between men in cases of disputes and quarrel - for without governance, disorder and barbaric behaviour would arise amongst the wanton and lawless.

Source: Al-Ahkam Al-Sultaniyyah. Chapter 1, Pg. # 10.




Al-Ghazanwai:

[160] Chapter; Muslims must have an Imam whom guarantees their benefits in terms of applying the regulations and ensuring [application] of penalties and preparing their armies and taking their charities and giving it to those who deserve it because if they did not have an Imam then this will lead to the spreading of corruption in the Land.

And his qualifications are; the Imam must be sane, adult, male, just, knowledgeable about Halal and Haram, knowledgeable about the chiefs and the arrangements of wars, capable of being just and setting the Friday prayer and Eids [Islamic feasts] and other matters that people need, because if he did not have these qualifications then he is not adequate and unable therefore this will lead to the apparition of stirs and troubles. 

[161] Chapter; And among the conditions [of Imamate]; [the Imam] must be Qurayshi (from the tribe of Quraysh) because of his (the Prophet (saw)) saying; "Imams are from Quraysh."

And it is better [for the successor] to be Hashemite and being Immaculate or the best among people or a Mujtahid [highly knowledgeable to have independent judgment] about religious principles and branches is not a condition.

[162] Chapter; Imamate is affirmed by the choice of virtuous people and assigned with one man among the fair and Ijtihad (independent judgment) ones. 

And the proof about the affirmation of Imamate is the Prophet's (saw) authorization of choosing the one to hold Imamate to the companions when he said; "If you assign Aboo Bakr then you will find him weak in his personal matters and strong in the matters of Allah (swt)."

And the proof about [the acceptance of] nomination in the issue of Imamate is that the companions did not consider the total consent and arrangement only but they also accepted the nomination. Then they made it obligatory to give allegiance and this is why Aboo Bakr nominated Umar alone then others accepted it and gave allegiance to him.

[163] Chapter; The obedience to Imams is obligatory 

And it is a duty among the duties of religious legislation because if the Imam was not obeyed then this will lead to a defect in the religious system and Dunya [this life] because of the corruption that cannot be controlled and obedience to sultans and princes and governors is obligatory also because of His-the Most High- saying; "Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you; Surah Al-Nisaa; Verse 59" unless they order any wrongdoing then there is no sin for the one who refuses to obey (their orders).


[164]; Chapter; And it is not permissible to revolt against them even if they were unjust and they cannot be removed

From Imamate and governance, even if they were unjust and committed big sins and we do not pray for their destruction if they were unjust, however, we pray for them to become good and just.

[165] Chapter; The companions agreed about the Khilafah of Aboo Bakr using the authorization given by the Prophet  

And they consented about it and by proving his Khilafah [succession] then the Khilafah of Umar, because it is him whom made him governor and successor, and this is how the consensus took place. Then after the death of Umar, the companions may Allah (swt) be pleased with them agreed about the Khilafah of Uthman. And all of those three were Qurayshi. Then after the death of Uthman, the companions agreed about Alee ibn Aboo Talib (a.s) whom Allah (swt) has honoured his face, and he is Qurayshi and Hashemite. Then after the demise of Alee may Allah be pleased with him in certain stuff and all of this did not cause them any defame may Allah (swt) be pleased with them.

Source: Risalah Fi Usool Al-Fiqh. Vol. 3, Pg. # 269 - 287.

 

Ibn Taymiyyah:

It must be known that leading the issues of people is one of the greatest duties of religion; neither the religion nor the dunya [this world] can go straight without it. The Humankind's profit cannot be guaranteed unless they gather because they all need each other, and there must be a chief whenever they gather, and the Prophet peace and prayers of Allah (swt) be upon him has said: "If three among you went in a travel, then assign the role of command to someone [among them]." Aboo Dawood narrated it, from Aboo Sa'eed and from Aboo Hurairah.

Source: Majmu' Al-Fatawa. Vol. 28, Pg. # 390.


Shaaban Muhammad Isma'il:

Unlike the Imamah which is from the roots of religion and any disagreement with it is a heresy.

Source: Al-Anhaaj Fi Sharh Al-Minhaaj. Pg. # 227.
  

Ibn Hajar:

Al-Qurtubi said in Al-Mufhim in brief it is: Fadha'il (merits) is the plural form of Fadhila (merit), and it is a beautiful characteristic that gives honour to the person who has it and raises his rank. It is either before the Creator or the creation, and the second has no meaning if the first one is not there. So if we say a person has virtues/merits it means he has a place before Allah (swt), and this cannot be given to him unless through the Messenger (saw). If it came from him we fully accept it, if it was doubtful (not authentic) we act upon it. If we could not find the narration then it is not impossible if we see that someone who has been helped by Allah (swt) and the means has been made easy for him to reach that level especially when it is mentioned in Shari'a about it. He says: So if we accept this, then it is accepted among Ahl As-Sunnah the superiority of Abi Bakr then Umar, after them there is dispute about who comes next, the majority are in agreement on the superiority of Uthman, Malik hesitates about this. This issue is a matter of Ijtihad and the evidence for it is that these four personalities are chosen by Allah Almighty for the succesorship of His Messenger (saw), and to establish his (saw) religion, and their level to him (saw) is according to their order of Khilafat and Allah (swt) knows best.

Source: Fath Al-Bari Sharh Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Vol. 8, Pg. # 360.




Al-Qurtubi:

The fourth one; This Ayah {Verse 2:30} is a basic proof about assigning an Imam for whom people should listen to and obey, so that the word of the Ummah (nation) would be united and the ruling of the Khalifa [successor of the Prophet (saw)] would be executed, and there is no disagreement about the necessity of this issue [Imamat] among the Ummah (nation) and even among scholars. However, the only disagreement is found in what it has been narrated from the deaf [ibn Kysan and the word deaf is used as an insult] whom has been deaf from hearing Shari'ah [religious dogma] and it is the same for anyone who says something similar to what he said or followed him in terms of his way and opinion, he said: 'It is not mandatory in religion. However, it is found to be pleasant and agreeable and the Ummah [the nation of Muslims] whenever they [the group of people of the Ummah] fulfill their Hajj [pilgrimage] and Jihad [holy war] and they are fair to each other and they gave people's rights at the expense of themselves, and they distributed profits and booties and charities equally among those who deserve it, and they applied punishments for those whom they merit it, then this is enough, and they do not have to assign an Imam to manage all of this.

And our proof is Allah's the most High saying; "I am making a successor [for Me] on the Earth" and His saying; "O Dawood! Verily! We have placed you as a successor on Earth [Land]" [Surah Saad; verse 26] and He said: "Allah has promised those who believed and did the good things to assign them as His successors in the Land." [Al-Nur:55] which means to make them successors of Him.

And the Sahaba [companions] agreed about favouring the veracious [Aboo Bakr] after the disagreement about the assignment of a successor  between Al-muhajireen [emigrants] and Al-Ansar [the supporters] that took place at the Saqeefah [shed] of Banu Sa'ida, so that Al-Ansar said: "A prince [commander] from us and a prince from you!" Then Aboo Bakr and Umar and Al-Muhajireen drove them back from this decision and told them: "The Arabs do not owe but to this part of Quraysh," and they told them the narration about it. Then they turned back from their decision and obeyed Quraysh. Therefore, if the religious obligation about the Imamate was not mandatory neither for Quraysh nor among others, then this conversation and this dispute about Imamate would not have been agreeable and anyone could say, "It is not mandatory neither among Quraysh nor among others." Therefore their disagreement about something that is not mandatory has no reason and no use. Then the veracious, may God be pleased with him, made his agreement about Imamate to be his successor to Umar when he was about to die and no one told him: "This is not mandatory neither for us nor for you." Therefore it marks that it is a must and it is a pillar among the pillars of religion that guarantees the straightness of Muslim issues, and praise be to Allah (swt), the Lord of all worlds.

Source: Al-Jami' Al-Ahkam Al-Qur'aan. Vol. 1, Pg. # 395 - 396.
  



Al-Qurtubi:

ALL the companions were just and friends of Allah (swt) the Most High, and His chosen one among His creatures after the prophets and messengers. This is the view of the Ahl ul Sunnah, which was followed by the majority of the Imams of this Ummah.

Source: Al-Jami' Al-Ahkam Al-Qur'aan. Vol. 19, Pg. # 350.


Ibn Hajar:

And the Messenger of Allah peace and prayers of Allah (swt) be upon him assigned him (Aboo Bakr) as his successor [over his Ummah] after him because of the signs he showed about his love, and the exposure that fulfills the role of declaration and he did not declare it because he was not recommended to do so, and he used not to do anything unless it was by inspiration and the Caliphate is a pillar of the religion's pillars and among the very clear proofs about what we have mentioned is what Sa'eed ibn Nasr and Abdul-Wareth ibn Sufyan told us, they both have said: Asbagh told us, Ahmad ibn Zuhayr told us, Mansoor ibn Salama Al-Khuzai told us and Ahmed ibn Abdullah told us, Al-Maymoon ibn Hamza Al-Hussaini Al-Misar told us and Al-Tahawi told us, Al-Muzni told us, Al-Shafi'i told us, he said: Ibraheem ibn Sa'ad told us, narrating his father, narrating Muhammad ibn Jubayr ibn Ma'tam narrating his father, he said: "A woman came to the Messenger of Allah peace and prayers of Allah (swt) be upon him and asked him about something. Then he ordered her to come back to him then she replied: "O you Messenger of Allah (swt)! What if I came back and I did not find you?" Meaning death. By that, the Messenger of Allah peace and prayers of Allah (swt) be upon him replied: "If you did not find me, then come to Aboo Bakr." And Al-Shafi'i said: "In this narration there is proof that the successor of the Messenger of Allah peace and prayers of Allah (swt) be upon Him is Aboo Bakr."

Source: Al-Isaba Fi Tamyiz Al-Sahaba. Vol. 3, Pg. # 969.


 

Al-Baidawi:

And the Shi'ee claim that the Imamate of Alee (a.s) is based on Nass (explicit text), but it is not mutawatir like for the Iqama [small recitation to establish the prayer before starting it and it is similar to Adhan] and Al-Tasmiya [saying Bismillahi Rahman Rahim at the beginning of the prayer] and the miracles of the Messenger (saw). We say that the first two [Iqama and Bismillah] are from the Furu' e Deen (branches of faith) and one does not apostate and neither is it heresy to disagree with, unlike the Imamate (which is from the Usool i.e. from the roots).

Source: Ala Minhaj Al-Wusool Ila Ilm Al-Usool. Pg. # 75 - 76.

 

Muhammad Aboo Nur Al-Zuhair:

The majority of scholars answered about this; that there is not much dispute about Iqama and Al-Tasmiya in the prayer because these are considered side rules [secondary] and the one who commits any mistake related to these is not a disbeliever neither a heretic unlike the Imamate which is one of the roots of religion (Usool e Deen) and any disagreement with it is innovation and heresy.

Source: Usool Al-Fiqh. Vol. 3, Pg. # 107.


 


Muhammad ibn Hassan:

We have said that the first two are from the branches [of the religion] and there is neither apostasy nor heresy in case of disagreement with them unlike the Imamate. Explanation: It is not apostasy neither heresy in case of any disagreement with both of them [Iqama and Tasmiya] so there is not much reasoning about them. Unlike the Imamate which is from the roots [of religion] and disagreement with it is a heresy.

Source: Sharh Al-Badakhshi Minhaj Al-Uqool. Vol. 2, Pg. # 226.





Adherence Followed By Denial Of Imamate



Al-Qurtubi:

I say: It has been narrated in Sunnah through authentic narrations which their obvious form show that he (i.e. Aboo Bakr) is the successor after him (i.e. after the Prophet (saw)). And there is consensus about that and there remained no one in opposition, and whoever slanders his Caliphate he is condemned for his error and sin, but whether he becomes Kafir or not there is dispute about it, and the correct opinion is that he becomes Kafir.

Source: Al-Jami' Al-Ahkam Al-Qur'aan. Vol. 10, Pg. # 217.


Ibn Hajar Al-Haytami:

It was from this verse that Imam Malik in a report took his view that the Rawafid (i.e. Shi'a) who hate the Sahabah, are Kuffar (infidels). He said: "This is because the Sahaba enrage them, and whosoever is enraged by the Sahaba is a Kafir." Al-Shafi'i agreed with him (i.e. Malik) in his declaring them as Kuffar, and the majority of the Imams agreed with him (i.e. Malik).

Source: Al-Sawa'iq Al-Muhriqa. Pg. # 294.



Al-Qurtubi:

I (Qurtubi) say: Malik was most good in his statement, and was correct in his interpretation (of the verse). Whosoever criticizes any of them (i.e. the companions) or attacks him in his report, he has indeed refuted Allah (swt) the Lord of the Worlds, and has destroyed the Laws of Muslims.

Source: Al-Jami Al-Ahkam Al-Qur'aan. Vol. 19, Pg. # 347.
  


Ibn Hajar Al-Haytami:

In the Madh'hab of Abi Hanifa, whoever denies the Caliphate of Abi Bakr and Umar he is Kafir."

Source: Al-Sawa'iq Al-Muhriqah. Pg. # 359.


Al-Tahawi:

"If someone denies the leadership of Al-Siddique (Aboo Bakr) he is Kafir like the one who denied Al-Isra!"

Source: Hashiat Al-Tahawi ala Al-Maraaqi. Pg. # 198.



Allamah Nidhaam:

"Whoever denies the Imamate (leadership) of Abi Bakr Al-Siddique, he is Kafir and according to some scholars he is an innovator and is not Kafir, but the correct opinion is that he is Kafir and likewise is the one who denies the Caliphate of Umar according to the most correct opinions as also mentioned in Al-Zahiriyya."

Source: Al-Fatawa Al-Hindiyya. Vol. 2, Pg. # 286.




Ibn Al-Humam Al-Hanafi:

"If someone denies the Caliphate of Abi Bakr or Umar, he is Kafir."

Source: Fathul Qadir Li Al-Kamal. Vol. 1, Pg. # 360.



Ibn Najeem Al-Hanafi: 

"And whoever denies the Caliphate of Al-Siddique (i.e. Aboo Bakr), he is Kafir."

Source: Al-Bahr Al-Rahiq Sharh Kanz Al-Daqahiq. Vol. 1, Pg. # 611.



Muhammad Anwar Shah Al-Kashmiri Al-Hindi:

I say: "And the majority say that whoever denies the Caliphate of Sheikhayn (i.e. Aboo Bakr and Umar), he is Kafir."

Source: Ikfaar Al-Mulhideen Fi Dharuriyyat Al-Deen. Pg. # 51.



Salih b. Fawzan:

Whosoever is a hater of the companions is a Kafir (disbeliever).

Source: Al-Ijabat Al-Muhimah. Pg. # 210.


Al-Dhahabi:

The Imam Muhammad ibn Sahl said: I heard ibn Jarir (Al-Tabari) saying: "Whoever says that Aboo Bakr and Umar are not two Imams of guidance, he should be killed."

Source: Tadhkiratul Huffaz. Vol. 2, Pg. # 712.
  



Al-Sam'aani:

The Ummah have consensus on Al-Imamiyyah (i.e. Twelver Shi'ee) being disbelievers, because they believe that companions deviated and they deny their consensus and they attribute to them what is not true about them.

Source: Al-Ansaab. Vol. 3, Pg. # 188.



It is indeed ironic that one of the main objections that our opponents have against the followers of the Ahlulbayt (a.s) is in regards to our belief on Imamate which is a divinely appointed station and a fundamental tenant of our religion (Usool Deen). One needs to question and ask how this position is any different to those who possess a similar belief concerning the Caliphate of Aboo Bakr, Umar and Uthman, who according to some, were chosen by Allah (swt)? 

Such is their opposition to the Shi'a, that they argue, "If Imamate is as important as we say it is, then present an explicit verse on Imamate that confirms this to be the case." In light of the above mentioned opinions, we deem it apt to throw the very same questions back:

"Can you produce an explicit verse from the Holy Qur'aan that Aboo Bakr, Umar and Uthman have been mentioned by name, and rejection to their leadership is tantamount to disbelief?"

If you can not, then on what basis do you believe that denying this Caliphate takes you out of the fold of Islam? If our opponents argue that it is based on Ta'wil (interpretation) of the Holy Qur'aan, we too have the same rights. Whilst we have a plethora of verses wherein the term "Imam" is used from which we derive our belief on Imamate, we find no verse with the name "Aboo Bakr," from which Sunnis derive their belief that the Khilafah of Aboo Bakr was a divine rank whose deniers are heretics and should be killed!


Imam Alee (a.s) Superceded The Companions In Every Virtue


Ibn al-Athir:

Yazid ibn Harun narrated from Fatr from Aboo Al-Tufayl who said, "Some of the companions of the Prophet (saw) said: "There are certain unmatched qualities and ranks of Alee (a.s) that if any of them had been distributed among all creation, it would bring good to all of them." There are lots of reports in this regard in his favour. We are only mentioning a few. If we had mentioned what the companions, such as Umar and others, had asked him, we would have cited a lot!

Source: Usd Al-Ghaba Fi Ma'rifat Al-Sahaba. Vol. 4, Pg. #  110.


The First To Become Muslim

Ibn Abd Al-Barr:

Narrator asked Muhammad bin Kaab as to who was the first Muslim, was it Alee (a.s) or Aboo Bakr? He replied: "SubhanAllah! Alee (a.s) is the first Muslim; people got confused because Alee (a.s) would keep it secret from Aboo Talib whereas Aboo Bakr expressed it."

Source: Al-Isti'ab. Vol. 1, Pg. # 336.


Al-Haythami:

Narrated Aboo Rafi: The first to accept Islam among the male adults was Alee (a.s) and the first to accept Islam from the female adults was Khadijah (s.a).

Footnote: Narration is Saheeh (Authentic) Al-Bazzr recorded it and its narrators are 
narrators of the Saheeh (Bukhari and Muslim).

Source: Majma Al-Zawa'id. Vol. 9, Pg. # 258, H. # 15258.


Ibn Shaybah:

Mu'awiyah ibn Hisham narrated from Qays narrated Salamah b. Kuhayl narrated Aboo Sadiq narrated Alim narrated Salman (r.a) said: "The first of this Ummah who will enter upon its Prophet (on the Day of Resurrection) and the first one of them who embraced Islam is Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s)."

Narration is Saheeh (Authentic).

Source: Musannaf ibn Abi Shaybah. Vol. 11, Pg. # 29, H. # 32648.



Ibn Shaybah:

Mu'awiyah ibn Hisham narrated from Qays narrated Salamah b. Kuhayl narrated Aboo Sadiq narrated Alim narrated Salman (r.a) said: "The first of this Ummah who will enter upon its Prophet (on the Day of Resurrection) and the first one of them who embraced Islam is Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s)."

Al-Haythami: It has been narrated by Al-Tabarani and its narrators are Thiqa (Trustworthy).

Source: Musannaf ibn Abi Shaybah. Vol. 9, Pg. # 86, H. 14599.




The First To Offer Prayers


Al-Nasa'i:

Zaid bin Arqam said: "The first one to offer prayer with Prophet (saw) was Alee bin Abi Talib (a.s)." 

Footnote: The Narration has been graded as Saheeh (Authentic) by Ahmad Mir bin Baloshi and Aboo Ishaq Al-Huwayni.

Source: Al-Khasa'is. Pg. # 30 & 37.



The Inheritor Of The Prophet's (saw) Knowledge

Al-Hakim:
Narrated Aboo Nadhr Muhammad ibn Yusuf Al-Faqih from Uthman ibn Sa'eed Al-Darami from Al-Nufaily from Zuhayr from Aboo Is'haq, and Uthman said: Narrated to us also Alee ibn Hakim Al-Awdi and Amr ibn Awn Al-Wasity both from Shareek ibn Abdullah from Abi Is'haq who said: I asked Qutham ibn Al-Abbas: How is that Alee (a.s) inherited from the Prophet (saw) instead of you? He said: "Because he was the first one of us who joined Him (saw) and the most intense one of us in following him and accompanying him." 
Al-Hakim: This hadeeth's chain is Saheeh, but they (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) have not narrated it.
Al-Dhahabi: It is Saheeh (Authentic).
I heard the high jurist Abal Hassan Muhammad ibn Saleh Al-Hashemi who said: I heard Aba Umar Al-Qadhi who said: I heard Isma'eel ibn Is'haq Al-Qadhi when this statement of Qutham was mentioned to him, so he said: "The heir inherit through their lineage or through guardianship and there is no dispute among the people of knowledge that cousin does not inherit when the uncle is alive, so by this consensus it is revealed that Alee (a.s) inherited the knowledge from the Prophet (saw) and the others were excluded."
Source: Al-Mustadrak Alaa Al-Sahihain. Vol. 3, Pg. # 136, H. # 331 /3633 - 232 / 4634.



Al-Haythami:
Narrated by A'isha: Sayeda Faatimah (s.a) the daughter of Muhammad (saw), told me that the Messenger of Allah (saw), said to her, "Your husband is the most knowledgeable of the believers, and the first of them to accept Islam, and the most clement of them."
Al-Haythami: Ahmad and Al-Ṭabarani recorded it with narrators who have (all) been graded thiqah (trustworthy).
Source: Majma'ul Zawa'id wa Manba' Al-Fawa'id. Vol. 9, Pg. # 147, H. # 14669.



Ibn Kathir:

It has been proven without doubt that Amir ul Momineen Alee (a.s) ascended the platform in Kufa and said, "There is not a verse in the book of Allah (swt) or the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah (swt) except that I can tell you about it."

Source: Tafsir ul-Quraan Al-Adheem. Vol. 13, Pg. # 207.


Al-Khatib Al-Baghdadi:
Narrated Aboo Tufayl, from Imam Alee (a.s) who said: "Ask me, for I swear by Allah (swt) there is not a single thing that you can ask me about the day of Judgement except that I can tell you about it."

Note: Hadeeth is Saheeh (Authentic).

Narrated Aboo Tufayl from Imam Alee (a.s) who said, "Ask me about the book of Allah (swt), for I swear there is not a single verse in it except that I know whether it was revealed during the night or day, whether it was revealed in a plain or on a mountain."

Narrated from Yahya ibn Sa'eed: "There was not even a single man from the companions of the Prophet (saw) who could say, 'Ask me' except Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s)."

Note: (1) Hadeeth is Saheeh (Authentic).
           (2) Hadeeth is Hasan (Reliable).

Source: Al-Faqeeh Wa Al-Mutafqqih. Vol. 2, H. # 1081, Pg. # 351 - 352, H. # 1081 - 1083.




Ahmad ibn Hanbal:

Abdallah narrated us, Uthman ibn Abi Shaybah narrated us, Sufyan narrating Yahya ibn Sa'eed narrated us, he said; he told him narrating Sa'eed, he said: "No one among the companions of the Prophet (saw) used to say, 'Ask Me' but Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s)."

Footnote: Narration is Saheeh (Authentic).

Source: Fada'il Al-Sahaba. Vol. 2, Pg. # 646, H. # 1098.


Ahmad ibn Hanbal:

Narrated Abdullah ibn Muhammad from his grandfather from Hajjaj ibn Muhammad from ibn Juraij from Aboo Harb ibn Abil Aswad from Abil Aswad, and ibn Juraij said: and another narrator from Zadan they both said: Alee (a.s) was asked about himself, so he said: "I narrate by the blessing of my Lord, By Allah (swt) whenever I asked I was answered (by the Prophet (saw)) and whenever I stayed silent, I was taught (by the Prophet (saw)). So the whole knowledge is inside my chest."

Footnote: Its chain is Saheeh (Authentic).

Source: Fada'il Al-Sahaba. Vol. 2, H. # 1099, Pg. # 647.


Ahmad ibn Hanbal:

Narrated Wakee from Shareek from Abi Is'haq from Hubaira who said: Al-Hassan ibn Alee (a.s) gave a sermon for us and said: "Yesterday a man left you that the former generations did not proceed ahead of him in knowledge and the others will not reach him. The Messenger of Allah (saw) used to send him with his standard, Jibra'eel was accompanying him in his right side and Mika'eel in his left side, and he would not come back without victory."

Footnote: its chain is Saheeh (Authentic).

Narrated Wakee from Isra'eel from ibn Is'haq from Amr ibn Hubashi who said: "Yesterday a man left you that the former generations did not proceed ahead of him in knowledge and the others will not reach him. The Messenger of Allah (saw) used to send him and give him his standard, he would not come back without victory and he did not leave behind anything worthy except seven hundred Dirham, that he put aside for a servant of his family."

Footnote: Ahmad Shakir the Hadeeth is Saheeh (Authentic).

Source: Musnad Ahmad. Vol. 2, Pg. # 344, H. # 1719 - 1720, Pg. # 344.




The Most Ascetic
Hakim Al-Nishaburi:
Narrated Qays b. Abi Ḥazim was in Madinah. While I was moving around in the market, oil stones arrived. So, I saw some people crowding around a Persian man who was riding an animal and cursing Alee b. Abi Talib (a.s). People stood round him when Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas turned and stood in front of them and he asked, "What is this?" They replied, "A man cursing Alee b. Abi Talib (a.s)." So, Sa'd moved forward and they made way for him until he stood before him and said, "O you! On what basis do you curse Alee b. Abi Talib (a.s)? Is he not the first to accept Islam? Is he not the first to perform Salaah with the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him? Is he not the most ascetic of mankind? Is he not the most knowledgeable of mankind?" He mentioned (the merits of Alee (a.s)) until he said, "Is he not the son-in-law of the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, who married his daughter? Is he not the flag bearer of the Messenger of Allah (saw) in his battles?" Then he faced the Qiblah and raised his hand and said, "O Allah (swt)! This one curses one of your beloved friends. Therefore, do not let this crowd disperse before you show them Your Power." Qays said: "By Allah, (swt)! We had not dispersed when the animal capsized him and threw him on his head into those stones. So, his brain broke open and he died."

Footnote: Narration is Saheeh (Authentic) according to the rules of the Sheikhayn (Bukhari and Muslim) but they did not record it.

Al-Dhahabi: Narration is Saheeh (Authentic) by the criteria of Bukhari and Muslim.

Source: Al-Mustadrak ala As-Sahihain. Vol. 3, Pg. # 132, H. # 1719 /6121.



The Bravest

Ahmad ibn Hanbal:

Narrated Zaid Al-Hubab from Hussain ibn Al-Waqid from Abdullah ibn Buraida from his father Buraida who said: "When we reached Khaybar Aboo Bakr took the flag and came back and he did not succeed, the next day Umar took the flag and went out and came back and he also did not succeed, on that day the people encountered difficulties so the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: 'Tomorrow I will pass the flag to a man who loves Allah (swt) and his Messenger (saw) and Allah (swt) and his Messenger (saw) love him, he will not come back until he succeeds!' All of us wished to be that man the next day who is going to be victorious. Next morning when the Messenger of Allah (saw) performed the prayer, he stood up and took the flag and the people were standing before him. Then he called Alee (a.s) and Alee (a.s) had an ailment in his eyes on that day, so the Prophet (saw) put his saliva on Alee's (a.s) eyes and gave him the flag, and he succeeded." Buraida said: 'I was one of those who wished to receive the flag.'

Footnote: Shu'aib al-Arnaut 'The narration is Saheeh (Authentic) and this chain is strong because of Hussain ibn Al-Waqid Al-Maruzi, and he is truthful and has no problems, and the rest of its narrators are trustworthy'.

Source: Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Vol. 38, Pg. # 97 - 98.


Al-Muttaqi Al-Hindi:

Narrated Alee (a.s): The Messenger of Allah (saw) went out to Khaybar. When he reached it, he sent Umar and a group of people with him to their town or their castle. They went and fought them, but they could not do anything, and Umar with his companions escaped and came back to the Prophet (saw). His companions were saying that Umar is a coward and he was saying that his companions are cowards and the Messenger of Allah (saw) got annoyed and he said:and the Messenger of Allah(saw) got annoyed and he said: "I will send a man towards them who loves Allah (swt) and his Messenger (saw) and Allah (swt) and his Messenger (saw) love him, he will fight with them until he succeeds and he is not a coward who runs away frequently!" The people raised their necks to see whom the Messenger of Allah (saw) will call. They wished to be that man. The Messenger of Allah (saw) remained silent for a while and then said: "Where is Alee (a.s)?" They said: "He has an illness in his eyes." He (saw) said: "Bring him to me." When I came to him, he opened my eyes and put his saliva on them and passed the flag to me and then I went fast, fearing that maybe the Messenger of Allah (saw) changed his decision, when I reached their castle and fought them. Then Al-Marhab invited me, singing epic verses and I went to him singing epic verses like people do, until we met and Allah (swt) killed him with my hands and his companions ran away and closed the door of their castle behind themselves, we went to the door and I did not stop trying to break it until Allah (swt) opened it.

Footnote: Al-Muttaqi Al-Hindi, "This narration is narrated by ibn Abi Shayba and Al-Bazzar, and its chain is Hasan (Reliable)."

Source: Kanz-ul-Ummal. Vol. 10, Pg. # 462, H. # 30119.

Narrated Abdulrahman ibn Abi Laili: I said to Alee (a.s), "You used to wear a cloak and thick clothes in the extreme hot days and wearing two thin cloths in the extreme cold days and came out and do not fear the cold weather." Alee (a.s) said to me: "Were you not with us on the day of Khaybar O Aba Laili?" I said: "Yes, by Allah (swt) I was with you!" He (a.s) said: "The Messenger of Allah (saw) sent Aboo Bakr with people, they ran away and returned to him (saw), then the Messenger of Allah (saw) sent Umar with people and he also ran away and came back with people to the Messenger of Allah (saw), then the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: 'I will give the flag to a man who loves Allah (swt) and his Messenger (saw) and Allah (swt) and his Messenger (saw) love him, he will be victorious, he is not a coward who runs away frequently!' Then he sent someone to me and called me, and I went to him (saw) and I had an illness in my eyes that I could not see anything. He put his saliva on my eyes and said: 'O my God, suffice him from the heat and coldness, after that I have never suffered from heat and coldness.'"

Footnote: Al-Muttaqi Al-Hindi: 'This narration is narrated by ibn Abi Shayba, Ahmad in his Musnad, ibn Majah, Al-Bazzar, ibn Jarir and he has Authenticated this Hadeeth, and Al-Tabarani in Al-Awsat, Al-Hakim, Bayhaqi in Al-Dalahil and Dhia Al-Maqdesi in Al-Mukhtara.

Source: Kanz-ul-Ummal. Vol. 13, Pg. # 120-122, H. # 36388.




The Most Beloved To Allah (swt)

Hakim Al-Nishaburi:

My father told us, Yahya ibn Hassan told us, narrating Sulaiman ibn Bilal, narrating Yahya ibn Saeed, narrating Anas ibn Malik, he said, "I used to serve the Messenger of Allah peace and prayers of Allah be upon him, and the Messenger of Allah peace and prayers of Allah be upon him was served a roasted bird. Then he (saw) said, 'Oh Allah (swt), bring me the one whom you love the most among all your creatures to eat with me this bird.' Then I said, 'Oh Allah (swt), let him be a man from Al-Ansaar (the supporters).' Then Alee may Allah be pleased with him came, then I (Anas) said, 'The Messenger of Allah is busy (with something).' Then (he came) again and I said, 'The Messenger of Allah peace and prayers of Allah be upon him is busy.' Then he came (third time) and the Messenger of Allah (saw) said, 'Open! (to let him in).' Then he (Alee (a.s)) came in. Then the Messenger of Allah peace and prayers of Allah be upon him said, 'What was holding you from coming to me?' Then he (Alee (a.s)) replied, 'This is the third time Anas holds me back, claiming that you busy doing something?' Then he (saw) said, 'What made you do what you did?' Then I (Anas) said, 'O Messenger of Allah (saw)! I had heard your  supplication and I liked it to be one of my folk.' Then the Messenger of Allah (saw) said, 'The man might love his folk (his own tribe).'" 

Footnote: This is an authentic narration based on the condition of the two Sheikh's i.e. Bukhari and Muslim and they did not narrate it. And it has been narrated with reference to Anas by a group of his companions that count more than thirty people then the narration was judged correct narrated by Alee (a.s) and Aboo Sa'eed Al-Khudri and Safina and in the narration of Thabit Al-Banani narrating Anas there are more terms added.

The narration as the trustworthy and reliable Al-Ma'moon Aboo Al-Qasim Al-Hassan ibn Muhammad ibn Al-Hussain ibn Ismail ibn Muhammad ibn Al-Fadhl ibn Alya ibn Khalid Al-Sukuni told us at Kufa from his original book, Ubaid ibn Kathir Al' Amery told us, Abdur Rahman ibn Dubiys told us and Aboo Al-Qasim told us, Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Sulaiman Al-Hadramy told us, Abdullah ibn Umar ibn Abban ibn Saleh both of them said, Ibraheem ibn Thabit Al-Basri Al-Qassar told us, Thabit Al-Banani told us; Anas ibn Malik was little sick and Muhammad ibn Al-Hajjaj came to visit him with some of his companions, and there was a talk till they talked about Alee (a.s) and Muhammad ibn Al-Hajjaj degraded him. Then Anas said, "Whom is the one talking?" (Anas said) "Let me sit." Then they made him sit and he said, "O son of Al-Hajjaj, I see that you are degrading Alee ibn Aboo Talib (a.s)? And by the One who sent Muhammad (saw) with the truth, I say that I was the servant of the Messenger of Allah (saw) and there was another guy from the sons of Al-Ansar [supporters] who used to serve him also, and there was a day when it was my due. Then Umm Ayman, the servant of the Messenger of Allah (saw) came with a bird and served it for the Messenger of Allah (saw) then he said, 'Oh Umm Ayman, what is this bird?' She replied: 'This is a bird I got and I made it for you.' Then the Messenger of Allah (saw) said, 'O Allah (swt)! Bring me the most loved by You and me among Your creation to eat this bird with me.' Then the door was knocked and the Messenger of Allah (saw) said, 'O Anas! Check whom is at the door.' Then I [Anas] said, 'O Allah (swt)! Let him be someone among Al-Ansaar [supporters].' Then I went and I found Alee (a.s) at the door and I said, 'The Messenger of Allah (saw) is busy.' Then I came till I reached where I was sitting, then the door knocked again and he (saw) said: 'O Anas! Go and check whom is at the door.' And I said, 'O Allah (swt)! Let him be someone from Al-Ansaar.' Then I went and I found that Alee (a.s) was at the door and I said, 'The Messenger of Allah (saw) is busy.' Then I came where I left (was sitting before and took my place) and the door knocked again and the Messenger of Allah (saw) said, "O Anas! Go and let him in, and you are not the first one to be fanatic for his own folk, and he is not from Al-Ansaar.' Then I went, and I let him (a.s) in, and the Messenger of Allah (saw) said, 'O Anas! Bring the bird for him [Alee (a.s)].' He said, 'I put the bird in front of the Messenger of Allah (saw) and they ate from it.' Muhammad ibn Al-Hajjaj said, 'O Anas! This happened in your presence?' He said, 'Yes!' Then he replied, 'I give oath to Allah (swt), that I will never degrade Alee (a.s) after this, and if I knew anyone who does it, then I would shock his face.'"

Source: Al-Mustadrak Ala Sahihayn. Vol. 3, Pg. # 141 - 143, H. # 4650 - 4651.




Most Beloved To The Prophet Muhammad (saw)

Ahmad ibn Hanbal:

AbdAllah ibn Ahmad narrated from his father Ahmad ibn Ḥanbal narrated Yahya ibn Sa’'d  Abd Al-Jalil narrated Abd Allah ibn Buraydah from his father Buraydah who said: I hated Alee (a.s) with a hatred that I never hated anyone else.... And he (the Prophet (saw)) said (to me), "Do you hate Alee (a.s)?" I said, "Yes." He said, "Do not hate him, and if you love him, then increase your love for him"....Therefore, after the statement, the Messenger of Allah (saw) said "There was no person among all mankind who was more beloved to me than Alee (a.s)."

Footnote: Shuaib Al-Arna'ut the Hadeeth is Saheeh (Authentic). 

Source: Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Vol. 38, Pg. # 65 - 66, H. # 22967.



The Best Judge

Al-Bukhari:

Narrated ibn Abbas: Umar said, "Our best Qur'aan reciter is Ubai and our best judge is Alee (a.s); and in spite of this, we leave some of the statements of Ubai because Ubai says, 'I do not leave anything that I have heard from Allah's Messenger (saw) while Allah (swt) says: "Whatever verse (Revelations) do We abrogate or cause to be forgotten but We bring a better one or similar to it." {2.106}

Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. # 1098, H. # 4481.




The Master Of Every Believer And Ahlulbayt (a.s)

Ibn Abi Hasem:

The Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "Alee (a.s) is from me and I am from Alee  (a.s) and he is the Master of every believer after me."

Footnote: Saheeh (Authentic) by the condition of Muslim.

The Messenger of Allah (saw) said to Alee (a.s) : "Your position to me is like the position of Haroon (a.s) was to Musa (a.s), except that you are not a Prophet, and you are my successor among every believer after me."

Footnote: It is Hasan (Reliable).

Source: Al-Sunan. Vol. 2, Pg. # 799 - 800.




Al-Haythami:

Narrated Ibn Abbas: Alee would to say during the lifetime of Holy Prophet (saw) Allah (swt) says “If he (Muhammad) dies or is killed, will you turn on your heels?”. By Allah, we will never turn on our heels after Allah (swt) has guided us. If he dies or is killed, I will fight for what he fought for until I die. By Allah (swt) I am his brother, successor (Wali), cousin and heir (warith). And who is more entitled to him than me?’

Footnote: Al-Haythami states Tabarani has recorded it and its narrators are Saheeh (Authentic).

Source: Majma Al-Zawa'id. Vol. 9, Pg. # 183, H. # 14765.


Ibn Hajar:

Narrated Is'haq from Aboo Amir Al-Aq'di from Kathir ibn Zayd from Muhammad ibn Umar from his father from Alee (a.s): The Messenger of Allah (saw) stopped under a tree in Khum then took Alee's (a.s) hand and said: "Are you witnessing that Allah Almighty and High is your Lord?" The people said: "Yes!" Then he said: "Are you witnessing that Allah (swt) and His Messenger (saw) have more authority over you than yourselves and they are you master?" They said: "Yes!" Then he said: "So to everyone whose master is Allah (swt) and His Messenger (saw) then Alee (a.s) is the master, and I have left behind two things for you, if you hold to these two you will not go astray. They are the Book of Allah (swt) which has two sides, one is in my hand and the other side is in your hands, and my Ahlulbayt (a.s)."

Ibn Hajar: This narration is Saheeh (Authentic).

Source: Al-Matalib Al-Aliya bi Zawa'id Al-Masanid Al-Thamaniya. Vol. 14, Pg. # 142. H. # 3943.



The Nafs (Self) Of Prophet Muhammad (saw)

Al-Hakim:

Narrated Alee ibn Abdul Rahman ibn Isa Al-Dehqan in Kufa from Al-Hussain ibn Al-Hakam Al-Hebri from Al-Hassan ibn Al-Hussain Al-Ghorni from Habban ibn Alee Al-Anazi from Al-Kalbi from Abi Saleh from ibn Abbas about the saying of the Almighty: "Say (to them), 'Come, let us call our sons and your sons, our women and your women, ourselves and yourselves...till the end of the the verse 'the liars.' It was revealed upon the Messenger of Allah (saw) and Imam Alee (a.s) as his soul (ourselves) and 'our women and your women' is about Bibi Faatima (s.a) and 'our sons and your sons' is about Al-Hassan (a.s) and Al-Hussain (a.s) and the invoke of the curse in about Al-Aqib and Al-Sa'eed and Abdulmasih and their fellows.'"

Footnote: Al-Hakim said: The narrations are frequent from Abdullah ibn Abbas and the others in the books of Tafsir that the Messenger of Allah (saw) took the hands of Imam Alee (a.s), Al-Hassan (a.s) and Al-Hussain (a.s) and Bibi Faatimah (s.a) was behind them on the day of 'Al-Mubahila' (mutual prayer) and he (saw) said: "These are our sons and ourselves and our women, bring yourselves and your sons and your women and then we invoke the curse of Allah (swt) upon the liars."

Source: Ma'rifatul Uloom Al-Hadeeth. Pg. # 50.


The Most Superior In Madinah

Ahmad ibn Hanbal:

Narrated Abdullah from his father from Muhammad ibn Ja'far from Shu'ba from Abi Is'haq from Abdul Rahman ibn Yazid from Al-Qama from Abdullah who said: "We used to say that the most superior among the people of Madinah is Alee Ibn Abi Talib (a.s)."

Footnote: Its chain is Saheeh (Authentic).

Source: Fada'il Al-Sahaba. Vol. 2, H. # 1033, Pg. # 604. 



Narrated Abdullah, he said: narrated my grandfather from Aboo Qatan from Shu'ba from Abi Is'haq from Abdullah ibn Yazid from Al-Qama from Abdullah ibn Masoud said: "We used to say that the most superior among the people of Madina is Ale Ibn Abi Talib(a.s)."

Footnote: Its chain is Saheeh (Authentic).

Source: Fada'il Al-Sahaba. Vol. 2, H. # 1097, Pg. # 646.



The Ummah Will Betray Imam Alee (a.s)

The entire rationale behind having an Imam is deriving benefit from a leader that will act as the leading authority on matters of Shari'ah. The Imam thus becomes a focal point of guidance. Through his leadership, followers have placed their well being in a capable pair of hands, who will protect them from falling into error. Now, with this in mind, we would invite our dear readers to ponder over the traditions mentioned above regarding the qualities of Imam Alee (a.s).  


اهْدِنَا الصِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلاَ الضَّآلِّينَ

 Guide us to the straight path. The way of those on whom You have granted Your grace, not (the way) of those who earned Your anger, nor of those who went astray.

Holy Qur'aan {1:6-7}

Every believer who prays five times a day makes this supplication at least 17 times that we follow the path of those whom have been favoured. Through them, one adheres to the right path. Do these Hadeeth not evidence that Imam Alee (a.s) was most worthy of Caliphate whose path that Allah (swt) wants us to adhere to? Prophet Muhammad (saw) foretold that the Ummah would betray Imam Alee (a.s) despite his rank as an Imam of Guidance. It becomes apparent that one can correctly deduce that the antics that took place at Saqifah Bani Sa'ida was the launch pad of the betrayal, a meeting wherein the official endorsement of Alee (a.s) as Caliph at Ghadeer was set aside by those yearning for power, and with it a chain of events took place that ensured that the betrayal of Alee (a.s) started on that day and would continue up until his assassination.


Al-Hakim:

Narrated Ahmad ibn Sahl Al-Faqih Al-Bukhari from Sahl ibn Al-Mutawakkil from Ahmad ibn Yunus from Muhammad ibn Fudhail from Abi Hayyan Al-Timi from Sa'eed ibn Jubayr from ibn Abbas who said: The Prophet (saw) told Alee (a.s) that: "You will face troubles after me." Alee (a.s) said: "Will this occur with safety of my religion?" Prophet (saw) said: "Yes, your religion will be safe!"

Al-Hakim: Narration is Saheeh (Authentic) by the criteria of the Sheikhayn (Bukhari and Muslim), but they have not narrated it. 


Al-Dhahabi: Narration is Saheeh (Authentic) by the criteria of Bukhari and Muslim but they did not narrate it.

Source: Al-Mustadrak Alaa Al-Sahihain. Vol. 3, Pg. # 151, H. # 275 /4677.




Al-Hakim:

Aboo Hafs Umar ibn Ahmad Al-Jamhi has told us in Makkah, Alee ibn Abd Al-Aziz has told us, Amru ibn Awn has told us, Hashim told us from Ismail ibn Salim from Abi Idris Al-Wa'edi from Alee (a.s) that he said from what the Prophet (saw) promised me is that, "The Ummah will betray me after him."

Al-Hakim: Narration is Saheeh (Authentic) by the criteria of the Sheikhayn (Bukhari and Muslim), but they have not narrated it.

Al-Dhahabi: Narration is Saheeh (Authentic) by the criteria of Bukhari and Muslim but they did not narrate it.

Source: Al-Mustadrak Alaa Al-Sahihain. Vol. 3, Pg. # 150, H. # 274 /4676.


Al-Hakim:

And from Ayyan Al-Asadi who said: I heard Alee (a.s) saying: "The Messenger of Allah (saw) said to me: 'The Ummah will betray you soon after me, and you will live according to my religion, and die according to my Sunnah. The one who loves you loves me too. And the one who angers you angers me."

Al-Hakim: Narration is Saheeh (Authentic) by the criteria of the Sheikhayn (Bukhari and Muslim), but they have not narrated it.

Al-Dhahabi: Narration is Saheeh (Authentic) by the criteria of Bukhari and Muslim but they did not narrate it.

Source: Al-Mustadrak Alaa Al-Sahihain. Vol. 3, Pg. # 153, H. 284 /4686.


Prophet (saw) commanded the whole of the Ummah, including the Sahaba and the Tabi'een to follow the Ahlulbayt (a.s). If we obey them (apart from also holding fast to or following them), we have obeyed the command of the Prophet (saw) and likewise, if we were to disobey them, we have disobeyed the command of the Prophet (saw). Thus, the whole Ummah have two obligations towards Imam Alee (a.s) and his offspring which are the following:


  • To obey the Ahlulbayt (a.s) which means obeying the Prophet (saw), since they are his command.
  • Follow them along with the Holy Qur'aan to attain true guidance and salvation.




Seeking Profit In The Dunya, And Forsaking Profit In The Akhirah




وَلَقَدْ صَدَقَكُمُ اللَّهُ وَعْدَهُ إِذْ تَحُسُّونَهُم بِإِذْنِهِ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا فَشِلْتُمْ وَتَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي الْأَمْرِ وَعَصَيْتُم مِّن بَعْدِ مَا أَرَاكُم مَّا تُحِبُّونَ  مِنكُم مَّن يُرِيدُ الدُّنْيَا وَمِنكُم مَّن يُرِيدُ الْآخِرَةَ 

And Allah did indeed fulfill His Promise to you when you were killing them with His Permission, until you lost your courage and fell to disputing about the order, and disobeyed after He showed you that which you love. Among you are some that desire this world and some that desire the Hereafter.

Holy Qur'aan {3:152}


It is clear from the Holy Qur'aan and the Prophet (saw) hadeeth that some of the companions desired this world, and not the Hereafter. 
  
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مَا لَكُمْ إِذَا قِيلَ لَكُمُ انفِرُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ اثَّاقَلْتُمْ إِلَى الْأَرْضِ ۚ أَرَضِيتُم بِالْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا مِنَ الْآخِرَةِ ۚ فَمَا مَتَاعُ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا فِي الْآخِرَةِ إِلَّا قَلِيلٌ



O you who believe! What is the matter with you, that when you are asked to march forth in the Cause of Allah (i.e. Jihad) you cling heavily to the earth? Are you pleased with the life of this world rather than the Hereafter? But little is the enjoyment of the life of this world as compared to the Hereafter.  


Holy Qur'aan {9:38}


Al-Albani:

Narrated Amr b. Awf Al-Ansari: The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, sent Aboo Ubaydah b. Al-Jarrah, may Allah (swt) be pleased with him, to Bahrain to bring their Jizyah. He returned with properties from Bahrain, and the Ansar heard about the arrival of Aboo Ubaydah. So, they performed the Fajr Salaah with the Messenger of Allah (swt), peace be upon him. When the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, left (the mosque), they followed him. As a result, the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him smiled when he saw them, and said, "I think you have heard that Aboo Ubaydah returned with something from Bahrain." They said, "You are correct, O Messenger of Allah (saw)." He said, "Go and take whatever is sufficient for you. By Allah (swt)! I do not fear poverty about you. Rather, I fear that the world will become spread out to you as it became spread out unto those before you. As a result, you will compete with one another over it as those before you did, and therefore perish as they perished." 


Footnote: Narration is Saheeh (Authentic). 


Narrated Awf b. Malik, may Allah (swt) be pleased with him: The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, stood among his companions, and said, "You fear poverty or the world worries you. Verily, Allah (swt) will conquer Iran and Turkey for you, and will thereby open the world (i.e. worldly riches) for you completely to such an extent that nothing will deviate you from the right path after you must have deviated except it (i.e. the world)."  

Footnote: Narration is Saheeh (Authentic). 

Source: Saheeh Al-Targhib wa Al-Tarhib. Vol. 3, H. # 3255 / 3257, Pg. # 268 - 269.
  

Our noble Prophet (saw), seeing their antecedents, feared what they may do for riches after his death, how far would they go in their greed especially with the Islamic Empire in their hands? He was afraid that these companions would compete with one another over the new found riches from the newly conquered territories. 

Al-Albani:

The Prophet (saw) said "I am your predecessor before you, and I am a witness over you, and your promised place to meet me will be the Lake-Font. By Allah (swt)! I am now looking at my Lake-Font. Verily, I have been given the keys of the treasures of the world. By Allah (swt)! I am not afraid that you will worship others besides Allah (swt) after me. But, I am afraid that you will compete with one another over the world."

Footnote: Narration is Saheeh (Authentic). 

Source: Saheeh wa Da'eef Al-Jami Al-Saghir wa Ziyadatuh. Vol. 3, Pg. # 482, H. # 2456.


The Messenger of Allah (saw) finally predicted that riches would destroy his companions.

Al-Albani:

Ibn Mas'ood, may Allah be pleased with him, narrated that he was giving gifts to people, and a man came to him and he (ibn Mas'ood) gave him (the man) 1000 dirhams, and then said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, saying: "Nothing destroyed those before you but Dinar and Dirham (i.e. riches). Both will destroy you too!"

Al-Albani: It is Saheeh (Authentic) by other narrations.

Al-Bazzar: Has narrated it with a Jayyid (Good) chain.

Source: Saheeh Al-Targhib wa Al-Tarhib. Vol. 3, Pg. # 270, H. # 3258.





The Prophet (saw) also predicted that his companions would lust after power while addressing them.

Al-Albani:

The Prophet (saw) said, "You will lust after power, and it will be regret [and sorrow] on the Day of Qiyamah."

Source: Al-Silsilah Al-Ahadeeth Al-Sahihah. Vol. 6, Pg. # 70, H. # 2530.




تَرَاهُمْ رُكَّعًا سُجَّدًا يَبْتَغُونَ فَضْلًا مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَرِضْوَانًا سِيمَاهُمْ فِي وُجُوهِهِم مِّنْ أَثَرِ السُّجُودِ ذَٰلِكَ مَثَلُهُمْ فِي التَّوْرَاةِ وَمَثَلُهُمْ فِي الْإِنجِيلِ كَزَرْعٍ أَخْرَجَ شَطْأَهُ فَآزَرَهُ فَاسْتَغْلَظَ فَاسْتَوَىٰ عَلَىٰ سُوقِهِ يُعْجِبُ الزُّرَّاعَ لِيَغِيظَ بِهِمُ الْكُفَّار

You see them bowing and falling down prostrate, seeking Bounty from Allah and Pleasure. The mark of them is on their faces from the traces of prostration. This is their description in the Tawrah. But their description in the Injil is like a seed which sends forth its shoot, then makes it strong, it then becomes thick, and it stands straight on its stem, delighting the sowers that He may enrage the disbelievers with them.

Holy Qur'aan {48:29} 

But in all honesty, were all the companions as such? The Book of Allah (swt) seems to clearly disagree! Allah (swt) revealed an entire surah in the Holy Qur'aan to explain this reality;



وَإِذَا رَأَوْا تِجَارَةً أَوْ لَهْوًا انْفَضُّوا إِلَيْهَا وَتَرَكُوكَ قَائِمًا قُلْ مَا عِنْدَ اللَّهِ خَيْرٌ مِنَ اللَّهْوِ وَمِنَ التِّجَارَةِ وَاللَّهُ خَيْرُ الرَّازِقِينَ

And when they saw some merchandise or some amusement they dispersed headlong to it, and left you standing. Say: "That which Allah has is better than any amusement or merchandise! And Allah is the Best of providers

Holy Qur'aan {62:11}

Ibn Kathir:

Allah criticizes what happened during one Friday sermon, when a caravan arrived at Al-Madinah and the people rushed out to the merchandise. Allah said,


{And when they saw some merchandise or some amusement, they dispersed headlong to it, and left you standing.}

Meaning, on the pulpit, delivering the sermon. Several of the Tabi'in said this, such as Aboo Al-Aliyah, Al-Hasan (Al-Basri), Zayd b. Aslam and Qatadah. Muqatil b. Hayy an said: "The caravan belonged to Dihyah b. Khalifah before he became a Muslim, and there were drums accompanying it. So they rushed to the caravan and left Allah's Messenger standing on the pulpit. Only a few remained, according to the Saheeh hadeeth that Imam Ahmad recorded that Jabir said, "Once, a caravan arrived at Al-Madinah while Allah's Messenger was giving a sermon. So the people left, and only twelve men remained. Then Allah (swt) sent down this verse, (And when they saw some merchandise or some amusement, they dispersed headlong to it)." The two Saheeh's (Bukhari and Muslim) also recorded it in the hadeeth of Salim.

Source: Tafsir Al-Qu'raan Al-Adheem. Vol. 8, Pg. # 123 - 124.



Al-Bukhari:

Narrated Jabir b. Abdullah: While we were offering Salaah with the Prophet (saw), some camels loaded with food arrived. The people diverted their attention towards the camels, and only twelve persons remained with the Prophet, peace be upon him. So this verse was revealed: {And when they saw some merchandise or some amusement they dispersed headlong to it, and left you standing}

Source: Saheeh Bukhari. Pg. # 226, H. # 936.





Is it not shocking?! The companions were probably hundreds, if not thousands, including the most senior of them, being led by the Messenger of Allah, in (Jumu'ah) Salaah. Yet, they broke their Salaah and rushed out for amusement and merchandise! Even if we agree, arguendo, that the Prophet (saw) was still only delivering the sermon for the Jumu'ah prayer, that still does not help those companions. It was the Messenger of Allah (saw) who was delivering the sermon! These people actually showed a complete lack of respect for Allah (swt), His Messenger (saw) and the Salaah itself. They bared their preference of amusement and merchandise over worship of Allah (swt). For whosoever cares to defend them, can YOU do what they did? If the Prophet (saw) were giving a Jumu'ah sermon in your presence or you were being led by him in Salaah, would you rush out to join amusement and merchandise outside if indeed you have any real eemaan? In case anyone is still in doubt about those people, Allah (swt) says:


إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ الَّذِينَ إِذَا ذُكِرَ اللَّهُ وَجِلَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَإِذَا تُلِيَتْ عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتُهُ زَادَتْهُمْ إِيمَانًا وَعَلَىٰ رَبِّهِمْ يَتَوَكَّلُونَ

The believers are ONLY those who, when Allah is mentioned, feel a fear in their hearts and when His Verses are recited unto them, they increase their eemaan; and they put their trust in their Lord.

Holy Qur'aan {8:2} 

We ask: Those Sahabah who fled the mosque, were they hearing the Name and Word of Allah (swt) or not? There is no doubt that our noble Prophet (saw) was mentioning Allah (swt) and His verses to those companions. But what effect did this have on them? IF indeed they were true believers, they would have felt a fear in their hearts, and their eemaan would have increased upon listening to the verses of our Lord. Did that happen? It is fairly obvious that they felt absolutely no fear for Allah (swt) in their hearts, and their emaan did not increase which totally proves their hypocrisy. Our Lord has made it clear in that whosoever does not respond in these two ways upon mention of the verses of Allah (swt) is NOT a believer. It seems those people only offered Salaah reluctantly so that those who believed would not accuse them of not worshipping Allah (swt). There can be no other explanation. If they had come to the mosque with real emaan, believing that Allah (swt) indeed deserves to be worshipped, and feeling awe before Him, they would not have jumped out of the mosque to join an amusement and caravan! Their act was nothing but that of hypocrites.



إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ يُخَادِعُونَ اللَّهَ وَهُوَ خَادِعُهُمْ وَإِذَا قَامُوا إِلَى الصَّلَاةِ قَامُوا كُسَالَىٰ يُرَاءُونَ النَّاسَ وَلَا يَذْكُرُونَ اللَّهَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا

Verily, the hypocrites seek to deceive Allah, but it is He Who deceives them. And when they stand up for Salaah, they stand with laziness and to be seen of men, and they do not remember Allah but little.

Holy Qur'aan {4:142}

It is only hypocrites who perform Salaah with no true emaan, and in this case is nothing but a play-act which got to the extent of rushing out during the middle of a sermon or Salaah for enjoyment or trade! The incident casts a horrible shadow over the claim that the companions are the best of this Ummah! How can that truly be? How can people with no respect for Allah (swt) and His Messenger (saw), or for Salaah be considered to be the "best?" If indeed that was true, then surely, we are all doomed! Did these people really have any eemaan? Can anyone with true eemaan ever do what they did? One thing is most definitely certain, that later during the Caliphate of Umar it cannot be said that he joined the ascetic life like that of the Prophet (saw). He lived lucratively, or as the modern phrase goes, his heirs had "money to burn."

Al-Bukhari:

Narrated Jabir b. Abdullah: While we were offering Salaah with the Prophet (saw), some camels loaded with food arrived. The people diverted their attention towards the camels, and only twelve persons remained with the Prophet, peace be upon him. So this verse was revealed: {And when they saw some merchandise or some amusement they dispersed headlong to it, and left you standing}

Source: Saheeh Bukhari. Pg. # 226, H. # 936.


Ibn Shabbah:

Narrated to us Moosa ibn Isma'eel from Salam ibn Abi Muti from Ayub who said: I asked Nafi: "Was Umar in debt when he died?" He said: "How could Umar be in debt while his heir sold their inheritance from him for one hundred thousand?!"

Footnote: Al-Hafiz (ibn Hajar) has said in Fath: Its chain is Saheeh (Authentic).

Source: Tarikh Al-Madinah. Vol. 3, Pg. # 151.


Ibn Hajar:

Umar ibn Shabbah has narrated in his book "Tareekh Al-Madinah" through an authentic chain from Nafi who said: "How could Umar be in debt while his heir sold their inheritance from him for one  hundred thousand?!"

Source: Fath Al-Bari Sharh Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Vol. 8, Pg. # 412.



It is a surprise that in spite of this clear reality, the so called Ahl al-Sunnah declare all those who migrated in the Hijrah, called Muhajirun, to be saints of Allah (swt), as well as all the people of Madinah who hosted them, the Ansar. How can that be when among the Muhajirun were these people with a disease in their hearts, and among the people of Madinah the Ansar were hypocrites. From all indications, the true believers of our time are far better than those hypocrites, who formed the multitude of the companions.


Ahmad ibn Hanbal:

Narrated Aboo Jumu'ah: Once we had lunch with the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him. Aboo Ubaydah, who was with us, said, "O Messenger of Allah (saw)! IS THERE ANYONE BETTER THAN US? We embraced Islam with you and performed Jihad with you." He (saw) said, "Yes. Those who will come after you who will believe in me although they didn't see me!"

Footnote: Shu'aib al-Arnaut the hadeeth is Saheeh (Authentic).

Source: Musnad Ahmad. Vol. 28, Pg. # 181 - 182, H. # 16976.





In fact, whosoever adheres to the pure Sunnah of Muhammad (saw) in this era is fifty times better than any of the companions who remained upon the pure Sunnah till his death!

Al-Albani:

"Verily, after you, there will be days of patience (i.e. hardship, requiring lots of patience). Whosoever, in those days, holds fast to what you are upon will have the reward of fifty of you." They said, "Or, fifty of them?" He (the Prophet (saw)) said, "Rather, fifty of you!"

Al-Albani: Its chain is Saheeh (Authentic) and there is a witness for it through hadeeth of ibn Masud which says: "Reward of fifty martyrs." And its chain is Saheeh (Authentic) and its narrators are the narrators of Muslim.

Source: Al-Silsilah Al-Ahadeeth Al-Sahihah. Vol. 1, Pg. # 892, H. # 494.





Saqifah Bani Sa'idah


The companions, true to prediction, did lust after power and compete over the world and thereby perished, moments after the Prophet (saw) death. News of the death of the Prophet (saw) began to spread far and wide. Although the people heard this news, they were not willing to believe it and wanted to see for themselves. Companions began to gather to make their way to Masjid Al-Nabawi. Umar enacted the drama that the Prophet (a.s) had not died. He stood near the Prophet's (saw) body with his sword unsheathed, threatening to kill anyone who said the Prophet (saw) had died. Sometimes he would say the Prophet (saw) was unconscious, and at another time he would say he (saw) would return like Musa (a.s). If according to Umar, the Prophet (saw) had gone like Musa (a.s) then he should have also been aware that Haroon (a.s) was left as his vizer in his absence.


وَقَالَ مُوسَى لِأَخِيهِ هَارُونَ اخْلُفْنِي فِي قَوْمِي وَأَصْلِحْ وَلَا تَتَّبِعْ سَبِيلَ الْمُفْسِدِينَ .

“Musa said to his brother Haroon: Take my place among my people, and act well and do not follow the way of the mischief-makers. 

Holy Qur'aan {7:142}

We would like to add that these traditions are spurious for a fair number of reasons. The portrayal of Umar being someone who seemingly could not bare to acknowledge the Prophet (saw) was no longer alive and was in denial about it, does not reconcile with his denial of the Prophet's (saw) final will, or his treatment of his kin after his death. It leads one to believe these traditions were manufactured to perpetuate a sympathetic image of Umar as a humble man, hugely devoted to the Prophet (saw) to accept his absence. So while we question the historicity of these traditions, we simultaneously endeavor to make the point that they create a dilemma for the Sunni view.

News had reached Umar that the Ansar were gathering in force at Saqifah Bani Sa'idah. Umar informed Aboo Bakr about the private meeting of the Ansar. However, this was not a personal or an individual affair, it concerned the entire Muslim Ummah. If there was any fear of harm to the community at large, then informing other important persons like Abbas, Alee (a.s), Al-Zubair and many other notable individuals would have been necessary. 

But the impatience and eagerness grew to such a height that the Sheikhayn (Aboo Bakr and Umar) were unable to wait until the Prophet (saw) had been buried and instead, attended this gathering. They were afraid people would rush and swear allegiance to Imam Alee (a.s) who had already been nominated by the Prophet (saw) and was busy burying the Prophet (saw) with only a handful of people.

The Ansar saw the political activity of the Muhajireen (immigrants) and recognised their aim to turn the leadership away from the Prophet's family (a.s) and keep it for themselves. Both the Ansar and Muhajireen were of the belief that they had due rights over the Islamic leadership and thus were in a hurry for an election to take place, and that too in the absence of Bani Hashim who at the time were busy making arrangements for the Prophets (saw) burial.

Shibli Nomani:

It is true that Umar (and Aboo Bakr) went off to Saqifah Bani Sa'ida leaving the Prophet's (saw) dead body unburied; it is also true that on arriving at the Saqifah, Umar disputed over the Caliphate with the Ansar and continued in his efforts to overthrow their cause in a manner if no calamity had befallen him; and it is also true that they (Umar and Aboo Bakr) forced not only the Ansar but Alee (a.s) and Bani Hashim as well to ackowledge the election of Aboo Bakr as Caliph - though the latter did not do so readily.
 
Source: Al-Farooq. Pg. # 89.

 

Sa'd al-Deen al-Tiftazani:

(About the leader) the companions all agreed upon its obligation and occupied themselves with it in spite of the burial the Messenger of Allah (saw), and planned to do so for each successive leader. It has been narrated that when the Prophet (saw) had passed away, Aboo Bakr gave a sermon and he said:

"O People, whoever used to worship Muhammad, verily Muhammad is dead, and whoever used to worship the Lord of Muhammad, He is still alive and will not cease to die. There is no other way about this affair(i.e. choosing a leader), so come forward and give us your opinions may Allah's mercy be upon you.!"

Source: Sharh al-Makasid. Vol.5, Pg. # 232.



Badruddin Al-Aini :

"He (Aboo Bakr) did not attend (the funeral) because he was busy with Bay'ah."

Source: Umdatul Qari Sharh Sahih Al-Bukhari. Vol. 8, Pg. # 315.


Ibn Hajar Al-Haythami:

It should be known that the Sahaba did an Ijma that after completion of Nubuwwah, it was Wajib to appoint an Imam. In fact, they considered it important and Wajib amongst all other acts to the extent that they were so much busy in the act that they had even abandoned the burial of Prophet (saw).

Source: Al-Sawa'iq Al-Muhriqah. Pg. # 10.



Al-Nasa'i:

Narrated Qutaibah ibn Sa'eed from Humayd ibn Abdul Rahman from Salama ibn Nubayt from Nu'aym from Nubayt from Saalim bin Ubayd and he was one of the companions of Al-Suffa (a group of companions): "Rasulullah (saw) became unconscious during his (last) illness. When he woke up he asked: 'Is it already time for prayers?' They replied: 'Yes.' He (saw) said: 'Instruct Bilal (r.a) to call out the call of prayer, and instruct Aboo Bakr to lead the prayers.' Then he (saw) became unconscious again, when he woke up, he asked: 'Is it already time for prayers?' They replied: 'Yes.' He said: 'Instruct Bilal (r.a) to call out the call of prayer, and instruct Aboo Bakr to lead the prayers.'

A'isha said: "My father is soft-natured, the Prophet (saw) said: "You are like the companions of Yusuf (a.s). Instruct Bilal (r.a) to call out the call of prayer, and instruct Aboo Bakr to lead the prayers.' Then they told Bilal (r.a) to call out the call of prayer, and told Aboo Bakr to lead the prayers. When they started the prayers the Prophet (saw) asked: "Has the prayers started?" His wives said: 'Yes.' He (saw) said: "Is there was anyone who could support me till the Masjid?" Barirah came and another person offered themselves, held him by his hands and took him to the Masjid. Aboo Bakr sensing the arrival of Rasulullah (saw) thought of moving back. Rasulullah (saw) signalled him to remain there. Aboo Bakr completed the prayers. 

After that, Rasulullah (saw) passed away and Umar said: "Any person saying that Rasulullah (saw) has passed away, I will severe that person's head with my sword!" He (Salim) said, 'The people were ummis (unlettered-they didn't read or write), nor was there a Nabi among them before this, therefore all those present kept silent. They said to Salim, "Go to the companion of Rasulullah (saw) and call him!" I went out and found Aboo Bakr standing in the mosque, Aboo Bakr asked: "Did Rasulullah (saw) pass away?" I conveyed the news to him and also said to him that Umar had said, if he heard anyone saying Rasulullah (saw) has died, he would cut off that person's head with that sword of his."

Aboo Bakr held my hand and we went and entered the house while the people were gathering around Rasulullah (saw). He leaned and kissed his forehead, then recited this verse: 'Lo! thou wilt die, and lo! they will die;' {39:30}. Then they asked: "O Companion of Rasulullah (saw)! Has Rasulullah (saw) really passed away?" He replied: "Yes." Now they accepted. They said: "O Companion of Rasulullah (saw)! Should funeral prayers be performed for Rasulullah (saw)?" He replied: "Yes." They said: "And how can we pray?" He said: "A group at a time enter the room and perform the funeral prayers individually, and return. In this manner all will perform this prayer." They asked: "O Companion of Rasulullah (saw)! Shall Rasulullah (saw) be buried?" He replied: "Yes" They inquired: "Where?" He replied: "At the spot where Allah (swt) had taken His (saw) soul. Verily Allah (swt) has not taken his soul but at a venerated place." They knew he said the truth. Then Aboo Bakr said: "Go to your companion (i.e. Alee (a.s)) and he (Aboo Bakr) went out and the Muhajireen got together and discussed the matter. They said: "Let us go to our brothers from among the Ansar and include them in this matter (i.e. Caliphate)." The Ansar said: "We shall have an Amir, and the Muhajireen shall have an Amir." Umar said: "Putting two swords in one cover is wrong" and then took the hand of Aboo Bakr and said: "Who is that person who in one instance possesses these three virtues. Whom Allah (swt) has mentioned in the Qur'aan thus: 'When he said unto his comrade.' Who is his comrade? 'When they both were in the cave.' Who are those two? 'Do not be sad, Allah (swt) is with us.' {9:40}. Allah (swt) is with whom?" And then he paid allegiance and said: "Pay allegiance to him." Then the people also made Bay'ah on the hands of Aboo Bakr wholeheartedly."

Source: Sunan Al-Kubra Al-Nasa'i. Vol. 6, Pg. # 395 - 396.


Al-Arna'ut:

And Al-Nasa'i has narrated it in "Sunan Al-Kubra" through Salim ibn Ubayd Al-Ashja'i and he was a companion that: The people asked Aboo Bakr: "O Companion of Rasulullah (saw)! Shall Rasulullah (saw) be buried?" He replied: "Yes." They inquired: "Where?" He replied: "At the spot where Allah (swt) had taken his soul. Verily Allah (swt) has not taken his soul but at a venerated place." They knew he said the truth. And its chain is Saheeh (Authentic), but it is Mawqoof (i.e. narrated from a companion).

Source: Sunan ibn Majah annonated by Shu'ayb Al-Arna'ut. Vol. 2, Pg. # 552.


Al-Bayhaqi narrates the same narration through a somewhat different chain of narrators.

Al-Bayhaqi:

Narrated Aboo Abdullah Al-Hafiz and Aboo Sa'eed ibn Abi Amr and Al-Abbas Muhammad ibn Yaqoob from Ahmad ibn Abdul Jabbar from Younis ibn Bukayr from Salama ibn Nubayt Al-Ashja'i from his father from Salim ibn Ubayd and he was a companion of the Al-Suffa who said: Aboo Bakr was near the Prophet (saw) that he was asked: "O Companion of Rasulullah (saw)! Has Rasulullah (saw) really passed away?" He replied: "Yes." They knew he said the truth. Then Aboo Bakr said: "Go to your companion of the cousin of the Messenger of Allah (saw) (i.e. Alee (a.s)), and then he went out and the Muhajireen got together and discussed the matter. They said: "Let us go to our brothers from among the Ansar and include them in this matter (i.e. Caliphate)." A man among Ansar said: "We shall have an Amir, and the Muhajireen shall have an Amir." Umar ibn Al-Khattab said: "Putting two swords in one cover is wrong" and then took the hand of Aboo Bakr and said: "Who is that person who in one instance possesses these three virtues. Whom Allah (swt) has mentioned in the Qur'aan thus: 'When he said unto his comrade.' Who is his comrade? 'When they both were in the cave.' Who are those two? 'Do not be sad, Allah (swt) is with us.'{9:40}. Allah (swt) is with whom?" And then he paid allegiance and said: "Pay allegiance to him, then the people also made Bay'ah on the hands of Aboo Bakr whole heartedly."

Source: Sunan Al-Kubra Al-Bayhaqi. Vol. 8, Pg. # 249.

  
Al-Bukhari:

Narrated A'isha (The wife of the Prophet): Allah's Apostle (saw) died while Aboo Bakr was at a place called As-Sunah (Al-Aliya). Umar stood up and said, "By Allah (swt)! Allah's Apostle (saw) is not dead!" Umar (later on) said, "By Allah (swt)! Nothing occurred to my mind except that." He said, "Verily! Allah (swt) will resurrect him and he will cut the hands and legs of some men." Then Aboo Bakr came and uncovered the face of Allah's Apostle (saw), kissed him and said, "Let my mother and father be sacrificed for you, (O Allah's Apostle (saw)), you are good in life and in death. By Allah (swt)! In Whose Hands my life is, Allah (swt) will never make you taste death twice." Then he went out and said, "O oath-taker! Don't be hasty." When Aboo Bakr spoke, Umar sat down. Aboo Bakr praised and glorified Allah (swt) and said, "No doubt! Whoever worshipped Muhammad (saw), then Muhammad (saw) is dead, but whoever worshipped Allah (swt), then Allah (swt) is Alive and shall never die." Then he recited Allah's (swt) statement: "(O Muhammad) Verily you will die, and they also will die." (39.30) He also recited: "Muhammad is no more than an Apostle; and indeed many Apostles have passed away before him, If he dies or is killed, will you then turn back on your heels? And he who turns back on his heels, not the least harm will he do to Allah And Allah will give reward to those Who are grateful." (3.144) The people wept loudly, and the Ansar were assembled with Sa'd bin Ubada in the shed of Bani Sa'idah. They said (to the emigrants). "There should be one Amir from us and one from you." Then Aboo Bakr, Umar bin Al-Khattab and Aboo Ubaida bin Al-Jarrah went to them. Umar wanted to speak but Aboo Bakr stopped him. Umar later on used to say, "By Allah (swt)! I intended only to say something that appealed to me and I was afraid that Aboo Bakr would not speak so well. Then Aboo Bakr spoke and his speech was very eloquent. He said in his statement, "We are the rulers and you (Ansars) are the ministers (i.e. advisers)," Hubab bin Al-Mundhir said, "No, by Allah (swt)! We won't accept this. But there must be a ruler from us and a ruler from you." Aboo Bakr said, "No, we will be the rulers and you will be the ministers, for they (i.e. Quraysh) are the best family amongst the Arabs and of best origin. So you should elect either Umar or Aboo Ubaida bin Al-Jarrah as your ruler." Umar said (to Aboo Bakr), "No but we elect you, for you are our chief and the best amongst us and the most beloved of all of us to Allah's Apostle (saw)." So Umar took Aboo Bakr's hand and gave the pledge of allegiance and the people too gave the pledge of allegiance to Aboo Bakr. Someone said, "You have killed Sa'd bin Ubada." Umar said, "Allah (swt) has killed him."

Source: Saheeh Bukhari. Pg. # 901 - 902, H. # 3667.



Here we have a clear cut hadeeth which blatantly informs us that Aboo Bakr and Umar were not present at the funeral, for the Prophet (saw) was buried BEFORE they had returned! It is a shame that those who claimed to be the sincere followers of the Prophet (saw) did not attend the funeral and instead went out to satisfy their own selfish desires.

Abi Shaybah:

Ibn Numair narrated from Hisham bin Urwah who narrated from his father Urwah bin Al-Zubair that, "Aboo Bakr and Umar were not present at the time of the burial of the Prophet (saw), they were with Ansar and he was buried before they had returned."

Source: Al-Musannaf ibn Abi Shaybah. Vol. 13, Pg. # 469, H. # 38043.

 


Analysis Of The Chain Of Narrators:

The status of these three narrators in the books of Rijal:
      1 -  Abdullah bin Nomair
      2 -  Hisham bin Urwah
      3 -  Urwah bin Al-Zubair


1 -  Abdullah bin Nomair



The Hafiz, the Trustworthy Imam, Aboo Hisham Al-Hamdani Al-Khariqi Al-Kufi.

Source: Tahdheeb Siyar A'lam Al-Nubala. Vol. 1, Pg. # 321.


2 -  Hisham bin Urwah

      Hisham ibn Urwah ibn Al-Zubayr ibn Al-Awam Al-Asadi, he is trustworthy, faqih, and may have some Tadlees, from the 5th generation. He died in 145 A.H or 146 A.H at the age of 87. The Jama'ah (Bukhari, Muslim and the four Sunan) have narrated from him.

Source: Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Pg. # 504, Person. # 7302.





 3 -  Urwah bin Al-Zubair

Urwah ibn Al-Zubair ibn Al-Awam ibn Khuwaylid Al-Asadi, Aboo Abdullah Al-Madani. He is trustworthy famous faqih, from the 3th generation. He died in 94 A.H. He was born at the beginning of the caliphate of Uthman. The Jama'ah (Bukhari, Muslim and the four Sunan) have narrated from him.

Source: Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Pg. # 329, Person. # 4561.


To further confirm our belief on the two so-called followers of the Prophet (saw), we present another hadeeth pertaining to the fact that the burial and funeral took place with only four named individuals present. So the question is, where were Aboo Bakr and Umar?!

Abi Shaybah:

Narrated Abdul A'laa from Ma'mar from Al-Zuhri from Sa'eed ibn Al-Mosayyib: "Those who took over the burial and funeral of the Messenger of Allah (saw) were only four and no one else: Alee (a.s), Al-Abbas, Al-Fadhl and Saleh, servant of the Prophet (saw). They put a Lahd (stone) on his grave and covered it with un-burnt bricks."

Source: Al-Musannaf ibn Abi Shaybah. Vol. 13, Pg. # 457, H. # 3826.


Analysis Of The Chain Of Narrators:


The status of these five narrators in the books of Rijal:

      1 -  Abdul A'laa
      2 -  Ma'mar
      3 -  Al-Zuhri
4 - Sa'eed ibn Al-Mosayyib
5 - Abi Ayub, Sulayman ibn Yasaar


     1 -  Abdul A'laa

Ibn Hajar:

Abdul A'laa ibn Abdul A'laa Al-Basri Al-Sami, Aboo Muhammad, and he used to get angry when he was called Aboo Humam, he was trustworthy, from the 8th generation, he died in 189 A.H. All the Jama'ah (i.e. Bukhari, Muslim and the four Sunan) have narrated from him.

Source: Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Pg. # 273, Person. # 3734.




2 -  Ma'mar

Ma'mar ibn Rashed Al-Azdi their servant, Aboo Urwa Al-Basri, he used to live in Yemen. He was trustworthy, firm in memory and learned, but there is something in his narrations from Thabit, Al-A'mash and Hisham ibn Urwa, and also in what he has narrated in Basra. He is from the significant narrators of the 7th generation. He died in 154 A.H. at the age of 58. The Jama'ah (Bukhari, Muslim and the four Sunan) have narrated from him.

Source: Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Pg. # 473, Person. # 6809.



3 -  Al-Zuhri

Muhammad ibn Muslim ibn Ubaidallah ibn Abdullah ibn Shahab ibn Zohra ibn Kilaab Al-Qorashi Al-Zuhri, Aboo Bakr, Al-Faqih, 'Narrator of Hadeeth' Al-Hafiz, 'Jurist': All agreed upon his superiority and Truthfulness. Narrated in the Saheeh Sittah.

Source: Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Pg. # 440, Person # 6296.


4 -  Sa'eed ibn Al-Mosayyib

Ibn Hazn ibn Abi Wahab ibn Amr ibn Hahiz ibn Mehran ibn Makhzoom Al-Qurayshi Al-Makhzoomi, one of the Trustworthy scholars and of great Fuqaha, all agreed over his Mursal (hurried) that they are the most authentic. Ibn Al-Madini said: "There is no one among Al-Tabi'een to the extent of his knowledge." Narrated in the Saheeh Al-Sittah.


Source: Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Pg. # 181, Person # 2396.


Ibn Abdul Al-Barr:

A'isha said: "We did not know about Allah's Messenger's (saw) burial except when we heard the voice of shovels at Wednesday night. Alee (a.s), Abbas may Allah (swt) be pleased with them and Bani Hashim prayed over him. Then they went out and then Muhajireen entered and Ansar, then people prayed on him in groups, no one was leading the prayers, then the women and youngsters."

Source: Al-Isti'ab. Vol. 1, Pg. # 47.



Those present at Saqifah did not consider for a moment that leadership should remain in that very house which was the centre of revelation, wisdom, faith and purity. Instead, the caliphate had been hijacked from the Ahlulbayt (a.s) in to the hands of the opponents of Islam, whose rulings were other than what Allah (swt) ordained, and whose palaces were stages for debauchery, drinking, singing, dancing and all other heinous sins. What type of Shura (consultation) is this, in which the very group of people (peace be upon them) upon whom the Prophet (saw) instructed to hold firm to were not included?

As soon as the Sheikhayn had arrived at the gathering, they noticed Sa'd ibn Ubadah (one of the prominent members of the Ansar) was presiding to become candidate for the Caliphate. Aboo Bakr did not present himself as an opponent but as a one who had come to them as a arbitrator. To establish the claim of the Muhajiroon for the Caliphate, he mentioned the qualities of the Muhajiroon that were convincing for the audience. 

""We are the rulers and you (Ansars) are the ministers (i.e. advisers)." Hubab bin Al-Mundhir said, "No, by Allah (swt)! We won't accept this. But there must be a ruler from us and a ruler from you." Aboo Bakr said, "No, we will be the rulers and you will be the ministers, for they (i.e. Quraysh) are the best family amongst the Arabs and of best origin."

But Aboo Bakr gleaned over this fact and kept the Ansar quiet by offering to them of becoming ministers. This offer also removed the doubts from the minds of the Ansar that their rights might be later denied to them. 

This created doubts in the minds of the Ansar. They started thinking about this very group who also protested against the pen and paper that should have been given to the Prophet (saw) for writing his will, and also the disobedience to proceed for the campaign with Usamah. Aboo Bakr gave them a choice to either accept Umar as the new leader, or appoint Sa'd ibn Ubadah. Umar was afraid people would give the pledge to someone else and so he hurried and placed his hands into Aboo Bakr's. This did not go down too well with the audience. A skirmish broke out and Sa'd ibn Ubadah was attacked. People in fear continued to give the pledge to Aboo Bakr.


Imam Alee's (a.s.) Refusal To Give Bay'ah


Any educated individual, who objectively examines the circumstances surrounding the death of the Prophet (saw), can only conclude that Imam (a.s) was the victim of a political plot. He was the victim of a conspiracy aimed at denying him the legitimate position. The Sheikhayn with complete knowledge about the rights of Imam Alee (a.s.) invited him to the Masjid to pay allegiance. But Imam Alee (a.s) and his companions refused to go, and gathered in the house of Sayeda Faatima (s.a). 

Ibn Hajar:


And his saying: "And Alee (a.s) and Al-Zubair and those whom were with them refrained from us" in the narration of Malik and Ma'mar and that Alee (a.s) and Al-Zubair and those who were with them gathered at the house of Faatima (s.a) the daughter of the Messenger of Allah (saw) and it is like in the narration of Sufyan but he mentioned Al-Abbas instead of Al-Zubair.

Source: Fath Ul-Bari Fi Sharh Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Vol. 15, Pg. # 654.



Al-Mawardi:

Imamate comes into being two ways; first of these is by election of those powers and influence, and the second is by delegation of the previous Imam. As for its formation by election of the people of power, the Ulama (scholars), according to the different Madhhabs, have different opinions as to the numbers of persons needed in the formation of the Imamate. One group says that it can be conferred by way of the majority of these of power and influence in each country, such that acceptance is general and submission to the Imamate is by consenus; this madhhab is rejected by the oath of allegiance to Aboo Bakr, that is to succession arrived at by the way of election of only those who were present made the oath of allegiance to him and did not expect any other person from outside to present himself for this election. And another group say that the minimum number of persons should gather for the formation of the Imamate is five, for that should be formed by one of them with the agreement of four others. They take two matters as their proof, the first the oath of allegiance to Aboo Bakr was made by five persons together, and that people followed them in this matter. These persons were Umar ibn Al-Khattab, Aboo Ubaidah ibn Al-Jarrah, Usyad ibn Huday, Bashir ibn Sa'd and Salim the freed slave of Aboo Hudhayfah. 


The second proof is that Umar set up a council of six persons so that one of them should take on the Imamate with the acceptance of the other five and this is the opinion of most jurists and the mutakallimun from amongst the people of Basra. Others from among the Ulama of Kufa say that the Imamate comes into being by way of three persons, one of them taking charge by virtue of the acceptance of the other two such that there is one who decides the matter together with two witnesses, in the same way as the contract of marriage is made valid by the man in charge (wali) and two witnesses. Another group says that it comes by of a single person as Abbas and Alee (a.s), "Reach out your hand so that I make allegiance to you and that the people say that the Uncle of the messenger of Allah (swt) has given allegiance to his paternal nephew (Alee (a.s)) and so that there will not be two persons disputing your succession." They say also that it is a ruling which when given, even by one person, has to be carried out. 


Source: Al-Ahkam Al- Sultaniyyah. Pg. # 12 - 13.



First Narration From Ibraheem i.e. Aboo Rafe'

Al-Tabari:
 
Narrated ibn Humayd from Jarir from Mughira from Abi Ma'shar Ziyad ibn Kulayb from Abi Ayub from Ibraheem (Aboo Rafe' servant of the Prophet (saw))
 who said: When the Prophet (saw) died, Aboo Bakr was absent, then he came after three days, no one dared to uncover his face, until he uncovered it and between his eyes and then said: "My father and mother be your ransom, you was perfumed when you alive and when you are dead, and then he went out and praised Allah (swt) and he (Aboo Bakr) said: "Whoever used to worship Allah (swt), He is alive and not dead, but whoever used to worship Muhammad (saw), he is verily dead, then he recited: "{3:144}. And Muhammad (saw) is no more than a messenger; the messengers have already passed away before him; if then he dies or is killed will you turn back upon your heels? And whoever turns back upon his heels, he will by no means do harm to Allah (swt) in the least and Allah (swt) will reward the grateful," because of Umar who was saying that the Prophet (saw) had not died and he was threatening to kill people if they said that. Then Ansar were assembled in the shed of Bani Sa'idah to pay allegiance to Sa'd bin Ubada. Then Aboo Bakr was informed of it, so he, together with Umar and Aboo Ubaidah Al-Jarrah went to them and said: "What is this?" They replied: "There should be one Amir from us and one from you." Then Aboo Bakr said: "From among us are the rulers and you (Ansars) are the ministers (i.e. advisers)" and then said: "So you should elect either Umar or Aboo Ubaidah Al-Jarrah who is Amin (trusted) of this Ummah, best of trusted ones. So he pushed Aboo Ubaydah forward and said: "I am satisfied with Aboo Ubaydah." Then Umar stood up and said: "Who is more good than a man whom the Prophet (saw) preceded him (over others)," and then he (Umar) paid allegiance to Aboo Bakr and the people paid allegiance too. Then the Ansar or some of the Ansar said: "We do not pay allegiance except to Alee (a.s)."

Source: Tarikh Al-Tabari. Vol. 3, Pg. # 201 - 202.


Analysis Of The Chain Of Narrators:


The status of these five narrators in the books of Rijal:

1 - Muhammad ibn Humayd 
      2 -  Jarir ibn Abdul-Hamid
      3 -  Al-Mughira ibn Miqsam
4 - Ziyad ibn Kulayb
5- Abi Ayub, Sulayman ibn Yasaar
6 - Ibraheem, Aboo Rafe'

1 - Muhammad ibn Humayd

Abdullah ibn Ahmad says: My father (i.e. Ahmad ibn Hanbal) said: "The knowledge would not perish in Ray as long as Muhammad ibn Humayd is alive there." Aboo Abdul Rahman Abdullah said: "When Muhammad ibn Humayd, i.e. Al-Razi came to us, my father was in Al-Askar, when he went my father came, so his companions started asking him about ibn Humayd, so he said to me: 'Why are they asking me about Muhammad ibn Humayd?' I said: 'Because he came here and narrated narrations that these people were not aware of.' So he (Ahmad ibn Hanbal) said: 'Did you write from him?' I said: 'Yes! I wrote a volume from him.' He (Ahmad ibn Hanbal) said: 'Bring it to me.' So I brought it to him, so he said: 'His narrations from ibn Mubarak and Jarir are Saheeh (Authentic), but his narrations from the scholars of Ray, he knows better about it.'" 

Muhammad ibn Jum'ah Al-Hafiz said: "I asked Mohammad ibn Yahya Al-Duhli: 'What do you think about Muhammad ibn Humayd?' He said: 'Don't you see that I narrate from him?' He then said: 'I was in the teaching class of Abi Bakr Al-Saghani, Muhammad ibn Is'haq, he said: 'Narrated to us Muhammad ibn Humayd.' I said: 'You narrate from ibn Humayd?' He said: 'Why shouldn't I narrate from him? Even Ahmad ibn Hanbal and Yahya ibn Mo'een narrate from him!'"

Source: Tareekh Baghdad. Vol. 3, Pg. # 60 - 61.


 2 - Jarir ibn Abdul-Hamid

Jarir ibn Abdul-Hamid ibn Qurt, Al-Dhubbi Al-Kufi, he lived in Ray and was its jurist: He was trustworthy and his written narrations that are Saheeh (Authentic). It is said that he lost his memory in the end of his life. He died in the year 188 A.H at the age of 71. The majority have narrated from him (i.e. Bukhari, Muslim, and the four Sunan). This statement of ibn Hajar Asqalani, "It is said that he lost his memory in the end of his life." He wants to say that it was due to sickness, because he says in Fathul Bari that this claim is only narrated by Al-Bayhaqi and I have not anyone else saying it, rather the majority have accepted his narrations, so the claim of Al-Bayhaqi does not harm someone when the majority have accepted his narrations.

Source: Tahreer Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Vol. 1, Pg. # 213.


3 - Al-Mughira ibn Miqsam

Al-Mughira ibn Miqsam, Al-Dhubbi, their servant, Aboo Hashim Al-Kufi, blind, he was a Thiqh (Trusted), trustworthy narrator, unless that he used to do Tadlees from Ibraheem. He is from the 6th generation. He died in 136 A.H. The majority have narrated from him (i.e. Bukhari, Muslim, and the four Sunan). In this statement of ibn Hajar Asqalani, "He used to do Tadhees from Ibraheem" there are two problems, the first that no one has mentioned that he used to do Tadlees from other than Ibraheem, and the second problem is that Ahmad and Muhammad ibn Fudhayl are those who said that he used to do Tadlees from Ibraheem, but this is something that Aboo Dawood has rejected, he says that Mughirah did not used to do Tadlees, he really has heard from Ibraheem 180 narrations, and ibn Al-Madini says: "I do not know anyone that has narrated from Ibraheem as much as Al-A'mash has narrated, and Mughirah was the most knowledgeable person about Ibraheem's narrations in what he has heard from him and what he has not heard directly from him. He has taken them from him and his companions." And Bukhari and Muslim have narrated his narrations from Ibraheem without him mentioning that he has heard it from Ibraheem in many places, so this means that they both accepted his narrations without mentioning that he has heard them directly. Allah (swt) knows best.

Source: Tahreer Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Vol. 3, Pg. # 411.


4 - Ziyad ibn Kulayb:

Ziyad ibn Kulayb Al-Hanzali, Aboo Ma'shar Al-Kufi, he is Thiqh (Trustworthy), from the 6th generation, he died in 119 or 120 A.H. Muslim, Abi Dawood, Al-Tirmidhi and Al-Nasa'i have narrated from him.

Source: Tahreer Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Vol. 1, Pg. # 428.


5 - Abi Ayub, Sulayman ibn Yasaar

Sulayman ibn Yasaar, servant of Maymoonah Bint Al-Harith ibn Huzn and he is brother of Ataa ibn Yasaar, his title is Abi Ayub, he has narrated from Hassan ibn Thabit, ibn Abbas, Abi Huraira, and ibn Umar and Umm Salama (s.a) narrated from him: Al-Zuhri, Amr ibn Dinaar, Qutada. I heard my father saying that. narrated to us Abdul Rahman from Al-Abbas ibn Muhammad Al-Doori who said: I heard Yahya Ibn Mo'een saying: "Sulayman ibn Yasaar is thiqh (Trustworthy). Narrated Abdul Rahman that: "I asked Aboo Zar'ah about Sulayman ibn Yasaar, so he said: "He was from Madinah, he was a trustworthy, firm, learned and a righteous person."

Source: Al-Jarh Wa Ta'deel. Vol. 4, Pg. # 149.


Sulayman ibn Yasaar Al-Hilali, Al-Madani, servant of Maymoonah, and it is said: servant of Umm Salama. He was a learned and Thiqh (Trustworthy) person. he is one the seven significant jurists. He was one of the significant narrators of the 3th generation. He died after the year 100 A.H and some say before that. The majority have narrated from him (i.e. Bukhari, Muslim, and the four Sunan).

Source: Tahreer Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Vol. 2, Pg. # 79.


6 - Ibraheem, Aboo Rafeh

Aboo Rafeh Al-Qibti, servant of the Messenger of Allah (saw), his name was Ibraheem, some said: Aslam or Thabit or Hurmoz. He died at the beginning of the Caliphate of Alee (a.s). The majority have narrated from him (i.e. Bukhari, Muslim, and the four Sunan).

Source: Tahreer Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Vol. 4, Pg. # 193.



Second Narration From Abdur Rahman bin Awf 

Al-Hakim:

Muhammad ibn Salih ibn Hani has told that Fadil ibn Muhammad Bayhaqi has told Ibraheem ibn Mundir Al-Hazami has told us Muhammad ibn Fulaih from Musa bin Uqba in his Maghazi from Sa'd b. Ibraheem; My father narrated to me, that his father, Abd Al-Rahman bin Awf was with Umar, and that Muhammad bin Muslimah broke the sword of Al-Zubayr. Then, Aboo Bakr gave a sermon and apologised to the people saying, "I never was protective of the rulership in one day or a night at all nor did I desire it, and I did not ask Allah (swt) for it in secret or by showing or even was I compassionate towards my Fitna and the money on behalf of the rulership to respite. But I imitated a great matter, that I have no power over or even a hand except by the power of Allah the Exalted and Mighty, and I would prefer to have the people become strengthened in my place today. So the Muhajiroon accepted from him about what he said and apologised. Then Alee (a.s) and Al-Zubayr said, "We were not angry, but it is only because we were made late for the consultation. And we believe that Aboo Bakr is more entitled from the people after the Messenger of Allah (saw), that he was the companion of the cave - the second of them. And we recognise his honour and his age. The Messenger of Allah (saw) had commanded him to lead the people in Salaah during his lifetime."

Al-Hakim: This Hadeeth is Saheeh (Authentic) on the conditions of the two Sheikhs (Bukhari and Muslim).

Al-Dhahabi: It is Saheeh (Authentic) on the conditions of Bukhari and Muslim.

Source: Al-Mustadrak Ala Sahihain. Vol. 3, Pg. # 70, H. # 20 / 4422.



We would like to point out some important points from the above hadeeth:

  • Muhammad bin Muslimah broke the sword of Al-Zubayr.

  • The Muhajiroon accept what Aboo Bakr said and apologised.

  • Zubayr and Alee (a.s) said they were only angry because they were made late for the consultation and that they believed Aboo Bakr was more entitled to become Caliph after the messenger of Allah (saw), since he was the companion of the cave - the second of them. Both Alee (a.s) and Zubayr recognised his honour and his age and the fact that the messenger of Allah (saw) had commanded him to lead the people in Salaah during his lifetime.


Third Narration From Aboo Sa'id Al-Khudri 

Ibn Kathir: 

The companions have agreed upon on the Bay'ah (allegiance) of Al-Siddiq in that time, even Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s) and Al-Zubayr ibn Al-Awam, and the proof for that is what Al-Bayhaqi has narrated when he says: Narrated Abul Hussain Alee ibn Muhammad ibn Alee Al-Hafiz Al-Isfarahini from Aboo Alee Al-Hussain ibn Alee Al-Hafiz from Aboo Bakr ibn Khuzayma and Ibraheem ibn Abi Talib who both said: Narrated Bundar ibn Bashar from Aboo Hisham Al-Makhzoomi from Wuhayb from Dawood ibn Abi Hind from Aboo Nadhra from Aboo Sa'id Al-Khudri who said: When the Prophet (saw) passed away and when the people gathered at the place of Sa'ad bin Ubadah and amongst  them were Aboo Bakr and Umar, a man from the Ansar spoke: "You know that the Prophet of Allah (saw) was from the Muhajiroon (immigrants) and his Caliph must also be from the Muhajiroon. We were the Ansar of the Prophet (saw) and we will be the Ansar of his Caliph  just as we were his Ansar." Then Umar bin Al-Khattab stood up and said, "This man from  amongst the Ansar speaks truth and if you say anything other than this then we would not follow you." Then he grabbed the hand of Aboo Bakr and said: "This is your close companion so give him Bay'ah." Then Umar and the Muhajiroon and the Ansar gave him Bay'ah. Aboo Bakr stood on the mimbar and he looked at the faces of all the people there but he never saw Al-Zubayr, so he called for him and he came, so he told him: "O son of  the Prophet's (saw) aunt and his disciple! Would you want to split the cause of the Muslims?"  Zubayr said: "Not at all O Caliph of the Prophet of Allah (saw)." Then he stood and gave him Bay'ah. Then he looked at the faces of the people but did not spot Alee (a.s), so he called for Alee bin abi Talib (a.s) and he came to him, so he said: "O cousin of the Prophet of Allah (saw) and the husband of his daughter! Would you want to split the cause of the Muslims?" So Alee (a.s) replied: "Not at all O Caliph of the Prophet of Allah (saw)." Then he stood and gave him Bay'ah. The Hafiz Aboo Alee Al-Nisaburi said: I heard ibn Khuzayma saying: "Muslim ibn Hajjaj came to me and asked me for this hadeeth, so I wrote it for him in a piece of paper and read it for him, whereupon he said: "This narration is worth a lot." I said: "Worth a lot?!" He said: "It is rather worth a bag of gold." And it is also narrated by Ahmad from a trustworthy narrator from Wuhayb briefly.

Source: Al-Bidaya wa'l-Nihaya. Vol. 9, Pg. # 415 - 416.



Some more important points to take note of:

  • When the Prophet (saw) passed away, people gathered at the place of Sa'ad bin Ubadah. 

  • Aboo Bakr stood on the mimbar and he looked at the faces of the people, but could not see both Al-Zubayr and Alee (a.s) and therefore called for them. He asks them individually, "Would you want to split the cause of the Muslims?" To which Zubayr and Alee (a.s) reply: "Not at all O Caliph of the Prophet of Allah (saw)." Then they stand and gave him Bay'ah.

Note: There is no mention of Aboo Bakr being a Companion of the Cave, and that the Messenger of Allah (saw) had commanded him to lead the people in Salaah during his lifetime as mentioned in the previous narrations.

In light of both Hadeeths we can confirm this happened during the time of Saqeefah and the Bay'ah was given immediately by Imam Alee (a.s) and Zubayr.


Fourth Narration From ibn Abbas 

Al-Bukhari:

Narrated Abdul-Aziz from Ibraheem ibn Sa'd from Saleh from Al-Zuhri from Ubaydullah ibn Abdullah ibn Otba ibn Masood from ibn Abbas who said: I used to teach (the Qur'aan to) some people of the Muhajireen (emigrants), among whom there was Abdur Rahman bin Awf. While I was in his house at Mina, and he was with Umar bin Al-Khattab during Umar's last Hajj, Abdur-Rahman came to me and said, "Would that you had seen the man who came today to the Chief of the Believers (Umar) saying, 'O Chief of the Believers! What do you think about so-and-so who says, If Umar should die, I will give the pledge of allegiance to such and-such person? As by Allah (swt)! The pledge of allegiance to Aboo Bakr was nothing but a prompt sudden action which got established afterwards.' Umar became angry and then said, 'Allah (swt) willing! I will stand before the people tonight and warn them against those people who want to seize their rulership.' Abdur-Rahman said, "I said, 'O Chief of the believers! Do not do that, for the season of Hajj gathers the riff-raff and the rubble, and it will be they who will gather around you when you stand to address the people. And I am afraid that you will get up and say something, and some people will spread your statement and may not say what you have actually said and may not understand its meaning, and may interpret it incorrectly, so you should wait until you reach Madinah, as it is the place of emigration and the place of Prophet's (saw) traditions, and there you can come in touch with the learned and noble people and tell them your ideas with confidence; and the learned people will understand your statement and put it in its proper place.' On that, Umar said, 'By Allah (swt)! Allah (swt) willing, I will do this in the first speech I will deliver before the people in Madinah.' Ibn Abbas added: We reached Madinah by the end of the month of Dhul-Hijjah, and when it was Friday, we went quickly (to the mosque) as soon as the Sun had declined, and I saw Sa'id bin Zaid bin Amr bin Nufail sitting at the corner of the pulpit, and I too sat close to him so that my knee was touching his knee, and after a short while Umar bin Al-Khattab came out, and when I saw him coming towards us, I said to Sa'id bin Zaid bin Amr bin Nufail, "Today Umar will say such a thing as he has never said since he was chosen as Caliph." Sa'id denied my statement with astonishment and said, "What thing do you expect Umar to say the like of which he has never said before?" In the meantime, Umar sat on the pulpit and when the call-makers for the prayer had finished their call, Umar stood up, and having glorified and praised Allah (swt) as He deserved, he said, "Now then, I am going to tell you something which (Allah (swt)) has written for me to say. I do not know; perhaps it portends my death, so whoever understands and remembers it, must narrate it to the others wherever his mount takes him, but if somebody is afraid that he does not understand it, then it is unlawful for him to tell lies about me. Allah (swt) sent Muhammad (saw) with the truth and revealed the Holy Book to him, and among what Allah (swt) revealed, was the verse of the Rajam (the stoning of married person (male & female) who commits illegal sexual intercourse, and we did recite this verse and understood and memorized it. Allah's Apostle (saw) did carry out the punishment of stoning and so did we after him. I am afraid that after a long time has passed, somebody will say, 'By Allah (swt)! We do not find the verse of the Rajam in Allah's (swt) Book,' and thus they will go astray by leaving an obligation which Allah (swt) has revealed. And the punishment of the Rajam is to be inflicted to any married person (male & female), who commits illegal sexual intercourse, if the required evidence is available or there is conception or confession. And then we used to recite among the verses in Allah's (swt) book: 'O people! Do not claim to be the offspring of other than your fathers, as it is disbelief (unthankfulness) on your part that you claim to be the offspring of other than your real father.' Then Allah's Apostle (saw) said, 'Do not praise me excessively as Jesus, son of Mary was praised, but call me Allah's (swt) slave and His Apostle.' (O people!) I have been informed that a speaker amongst you says, 'By Allah (swt)! If Umar should die, I will give the pledge of allegiance to such-and-such person.' One should not deceive oneself by saying that the pledge of allegiance given to Aboo Bakr was given suddenly and it was successful. No doubt, it was like that, but Allah (swt)saved (the people) from its evil, and there is none among you who has the qualities of Aboo Bakr. Remember that whoever gives the pledge of allegiance to anybody among you without consulting the other Muslims, neither that person, nor the person to whom the pledge of allegiance was given are to be supported, lest they both should be killed. And no doubt after the death of the Prophet (saw) we were informed that the Ansar disagreed with us and gathered in the shed of Bani Sai'dah. Alee (a.s) and Zubayr and whoever was with them, opposed us, while the emigrants gathered with Aboo Bakr. I said to Aboo Bakr, 'Let us go to these Ansari brothers of ours.' So we set out seeking them, and when we approached them, two pious men of theirs met us and informed us of the final decision of the Ansar and said, 'O group of Muhajireen (emigrants)! Where are you going?' We replied, 'We are going to these Ansari brothers of ours.' They said to us, 'You should not go near them. Carry out whatever we have already decided.' I said, 'By Allah (swt)! We will go to them.' And so we proceeded until we reached them at the shed of Bani Sai'dah. Behold! There was a man sitting amongst them and wrapped in something. I asked, 'Who is that man?' They said, 'He is Sa'd bin Ubada.' I asked, 'What is wrong with him?' They said, 'He is sick.' After we sat for a while, the Ansar's speaker said, 'None has the right to be worshipped but Allah (swt),' and praising Allah (swt) as He deserved, he added, 'To proceed, we are Allah's (swt) ansar (helpers) and the majority of the Muslim army, while you, the emigrants, are a small group and some people among you came with the intention of preventing us from practicing this matter (of caliphate) and depriving us of it.' When the speaker had finished, I intended to speak as I had prepared a speech which I liked and which I wanted to deliver in the presence of Aboo Bakr, and I used to avoid provoking him. So, when I wanted to speak, Aboo Bakr said, 'Wait a while.' I disliked to make him angry. So Aboo Bakr himself gave a speech, and he was wiser and more patient than I. By Allah (swt)! He never missed a sentence that I liked in my own prepared speech, but he said the like of it or better than it spontaneously. After a pause he said, 'O Ansar! You deserve all (the qualities that you have attributed to yourselves, but this question (of caliphate) is only for the Quraysh as they are the best of the Arabs as regards descent and home, and I am pleased to suggest that you choose either of these two men, so take the oath of allegiance to either of them as you wish. And then Aboo Bakr held my hand and Aboo Ubada bin Abdullah's hand who was sitting amongst us. I hated nothing of what he had said except that proposal, for by Allah (swt), I would rather have my neck chopped off as expiator for a sin than become the ruler of a nation, one of whose members is Aboo Bakr, unless at the time of my death my own-self suggests something I don't feel at present.' And then one of the Ansar said, 'I am the pillar on which the camel with a skin disease (eczema) rubs itself to satisfy the itching (i.e. I am a noble), and I am as a high class palm tree! O Quraysh! There should be one ruler from us and one from you.' Then there was a hue and cry among the gathering and their voices rose so that I was afraid there might be great disagreement, so I said, 'O Aboo Bakr! Hold your hand out.' He held his hand out and I pledged  allegiance to him, and then all the emigrants gave the pledge of allegiance and so did the Ansar afterwards. And so we became victorious over Sa'd bin Ubada (whom Al-Ansar wanted to make a ruler). One of the Ansar said, 'You have killed Sa'd bin Ubada.' I replied, 'Allah (swt) has killed Sa'd bin Ubada.' Umar added, "By Allah (swt)! Apart from the great tragedy that had happened to us (i.e. the death of the Prophet (saw)), there was no greater problem than the allegiance pledged to Aboo Bakr because we were afraid that if we left the people, they might give the pledge of allegiance after us to one of their men, in which case we would have given them our consent for something against our real wish, or would have opposed them and caused great trouble. So if any person gives the pledge of allegiance to somebody (to become a caliph) without consulting the other Muslims, then the one he has selected should not be granted allegiance, lest both of them should be killed."

Source: Saheeh Bukhari. Page # 1689 - 1691, H. # 6830.


Fifth Narration From A'isha 

Al-Bukhari:

Narrated Aisha..."When Faatima (s.a) was alive, the people used to respect Alee (a.s) much, but after her death, Alee (a.s) noticed a change in the people's attitude towards him. So Alee (a.s) sought reconciliation with Aboo Bakr and gave him an oath of allegiance. Alee (a.s) had not given the oath of allegiance during those months (i.e. the period between the Prophet's (saw) death and Faatima's (s.a) death 6 months). Alee (a.s) sent someone to Aboo Bakr saying, "Come to us, but let nobody come with you," as he disliked that Umar should come. Umar said (to Aboo Bakr), "No, by Allah (swt)! You shall not enter upon them alone." Aboo Bakr said, "What do you think they will do to me? By Allah (swt)! I will go to them." So Aboo Bakr entered upon them, and then Alee (a.s) uttered Tashahhud and said (to Aboo Bakr), "We know well your superiority and what Allah (swt) has given you, and we are not jealous of the good that Allah (swt) has bestowed upon you, but you did not consult us in the question of the rule and we thought that we have got a right in it because of our near relationship to Allah's (swt) Apostle."

Thereupon Aboo Bakr's eyes flowed with tears. And when Aboo Bakr spoke, he said, "By Him in whose hand my soul is, to keep good relations with the relatives of Allah's Apostle (saw) is dearer to me than to keep good relations with my own relatives. But as for the trouble which arose between me and you about his property, I will do my best to spend it according to what is good, and will not leave any rule or regulation which I saw Allah's Apostle (saw) following, in disposing of it, but I will follow." On that, Alee (a.s) said to Aboo Bakr, "I promise to give you the oath of allegiance in this after noon." So when Aboo Bakr had offered the Dhuhr prayer, he ascended the pulpit and uttered the Tashahhud and then mentioned the story of Alee (a.s) and his failure to give the oath of allegiance, and excused him, accepting what excuses he had offered; Then Alee (a.s) (got up) and praying (to Allah (swt)) for forgiveness, he uttered Tashahhud, praised Aboo Bakr's right, and said, that he had not done what he had done because of jealousy of Aboo Bakr or as a protest of what Allah (swt) had favoured him with. Alee (a.s) added, "But we used to consider that we too had some right in this affair (of rulership) and that he (i.e. Aboo Bakr) did not consult us in this matter, and therefore caused us to feel sorry." On that all the Muslims became happy and said, "You have done the right thing." The Muslims then became friendly with Alee (a.s). He returned to what the people had done (i.e. giving the oath of allegiance to Aboo Bakr).

Source: Saheeh Bukhari. Pg. # 1040, H. # 4240 / 4241.


Important points to note from Hadeeths 4 and 5:

  • Alee (a.s) sought reconciliation with Aboo Bakr and gave him his oath of allegiance.

  • Alee (a.s) had not given the oath of allegiance for 6 months (the period between Prophet (saw) and Faatima's (s.a) death). - This contradicts the previous narrations.

  • Alee (a.s) disliked that Umar should be present, but Umar says to Aboo Bakr, "No, by Allah (swt)! You shall not enter upon them alone!" Aboo Bakr replies, "What do you think they will do to me? By Allah (swt)! I will go to them." - Why did Imam Alee (a.s) dislike Umar, and who was Aboo Bakr referring to when he said, "Them?"

  • Alee (a.s) said to Aboo Bakr, "I promise to give you the oath of allegiance this after noon." Aboo Bakr offered the Dhuhr prayer, ascended the pulpit, uttered the Tashahhud and then mentioned the story of Alee (a.s) and his failure to give the oath of allegiance. - What about the occasion of Zubayr and Imam Alee (a.s) praising him?

  • Then Alee (a.s) (got up) and praying (to Allah (swt)) for forgiveness, he uttered Tashahhud, praised Aboo Bakr's right, and said, that he had not done what he had done because of jealousy of Aboo Bakr or as a protest of that Allah (swt) had favoured him with. Alee (a.s) added, "But we used to consider that we too had some right in this affair (of rulership) and that Aboo Bakr did not consult us in this matter. - Why did they not consult them? Who is "us?"

  • All the Muslims became happy and said, "You have done the right thing." The Muslims then became friendly with Alee (a.s). He returned to what the people had done (i.e. giving the oath of allegiance to Aboo Bakr). - Why were they not friendly with Alee (a.s) prior to this? And if they were not friendly with Alee (a.s), what was their treatment towards him?


Ibn Al-Athir:

When the Messenger of Allah (saw) died, the Ansar were assembled in the shed of Bani Sa'idah to pay allegiance to Sa'd bin Ubada. Then Aboo Bakr was informed of it, so he, together with Umar and Aboo Ubaidah Al-Jarrah went to them and said: "What is this?" They replied: "There should be one Amir from us and one from you." Then Aboo Bakr said: "We are the rulers and you (Ansars) are the ministers (i.e. advisers)" and then said: "So you should elect either Umar or Aboo Ubaidah Al-Jarrah who is Amin of this Ummah." Then Umar said: "Who is more good than a man whom the Prophet (saw) preceded him (over others)." And then he paid allegiance to Aboo Bakr and the people paid allegiance too. Then the Ansar or some of the Ansar said: "We do not pay allegiance except to Alee (a.s)." It is said that Alee (a.s) and Banu Hashim and Al-Zubayr and Talha refused to pay allegiance and Al-Zubayr said: "I will not put down my sword untill Alee (a.s) pays allegiance." Umar said:  "Take his sword and hit it to the stone." Then Umar came and took them for allegiance, and it is said that when Alee (a.s) heard of the allegiance to Aboo Bakr, he came out wearing a garment without his cloak and and hurried until he paid allegiance and then wore his cloak. But the correct story is that the Commander of Faithful Alee (a.s) did not pay allegiance untill after six months. Allah (swt) knows best.

Source: Al-Kamal Fi Tarikh. Vol. 2, Pg. # 901 - 902.


Summary Of Narrators And The Bay'ah

(Click To Enlarge)


 

In light of these narratives that have been presented, we can conclude the pledge of allegiance given to Aboo Bakr can be classified in to the following categories:

  • Members of Bani Hashim were not informed about the gathering. 

  • Some of the Ansar, Zubayr, Talha and Imam Alee (a.s) opposed the Sheikhayn (Aboo Bakr and Umar).

  • Bay'ah was given immediately by others and they disliked Alee (a.s) for six months.

  • Imam Alee (a.s) gave Bay'ah 6 months after Faatima's (s.a) death.

  • Imam Alee (a.s) entered into Bay'ah to prevent Split in the Ummah.


Imam Alee's (a.s) Right On Khilafat Over Anyone Else


Abi Bakr Al-Khallal:

Narrated my father and Abdullah bin Umar Al-Qawareeri, narrated from Yahya ibn Hammad Aboo Bakr, narrated from Aboo Awanah, narrated Khalid Al-Hadha'a from Abdur Rahman ibn Abi Bakrah that; Alee (a.s) came to them and Ammar (r.a) was with him so he MENTIONED SOMETHING so Ammar (r.a) said: "O Ameer Al-Mo'mineen!" So he (Alee (a.s)) said, "Be quiet. By Allah (swt)! I will be with Allah (swt)." Then he said: "Nobody from this Ummah has suffered like I did when Rasool Allah (saw) died." He (Alee (a.s)) MENTIONED SOMETHING so people gave Bay'ah to Aboo Bakr, so I gave Bay'ah and I submitted and accepted. Then died Aboo Bakr so HE MENTIONED SOMETHING so Umar became successor HE MENTIONED THAT so I gave Bay'ah and I submitted and accepted. Then Umar died and left the matter with these six people so people gave Bay'ah to Uthman so I gave Bay'ah and I submitted and accepted, then they are today swaying between me and Mu'awiyah.

Footnote: Its narrators are Thiqha (Trustworthy).

Narrated Ibraheem ibn Al-Hajjaj (Al-Naji) in Basra from Aboo Awanah, narrated Khalid Al-Hadha'a from Abdur-Rahman ibn Abi Bakrah that; Alee (a.s) came to me, and in another occasion he said: Alee (a.s) came to us for a visit, and Ammar (r.a) was with him, then MENTIONED SOMETHING so Alee (a.s) said: "By Allah (swt)! I will be with Allah (swt) against whosoever it is. Nobody from this Ummah has suffered like I did when Rasool Allah (saw) died." He then MENTIONED SOMETHING. Then people gave Bay'ah to Aboo Bakr so I gave Bay'ah and I submitted and accepted. Then when Aboo Bakr died, then HE MENTIONED SOMETHING, then Umar became successor, so I gave Bay'ah and I submitted and accepted. Then Umar died and left the matter with the council, then Bay'ah was given to Uthman so I gave Bay'ah and I submitted and accepted. Then they are today swaying between me and Mu'awiyah!

Footnote: Its narrators are Thiqha (Trustworthy)


Source: Kitab Al-Sunnah by Abdullah ibn Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Vol. 2, Pg. # 563, H. # 1315 - 1316.




Now we shall look at Ansab Al-Ashraaf and how the words have been omitted.

Al-Baladhuri:


Narrated to me Ruh ibn Abdul Momin from Abi Awanah from Khalid Al-Hadha'a from Abdur Rahman ibn Abi Bakrah that Alee (a.s) came to them for a visit and he said: "Nobody from this Ummah has suffered like I did when Rasool Allah (saw) died, and I was the one who had the right to this (Caliphate) more than anyone, but Bay'ah was given to Aboo Bakr and Umar succeeded him, so I gave Bay'ah and I submitted and accepted. Then people gave Bay'ah to Uthman so I gave Bay'ah and I submitted and accepted and now they are swaying between me and Mu'awiyah!"

Source: Ansaab Al-Ashraaf. Vol. 2, Pg. # 402.





So we can see that the Matn (content) is the same as the first hadeeth except that words hidden are: "I was the one who had the right to this (Caliphate) more than anyone!"

The new narrator in the above narration is also Thiqah (Trustworthy):

Al-Dhahabi:


Ruh ibn Abdul Momin Al-Basri Al-Muqri, companion of Yaqoob. He has heard from Himad ibn Zaid and Aba Uwanah, and Al-Bukhari has narrated from him and Aboo Ya'laa and Mutayyin. He is Trustworthy. Bukhari has narrated from him in his Saheeh.

Source: Al-Kashaf. Vol. 1, Pg. # 398, Person # 1594.




The following narration is also a witness for the above narrations.

Ibn al-Athir:

Narrated Yahya ibn Mahmood from Al-Hassan ibn Ahmad in his teaching class from Aboo Nu'aym from Aboo Alee Muhammd ibn Ahmad Al-Hasan from Abdullah ibn Muhammd from Ibraheem ibn Yusuf Al-Sirafi from Yahya ibn Urwa Al-Muradi who said: I heard Alee (a.s) saying: "The Prophet (saw) died, and I saw myself the most deserving for this matter (i.e. Caliphate). But then the Muslims gathered around Aboo Bakr, so I obeyed and accepted. Then when Aboo Bakr was dying, I thought he would not refrain it from me, but he gave it to Umar, so I accepted and obeyed. Then when Umar was dying, I thought he would not refrain it from me, but he put the decision for a council of six and made me one of them. But then they elected Uthman for leadership, so I accepted and obeyed. Then when Uthman was killed, they came to me and gave Bay'ah to me willingly, not by force, but then they left my Bay'ah. By Allah (swt)! I cannot find (any solution) except the sword or disbelief in what Allah (swt) has revealed to Muhammad (saw)."


Source: Usd Al-Ghaba Fi Ma'rifat Al-Sahaba. Vol. 4, Pg. # 106.





After looking at all three hadeeth, we can conclude that the words hidden are, "I was the one who had the right to this (Caliphate) more than anyone." Hence, the original content of this hadeeth is:

"Narrated my father (Ahmad ibn Hanbal) and Abdullah bin Umar Al-Qawareeri, narrated from Yahya ibn Hammad Aboo Bakr, narrated from Aboo Awanah narrated Khalid Al-Hadha'a from Abdur Rahman ibn Abi Bakrah that Alee (a.s) came to them and Ammar was with him so he (Alee (a.s)) said, "I was the one who had the right to this (Caliphate) more than anyone." So Ammar said: "O Amir Al-Mo'mineen!" So he (Alee (a.s)) said: 'Remain silent. By Allah (swt)! I will be with Allah (swt)." Then he said: "Nobody from this Ummah has suffered like I did when Rasool Allah (saw) died." He (Alee (a.s)) said, "I was the one who had the right to this (Caliphate) more than anyone, so people gave Bay'ah to Aboo Bakr so I gave Bay'ah and I submitted and accepted." Then died Aboo Bakr. So he (Alee (a.s)) said, "I was the one who had the right to this (Caliphate) more than anyone. So Umar became successor although I was the one who had the right to this (Caliphate) more than anyone, so I gave Bay'ah and I submitted and accepted. Then Umar died and left the matter with these six people. So people gave Bay'ah to Uthman so I gave Bay'ah and I submitted and accepted. Then they are today swaying between me and Mu'awiyah!"


The Riddah Wars (Wars Of Apostasy)


The sending of foreign expeditions by the Sheikhayn was never a religious movement. The principle reason for the wars was to divert the attention of the people from the inefficiency of the persons heading the State, by taking advantage of the Arab's greed for loot. Many people joined the army in anticipation of aquiring large booty, others out of misguided religious advice. Shortly within usurping of the Caliphate, the overwhelming majority of Arabs staged a peaceful revolt. The refusal to pay the zakat too was connected with their non-acceptance of Aboo Bakr as a Caliph. When the establishment was not proper in their view, they naturally abstained from paying their taxes. According to Aboo Bakr, they deserved death, and were accordingly destroyed by the regime, even though these group of people retained their Islamic identities.

Ibn Hazim:

People of Riddah (apostasy) were two groups: One group were those who never believed like the followers of Musailama and Sajjah. These were the people of war and did not want to submit at all and there is no dispute that their repentance and conversion to Islam was acceptable (if they wanted to repent and accept Islam), the other group were Muslims and did not apostate after their acceptance of Islam, but they refused to pay Zakat to Abi Bakr and that is why he fought with them.

Source: Al-Muhalla. Vol. 3, Pg. # 193.




This statement of Ibn Hazim destroys all claims that those against whom Aboo Bakr fought were Ahl Al-Riddah 'people of apostasy,' because the first group were those "who never believed" so how can they be called people of Riddah or apostasy?! And the second group "were Muslims and did not apostate, but refused to pay Zakat to Aboo Bakr," so how can they be called people of Riddah or apostasy, when they never apostated?! The conclusion is that neither of the two groups of people against whom Aboo Bakr fought were apostates as they claim them to be.

Al-Bukhari:

Chapter: "… And whoever kills a believer intentionally, his recompense is Hell …"

Narrated Al-Miqdad bin Amr Al-Kindi: An ally of Bani Zuhra who took part in the battle of Badr with the Prophet (saw), that he said, "O Allah's Apostle (saw)! If I meet an unbeliever and we have a fight, and he strikes my hand with the sword and cuts it off, and then takes refuge from me under a tree, and says, 'I have surrendered to Allah (swt) (i.e. embraced Islam),' may I kill him after he has said so?" Allah's Messenger (saw) said, "Do not kill him." Al-Miqdad said, "But O Allah's Messenger (saw)! He had chopped off one of my hands and he said that after he had cut it off. May I kill him?" The Prophet (saw) said. "Do not kill him for if you kill him, he would be in the position in which you had been before you kill him, and you would be in the position in which he was before he said the sentence." The Prophet (saw) also said to Al-Miqdad, "If a faithful believer conceals his faith (Islam) from the disbelievers, and then when he declares his Islam, you kill him, (you will be sinful). Remember that you were also concealing your faith (Islam) at Makkah before."

Source: Saheeh Bukhari. Pg. # 1698 - 1699, H. # 6865.


Muslim ibn Hajjaj:

Chapter: The prohibition of killing a disbeliever after he says La ilaha illallah.

It is narrated on the authority of Usama b. Zaid: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) sent us to Huraqat, a tribe of Juhaina. We attacked that tribe early in the morning and defeated them and I and a man from the Ansar caught hold of a person (of the defeated tribe). When we overcame him, he said: "There is no God but Allah (swt)." At that moment the Ansari spared him, but I attacked him with my spear and killed him. The news had already reached the Apostle (peace be upon him), so when we came back he (the Apostle (saw)) said to me: "Usama, did you kill him after he had made the profession: 'There is no God but Allah (swt)?'" I said, "Messenger of Allah (saw), he did it only as a shelter." The Holy Prophet (saw) observed: "Did you kill him after he had made the profession that there is no God but Allah (swt)?" He (the Holy Prophet (saw)) went on repeating this to me till I wished I had not embraced Islam before that day.

Source: Saheeh Muslim. Pg. # 57, H. 3227 / 6872 .


Al-Bukhari:

Narrated Aboo Huraira: When the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, died and Aboo Bakr became the Khalifah, some Arabs became Kuffar. As a result, Umar said (to Aboo Bakr), "How can you fight with these people despite that the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said, 'I have been ordered to fight the people till they say: 'There is no God but Allah (swt).' And whoever said it, then he will save his life and property from me except on trespassing the law, and his accounts will be with Allah (swt)." He (Aboo Bakr) said, "By Allah (swt)! I will fight those who differentiate between Salaah and Zakah, as Zakah is a right to be taken from the property. By Allah (swt)! If they refused to pay me even a she-kid which they used to pay to Allah's Apostle (saw), I would fight with them for withholding it."

Source: Saheeh Bukhari. Pg. # 339, H. # 1399.


Abdul Razzaq:

Narrated Abdul Razzaq from Ma'mar from Al-Zuhri said that Aboo Qatadah said: "During Riddah (days), we marched to Ahl Abyaat and reached there at sunset. Then we raised our spears, hence they asked: 'Who are you?' We replied: 'We are slaves of Allah (swt).' They said: 'We are slaves of Allah (swt) too.' Then Khalid arrested them and when it was morning he ordered their beheading. Then I said: 'Oh Khalid! Fear Allah (swt), this is not allowed for you.' He (Khalid) replied: 'Stay (back); this is not your business.' Then Aboo Qatadah swore by Allah (swt) never to march with Khalid for any war. Qatadah said: "The desert Arabs encouraged him (Khalid) on killing them for the sake of booties and that was Malik bin Nuwayrah's case."

Source: Musannaf Abdul Razzaq. Vol. 8, Pg. # 174 - 175. H. # 18722.


Their refusal to give Zakat alone made them Kufaar in Aboo Bakr's eyes, even though they never explicitly rejected Islam. Was he complying with what the Prophet (saw) said? We beg to differ.

Let us now take a look at what the scholars say in regards to those who refuse to pay Zakat, are they truly deemed Kafir?

Bahuti Al-Hanbali:

The one who refuses to submit to Zakat is not a Kafir if it is due to stinginess or disdain, (when the Imam fights with him), according to the narration of Abdullah ibn Shaqiq, and because Umar and others prevented at the beginning from fighting with those who refused to pay Zakat, if they believed in their disbelief they would not have prevented from fighting them.

Source: Kashaf Al-Iqnaa. Vol. 5, Pg. # 82.



Khalifa ibn Khayyat:

Alee bin Muhammad from Abi Da'eb from Zuhri from Salim from his father that he said: Aboo Qatadah came to Aboo Bakr and informed him of the murder of Malik and his companions, hence he (Aboo Bakr) became extremely aggrieved. Aboo Bakr then wrote (a message) to Khalid, and he (Khalid) came to him. Aboo Bakr said: "Can it be more than Khalid interpreted and made a mistake?" Then Aboo Bakr sent Khalid back and paid blood money for Malik bin Nuwayrah and returned the booty.

Source: Tareekh Khalifa ibn Khayyat. Pg. # 105.


Malik was not an ordinary companion, in fact, it was he to whom the Holy Prophet (saw) had assigned the important task of collecting the alms-tax (sadaqah) during his life.

Ibn Hajar:

Malik bin Nuwayrah bin Jamrah bin Shadad bin Ubaid bin Thalba bin Yarbu Al-Tamimi Al-Yarbuei, his nickname is Aba Handhla and also known as Al-Jeful. Al-Marzebani said: "He was a poet, honourable, a knight counted among the knights of Bani Yarbu (tribe) during the days of ignorance, and he was amongst the noble ones (of his tribe). He was the representative of kings. The Prophet (saw) appointed him to collect alms-tax from his people.

Source: Al-Isaba Fi Tamyiz Al-Sahaba. Vol. 9, Pg. # 493.


Ibn Hibban:

Those who were appointed by Allah’s Messenger (saw) to collect the alms-tax until his death were Uday bin Hatim for his people, Malik bin Nuwayrah for Bani Handhla, Qais bin Asim for Bani Manqer, Al-Zurberqan bin Badr for Bani Saad, Ka'ab bin Malik bin Abi Qais for Aslam and Ghefar and Juhaina, Al-Dhahak bin Sufyan for Bani Kelab, Amro bin Al-Aas for Oman, Al-Muhajir bin Abi Umaya for San'a, Ziyad bin Lubaid on Hadhramut.

Source: Al-Thuqat. Vol. 2, Pg . # 144 - 145.



Our opponents are in the habit of undercutting the value of Malik. This is a man who was directly appointed by the Prophet (saw) to collect Zakah. He thus most assuredly knew what refusing to pay entailed. If he merely wanted to be relieved of Aboo Bakr, he could have paid it and been done with the matter. Clearly that is not what his refusal entailed. His refusal was spliced with political expediency.

Malik was from Yemen and Khalid was unable to convert the people of Yemen to Islam in the six months he spent with them, thus it was obvious he was not on good terms. However, Imam Alee (a.s) converted them in only one day. To Khalid this was humiliating and he thus sought revenge on a supporter of Imam Alee (a.s).

The Yemeni's were already aware of Imam Alee's (a.s) succession after the Prophet (saw) due to letters sent by him (saw) establishing it. Malik's refusal of Aboo Bakr's Caliphate and Khalid's revenge on the Yemenis for his wounded pride go hand in hand. This was Khalid's real incentive in killing Malik and raping his wife. There is no reason to believe any woman after knowing a man for just one day, and observing him kill her husband, would then willingly consummate with him. No matter how many attempts are made to prove Khalid ibn Waleed was correct in killing Malik, for the reason he was a murtad, the scholars expressed their personal reservations about calling him a disbeliever.

Ibn Abd Al-Barr:

There is disagreement about him (Malik) did he (Khalid) kill him as a Muslim or Murtad. In my opinion, he (Khalid) was mistaken in killing him and Allah (swt) knows best.

Source: Al-Isti'ab. Vol. 3, Pg. # 1362, Person. # 2303.



Allamah Zamakhshari:

Khalid: Malik ibn Nuwayrah said to his wife on the day Khalid killed him: "You killed me!" Which means you are the reason why I am killed for me defending and protecting you, (because) she was beautiful, then Khalid married her after her husband's murder and he (Khalid) has been condemned for that.

Source: Al-Fa'iq. Vol. 3, Pg. # 157.




Objection One

Aboo Bakr was present during the Prophet (saw) funeral, he gave advice to the place of burial.

A'isha narrated: "When the Messenger of Allah (saw) died, they disagreed over where to bury him. So Aboo Bakr said: 'I heard the Messenger of Allah (saw) saying something which I have not forgotten, he said: "Allah (swt) does not take (the life of) a Prophet except at the location in which he wants him to be buried.' So they buried him at the spot of his bed."

Source: Saheeh Tirmidhi. Vol. 2, Book 5, H. # 1018.


Response One

This narration no way alludes to the fact that Aboo Bakr was present at the burial of the Prophet (saw). In reality, after making this suggestion they abandoned the Prophets' (saw) body to leave for Saqifah.

Al-Nasa'i:

Narrated Qutaibah ibn Sa'eed from Humayd ibn Abdul Rahman from Salama ibn Nubayt from Nu'aym from Nubayt from Saalim bin Ubayd and he was one of the companions of Al-Suffa (a group of companions): "Rasulullah (saw) became unconscious during his (last) illness. When he woke up he asked: 'Is it already time for prayers?' They replied: 'Yes.' He (saw) said: 'Instruct Bilal (r.a) to call out the call of prayer, and instruct Aboo Bakr to lead the prayers.' Then he (saw) became unconscious again, when he woke up, he asked: 'Is it already time for prayers?' They replied: 'Yes.' He said: 'Instruct Bilal (r.a) to call out the call of prayer, and instruct Aboo Bakr to lead the prayers.'

A'isha said: "My father is soft-natured." The Prophet (saw) said: "You are like the companions of Yusuf (a.s). Instruct Bilal (r.a) to call out the call of prayer, and instruct Aboo Bakr to lead the prayers." Then they told Bilal (r.a) to call out the call of prayer, and told Aboo Bakr to lead the prayers. When they started the prayers the Prophet (saw) asked: "Has the prayers started?" His wives said: "Yes." He (saw) said: "Is there anyone who could support me till the Masjid?" Barirah came and another person offered themselves, held him by his hands and took him to the Masjid. Aboo Bakr sensing the arrival of Rasulullah (saw) thought of moving back. Rasulullah (saw) signalled him to remain there. Aboo Bakr completed the prayers. 

After that, Rasulullah (saw) passed away and Umar said: "Any person saying that Rasulullah (saw) has passed away, I will severe that person's head with my sword!" He (Salim) said, "The people were ummis (unlettered-they didn't read or write), nor was there a Nabi among them before this, therefore all those present kept silent." They said to Salim, "Go to the companion of Rasulullah (saw) and call him!" I went out and found Aboo Bakr standing in the mosque, Aboo Bakr asked: "Did Rasulullah (saw) pass away?" I conveyed the news to him and also said to him that Umar had said, if he heard anyone saying Rasulullah (saw) has died, he would cut off that person's head with that sword of his.

Aboo Bakr held my hand and we went and entered the house while the people were gathering around Rasulullah (saw). He leaned and kissed his forehead, then recited this verse: 'Lo! thou wilt die, and lo! they will die;' {39:30}. Then they asked: "O Companion of Rasulullah (saw)! Has Rasulullah (saw) really passed away?" He replied: "Yes." Now they accepted. They said: "O Companion of Rasulullah (saw)! Should funeral prayers be performed for Rasulullah (saw)?" He replied: "Yes." They said: "And how can we pray?" He said: "A group at a time enter the room and perform the funeral prayers individually, and return. In this manner all will perform this prayer." They asked: "O Companion of Rasulullah (saw)! Shall Rasulullah (saw) be buried?" He replied: "Yes." They inquired: "Where?" He replied: "At the spot where Allah (swt) had taken His (saw) soul. Verily Allah (swt) has not taken his soul but at a venerated place." They knew he said the truth. Then Aboo Bakr said: "Go to your companion (i.e. Alee (a.s)) and he (Aboo Bakr) went out and the Muhajireen got together and discussed the matter. They said: "Let us go to our brothers from among the Ansar and include them in this matter (i.e. Caliphate)." The Ansar said: "We shall have an Amir, and the Muhajireen shall have an Amir." Umar said: "Putting two swords in one cover is wrong" and then took the hand of Aboo Bakr and said: "Who is that person who in one instance possesses these three virtues. Whom Allah (swt) has mentioned in the Qur'aan thus: 'When he said unto his comrade.' Who is his comrade? 'When they both were in the cave.' Who are those two? 'Do not be sad, Allah (swt) is with us.' {9:40}. Allah (swt) is with whom?" And then he paid allegiance and said: "Pay allegiance to him." Then the people also made Bay'ah on the hands of Aboo Bakr wholeheartedly."

Source: Sunan Al-Kubra Al-Nasa'i. Vol. 6, Pg. # 395 - 396.


Objection Two

The Sheikhayn went to Saqifah to prevent fitnah amongst the people.

Response Two

Our opponents insist that all the companions are just and truthful and yet no sooner had the Prophet (saw) died they became greedy, eyeing for political control and authority. What type of companions were these? What happened to the love and understanding that they all had for one another? Would it be logical to believe the Prophet (saw) left his Ummah in Fitnah yet the Sheikhayn were more aware of repercussions than the Prophet (saw) himself? If such a sedition was about to take place, why did the Sheikhayn themselves not use this argument when later being challenged by the companions who opposed them?


If Aboo Bakr and Umar had not the intention to make themselves the leaders and only went to attend Saqeefah Bani Sa'idah to prevent discord, then the so-called Ahl us Sunnah are more foolish than we thought. If this was truly the case, why did they deem themselves fit for the position of Caliphate? We hear the Muhajir had more 'right' to Caliphate than the Ansar since the Ansar had less experience of being Muslim as they were newly converted people. One must question, does this give a person more authority to claim leadership? Is it not ones piety and knowledge which excels a person in the eyes of Allah (swt)? By merely being a Muslim for a longer period does not make one more knowledgeable, nor does it allow one to gain some personal advantage.

It is also said that Aboo Bakr and Umar would have taken more Muhajir friends with them if they conspired Caliphate for themselves. Again, this is completely absurd. Why would the two take alongside them more people when it would undoubtedly cause more of them to forward themselves for candidacy? Thus we find Aboo Bakr and Umar did no such thing. If their intentions were pure, why do we not find both of them persuading the Ansar at Saqeefah to keep aloof from the elections until after the burial of the Prophet (saw)? Surely, if they had the strength to overturn matters on who was most fit for the postion of Caliphate, then they most certainly had the strength to leave the matter at such a sensitive time and at least attend the funeral of the Prophet (saw). Yet, we find that no such discussions took place. The excuses made in defence of the Caliphate by the so-called 'Ahl ul Sunnah' are ones in which make no real sense. It is clear as daylight only to those who care to reflect on history.

Objection Three

The Quraysh were natural leaders and most suitable candidates for Caliphate thus the words of Aboo Bakr at Saqifah: "You have said the truth. We (Ansar) are the ministers while you (Quraysh) are the rulers."

Response Three

Al-Bukhari:

Narrated Aboo Huraira: The Prophet (saw) said, "The tribes of Quraysh, Al-Ansar, Juhayna, Muzayna, Aslam, Ghifar and Ashja are MY HELPERS, and they have no Protector (i.e. Master) except Allah (swt) and His Apostle (saw)."

Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. # 866, H. # 3504



Now does this mean all the members of Quraysh, Al-Ansar, Juhayna, Muzayna, Aslam, Ghifar and Ashja were helpers of the Prophet (saw)? Or was it that the Prophet (saw) was referring only to a specific group? Even though the Prophet (saw) narrated, "The tribe of Quraysh were leaders" this of course does not at mean ALL the people from the Quraysh. The Prophet (saw) also said: "I will leave among you two successors, the Book of Allah (swt) and my progeny. Both shall never separate until they return to me at the Lake-Font."

The Prophet (saw) did not mean that all his progeny are successors. Rather, that the successors are from them. And likewise, not all the leaders can be from the Quraysh. At times, even individuals such as Umar were excluded from this category even though he was a chieftain of the Quraysh on account of his historical caliphate.

Al-Albani:

The Prophet (saw) said, "Put the Quraysh in your front and do not lead them. Also, learn from Quraysh and never (attempt to) teach them."

Footnote: Narration is Saheeh (Authentic).

Source: Sahih Al-Jami' Al-Saghir. Vol. 2, Number 4383, Pg. # 809.



What does "Quraysh" mean? Does it include everyone and anyone? Or can it used in the general sense?

Al-Bukhari:

Narrated Said Al-Umawi: I was with Marwan and Aboo Huraira and heard Aboo Huraira saying, I heard the trustworthy, truly inspired one (i.e. the Prophet (saw)) saying, "The DESTRUCTION of my followers will be brought about by the hands of some youngsters from Quraysh." Marwan asked, "Youngsters?" Aboo Huraira said, "If you wish, I would name them: They are the children of so-and-so and the children of so-and-so."

Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. # 887, H. # 3205.




Al-Bukhari:

Narrated Aboo Huraira: I heard the truthful and trusted by Allah (swt) (i.e. The Prophet (saw)) saying, "The DESTRUCTION of my followers will be through the hands of young men from Quraysh."

Source: Saheeh Bukhari. Pg. # 1748, H. # 7058.



These youngsters from Quraysh are certainly not included in the above-quoted Hadeeth (even though they too are from the Quraysh). The Hadeeth teach us the Quraysh are guides, and more knowledgeable than all others. Obeying them leads to guidance, while disobeying them leads to misguidance. Did the first two usurpers fulfill these conditions? Were they more knowledgeable than all others and that too during the period of their caliphate? Was disagreement with them always misguidance?

Ibn Qayyim:

Chapter: Aboo Bakr Did Not Take Heed:

This is Siddique (Aboo Bakr) the most knowledgeable of this Ummah, yet he had no knowledge about inheritance of a grandmother until Muhammad ibn Salamah and Mughira ibn Shu'ba told him. Also he (Aboo Bakr) did not know that martyrs did not get any compensation.

Source: Ilam Al-Muwaqin an Rabb Al-Alamin. Vol. 4, Pg. # 19-20.



Chapter: Umar Did not Take Heed:

Umar had no knowledge of Tayammum. He would not pray for a month until he had a bath. He also had no knowledge of Diyyat Al-Asabi (Compensation for cutting ones finger), he believed it to be 25 camels until Amru ibn Hazim told him the Prophet (saw) said it was 10 camels. So Umar abandoned his idea and followed what was said to him. Also he had no knowledge about that he had to ask permission (to enter a house despite it being in the Qur'aan 24.28) until Aboo Musa and Aboo Sa'eed Al-Khudri told him. And he had no knowledge that a woman inherits a share of her husband's inheritance until Al-Dahahak ibn Sufyan Al-Qalbi told him and he was a bedouin living in the wild. Dahahak ibn Sufyan informed him (Umar) that the wife of Ashim Al-Dababi should get a share of her husbands wealth. And he (Umar) had no knowledge about Imlas (i.e. A woman who has an abortion because of having been beaten on her abdomen) until he was asked about it and Mughira ibn Shu'ba informed him concerning that. He (Umar) had no knowledge about the rulings on the Zoroastrians being in the Islamic state until Abdur Rahman bin Awf informed him that the Prophet (saw) took Jizya (tax levied on a section of an Islamic state's non-Muslim citizens) from the Zoroastrians of Hajar. And he (Umar) didn't know that menstruating women didn't have to do Tawaf Al-Wida (Farewell Tawaf) for he used to send them back until they were clean and then they would proceed (continue in Hajj) until he was told that the Prophet (saw) was not against that (woman performing Tawaf Al-Wida), so he followed the information given to him. He also had no knowledge of Diyyat Al-Asabi  [equal ransom for any finger cut and no favoring of any finger to another] ---and he used to favor some finger's ransom over other fingers' ransom, until they [companions] told him about the sunnah which was Taswiyah [equality in ransom for any finger]--- so he returned back to it.  Also he (Umar) didn't know about Mutah Al-Hajj, and he forbid it until he was told by the people the Prophet (saw) ordered it, so he left what he said and ordered to do it also. And he had no knowledge about calling Prophets names (to children) so he forbid it until they told him about it. The Prophet (saw) title was Aba Muhammad yet Umar didn't allow people (to name their children after Prophets) while the most known companions had names like Aboo Musa, Muhammad ibn Masalamah and Aboo Ayyub. But it didn't come to his mind that it was already happening (people had names of previous Prophets) so he forbid it. He also didn't know that Allah (swt) said in the Qur'aan, "Indeed, you are to die and indeed they are to die {39.30} and his saying "Muhammad is not but a messenger, and others messengers have passed on before him. So if he was to die or be killed, would you turn back on your heels? {3.144}. He (Umar) said, "By Allah (swt) it seems like I have never heard of these verse until today!" He (Umar) had no knowledge that a individual could have a higher dowry then the Prophet (saw) or his daughters until a lady told him about Allah (swt) saying in the Qur'aan, "But if you want to replace one wife with another and you have given one of them a great amount (Dowry), do not take (back) from it anything" {4.20}. So it was said, "Everybody has more knowledge than Umar even women!" Just like he didn't know the case of grandparents and Al-Kilala and some points about taking interest, so he wished that the Prophet (saw) showed an evidence about it. Also he had no knowledge at the treaty of Hudaybiyyah. That Allah (swt) had promised his Prophet (saw) and his companions entering Makkah, he had no knowledge of this until the Prophet (saw) pointed this out to him. Also he (Umar) he didn't know that it is allowed for the Muhrim [the one in hajj who did Ihraam] to keep the perfume and putting perfume after the Nahr [slaughtering the lambs which is one Hajj ritual] and before the Tawaf [turning around Kaa'ba] of Ifada [moving away from Kaaba to perform other rituals] and the sunnah was so.  Also he (Umar) didn't know what to do when plague occurred and he ordered to run away (from places that had the plague), until he was told the Prophet (saw) said, "If you hear it being in a land, do not enter it, and if it occurs in a land where you are then do not leave it" (to avoid the plague for that spreads elsewhere). Without doubt, this is the most knowledgeable person after Al-Siddique (Aboo Bakr). Just like ibn Masud said, "If the knowledge of Umar was put on a scale and that of all the people of the world on the the other side of that scale, Umar's side would win." Al-Amash said, "I told this statement to Ibraheem Al-Naghi, so he said, "By Allah (swt)! I find Umar a gold of 19 (ounces of knowledge)."

Source: Ilam Al-Muwaqin an Rabb Al-Alamin. Vol. 4, Pg. # 21 - 26.




Chapter: Uthman ibn Affan Didn't Take Heed

And Uthman ibn Affan didn't know the minimum time of 'Al-Haml' (pregnancy) until ibn Abbas mentioned the saying of Allah (swt), "And We have enjoined upon man, to his parents, good treatment. His mother carried him with hardship and gave birth to him with hardship, and his gestation and weaning [period] is thirty months" {46.15} and "Mothers may breastfeed their children two complete years for whoever wishes to complete the nursing [period]" { 2.223}. So he went back to this (injunction)

Source: Ilam Al-Muwaqin an Rabb Al-Alamin. Vol. 4, Pg. # 27.



How could the Caliph of the Muslims be so ignorant? Could the words of the Prophet (saw)possibly apply to such individuals? No doubt, they do not! They were from the Quraysh, and were man-made Caliphs. But certainly, this Hadeeth excludes them. Many of the Sahabah were far too interested in trade and money and gave little attention to Islamic learning as we can see from the following hadeeth.

Al-Bukhari:

Narrated Aboo Huraira: The people say that Aboo Huraira narrates too many narrations. In fact Allah (swt) knows whether I say the truth or not. They also ask, "Why do the emigrants and the Ansar not narrate as he does?" In fact, my emigrant brethren were busy trading in the markets, and my ansar brethren were busy with their properties. I was a poor man keeping the company of Allah's Apostle (saw) and was satisfied with what filled my stomach. So, I used to be present while they (i.e. emigrants and the ansar) were absent, and I used to remember while they forgot (the hadeeth).

Source: Saheeh Bukhari. Pg. # 565, H. # 2350.



Umar was among these companions who cared more about trade than about learning about religion.

Al-Bukhari:

Narrated Ubaid bin Umair: Aboo Musa asked permission to enter upon Umar, but seeing that he was busy, he went away. Umar then said, "Didn't I hear the voice of Abdullah bin Qais? Allow him to come in." He was called in and Umar said to him, "What made you do what you did?" He replied, "We have been instructed thus by the Prophet (saw)." Umar said, "Bring proof (witness) for this, otherwise I will do so-and-so to you." Then Abdullah bin Qais went to a gathering of the Ansar who then said, "None but the youngest of us will give the witness for it." So Aboo Sa'eed Al-Khudri got up and said, "We used to be instructed thus (by the Prophet (saw))." Umar said, "This tradition of the Prophet (saw) remained hidden from me. BUSINESS IN THE MARKET KEPT ME BUSY."

Source: Saheeh Bukhari. Pg. # 497, H. # 2062.



Ibn Kathir:

All the people are more knowledgeable than Umar!

Narration is Jayyid (Good).

Source: Tafsir ibn Tafsir. Vol. 2, Pg. # 244.



Umar was not exaggerating on how ignorant he was. He also admitted his intense intellectual dependence upon Imam Alee (a.s).

Ibn Hajar:

In Kitab Al-Nawadir of Al-Hamidi and Al-Tabaqat of Muhammad ibn Sa'd there is the report of Sa'id ibn Al-Musaiyab who said: Umar used to seek Allah's (swt) refuge from a complex question (being put to him) when the father of Al-Hasan, meaning Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s), was not around to solve it.

Source: Fath Al-Bari Fi Sharh Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Vol. 17, Pg. # 280.




Objection Four

If Imam Alee (a.s) thought he was divinely appointed by Allah (swt) to be the Infallible Imam of the Muslim Ummah, then why would he ever pledge his Bay'ah to a man who supposedly usurped a God-given position? Did the Prophet (saw) ever pledge his Bay'ah to those who sought to deny his Prophethood? Why then would Alee (a.s) pledge his Bay'ah to those who sought to deny his Imamah, a position which the Shi'a hold to be higher than Prophethood?

Response Four

It is incorrectly assumed that if Imam Alee (a.s) truly wanted the Caliphate he would have launched war for it. Such dichotomatic thought ignores that his right to the Caliphate was not for want of desire of power. 

This contention ignores the absolute sovereignty of the Imam. The Imam, the caliph of Divine election, can do whatever he sees fit, considering it is God who has appointed him upon mankind as his viceroy. If he orders us to eat chocolate chips while an impending army is upon on us, then it is our duty to eat chocolate chips while the impending army is upon us, without question. 

What ever happened to "submission" as definitive of Islam? The Shi'a do not really have to hammer this point because the so called books themselves establish the absolute sovereignty of the Caliph of the age. Does Imam Alee (a.s) have to provide a reason for why he did what he did, when his Wilayah was affirmatively established on Ghadeer Khum? No he does not.

Be that as it may. The Prophet (saw) said regarding Imam Hassan (a.s), "These two children of mine are Imams whether they stand up or sit down." An Imam is the Imam whether he is "sitting or rising," that is whether he is at war or without war. We also have traditions recorded in the books of our opponents that the Prophet (saw) instructed patience and restraint in the face of tyrannical rulers. 

Muslim ibn Hajjaj:

It his been narrated through a different chain of transmitters, on the authority of Hudhaifa b. Al-Yaman who said: "Messenger of Allah, no doubt, we had an evil time (i.e. the days of Jahiliyya or ignorance) and God brought us a good time (i.e. Islamic period) through which we are now living. Will there be a bad time after this good time?" He (the Holy Prophet (saw)) said: "Yes." I said: "Will there be a good time after this bad time?" He said: "Yes." I said: "Will there be a bad time after good time?" He said: "Yes." I said: "How?" Whereupon he said: "There will be leaders who will not lead by my guidance and who will not adopt my ways. There will be among them men who will have the hearts of devils in the bodies of human beings." I said: "What should I do Messenger of Allah (saw), if I (happen) to live in that time?" He replied: "You will listen to the Amir and carry out his orders; even if your back is flogged and your wealth is snatched, you should listen and obey."

Source: Saheeh Muslim. Pg. # 772, H. # 1847.





Imam Alee (a.s) says he would have fought for his rights if he has at least 40 supporters. Alas, he did not, so what was he supposed to do? Get himself and the few followers he had killed railing an opposition? What would have happened to Islam then? Imam Hussain (a.s) however did wage war, because by his time, as opposed to Imam Alee's (a.s) time, the distinctions between the Imami faction and that of the usurpers was fully defined for all future generations. For Imam Alee (a.s), such a rebellion was simply too early to launch, and so he practiced restraint. 

He (a.s) valued human life enough to realize that civil war was the last thing the fledgling Muslim community needed. The people had already betrayed him as the Prophet (saw) prophesied. What more was he to do? Launch a war that would further divide and split them even further into sectarian warfare? That is exactly what he was trying to prevent. Which is canyon away from the Seerah of the Sheikhayn, given what Aboo Bakr's immediate Riddah wars demonstrate. Imam Alee (a.s) knew all he could do was conduct damage control. He could not undo the chaos to follow, all he could do is play whatever part he could to alleviate it. 

Aboo Shakur Al-Salimi Al-Hanafi:

Some people say: "If an Imam would not be obeyed, then he would not be an Imam, because if he would not have force and power then he would not be an Imam." 
We say: It is not like this because obedience to the Imam is an obligation from Allah (swt). If they would not obey the Imam, then the disobedience would have come from them and their disobedience would not cause harm. Do you not see how the Messenger of Allah (may Allah's (swt) blessings be upon him) was not obeyed in the beginning of Islam, and he had no force against his enemies as usual. And the disbelievers rebelled against his reinforcements and supporting his religion, and this did not cause harm to him, nor did that dismiss him from the Prophethood, and so for the Imamate. Because the Imam is the successor of the Prophet (may Allah's (swt) blessings be upon him), and he was not obeyed by all of the Muslims, and still he was not dismissed. So, what we said would be true, as well as that all the people apostatized from Islam, so the Imam would not be dismissed from the Imamate.

Source: 
Al-Tamheed Fi Bayan Al-Tawhid. Pg. # 186 - 187.


Objection Five

Its been narrated in several places that Imam Alee (a.s) used to say the best of this Ummah after the Prophet (saw) was Aboo Bakr and then Umar, and Aboo Bakr had more right to the Caliphate.

Response Five

These reports makes no sense in line with what has been documented about Imam Alee (a.s) elsewhere.

Al-Subki:

The Rafidhi hate Aboo Bakr and Umar because of what they have in their mind due to ignorance. And they have been raised to false belief that Aboo Bakr and Umar were unjust to Alee (a.s) and it is not like that. Neither did Alee (a.s) claim this. Therefore the belief of the Rafidhi causes them to have a incomplete religion because Aboo Bakr and Umar were the source after the Prophet (saw), and this is the reason why Rafidhis are considered disbelievers because of their hatred against both of them and insulting them both.

Source: Fatawa Al-Subki Fi Furu Al-Fiqh Al-Shafi'i. Vol. 2, Pg. # 576.


By contrast, Imam Alee (a.s) himself was a malignant Rafidhi. During Umar ibn Al-Khattab's caliphate he said to Alee (a.s) and Al-Abbas:

Muslim ibn Hajjaj:

It is reported by Zuhri that this tradition was narrated to him by Malik b. Aus who said: Umar ibn Al-Khattab sent for me and I came to him when the day had advanced. I found him in his house sitting on his bare bed-stead, reclining on a leather pillow. He said (to me): "Malik, some people of your tribe have hastened to me. I have ordered a little money for them. Take it and distribute it among them." I said: "I wish you had ordered somebody else to do this job." He said: "Malik, take it." At this moment (his man-servant) Yarfa came in and said: "Commander of the Faithful, what do you say about Uthman, Abd Al-Rahman b. Awf, Zubayr and Sa'd (who have come to seek an audience with you)?" He said: "Yes." And permitted them. So they entered. Then he (Yarfa) came again and said: "What do you say about Alee (a.s) and Abbas (who are present at the door)?" He said: "Yes." And permitted them to enter. Abbas said: "Commander of the Faithful, decide between me and this sinful, treacherous, dishonest, liar." The people (who were present) also said: "Yes. Commander of the Faithful, do decide and have mercy on them." Malik b. Aus said: "I could well imagine that they had sent them in advance for this purpose (by Alee (a.s) and Abbas)." Umar said: "Wait and be patient. I adjure you by Allah (swt)! By Whose order the heavens and the earth are sustained, don't you know that the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: 'We (Prophets) do not have any heirs; what we leave behind is charity?'" They said: "Yes." Then he turned to Abbas and Alee (a.s) and said: "I adjure you both by Allah (swt)! By Whose order the heavens and earth are sustained, don't you know that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: 'We do not have any heirs; what we leave behind is charity?'" They (too) said: "Yes." (Then) Umar said: "Allah (swt), the Glorious and Exalted, had done to His Messenger (may peace be upon him) a special favour that He has not done to anyone else except him." He quoted the Qur'anic verse: "What Allah has bestowed upon His Apostle from (the properties) of the people of township is for Allah and His Messenger." The narrator said: "I do not know whether he also recited the previous verse or not." Umar continued: "The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) distributed among you the properties abandoned by Banu Nadir. By Allah (swt!) He never preferred himself over you and never appropriated anything to your exclusion. This property was left over. The Messenger of Allah (saw) would meet from its income his annual expenditure, and what remained would be deposited in the Bait-ul-Mal. He said: "I adjure you by Allah (swt) by Whose order the heavens and the earth are sustained. Do you know this?" They said: "Yes." Then he adjured Abbas and Alee (a.s) as he had adjured the other persons and asked: "Do you both know this?" They said: "Yes." He said: "When the Messenger of Allah (saw) passed away, Aboo Bakr said: 'I am the successor (Wali) of the Messenger of Allah (saw).' Both of you came to demand your shares from the property (left behind by the Messenger of Allah (saw)). (Referring to Abbas), he said: "You demanded your share from the property of your nephew, and he (referring to Alee (a.s)) demanded a share on behalf of his wife from the property of her father. Aboo Bakr said: The Messenger of Allah (saw) had said: 'We do not have any heirs; what we leave behind is charity.' So both of you thought him to be a liar, sinful, treacherous and dishonest. And Allah (swt) knows that he was true, virtuous, well-guided and a follower of truth. When Aboo Bakr passed away and I have become the successor (Wali) of the Messenger of Allah (saw) and Aboo Bakr, you thought me to a liar, sinful, treacherous and dishonest. And Allah (swt) knows that I am true, virtuous, well-guided and a follower of truth. I became the guardian of this property. Then you as well as he came to me. Both of you have come and your purpose is identical. You said: 'Entrust the property to us.' I said: 'If you wish that I should entrust it to you, it will be on the condition that both of you will undertake to abide by a pledge made with Allah (swt) that you will use it in the same way as the Messenger of Allah (saw) used it. So both of you got it.'" He said: "Wasn't it like this?" They said: "Yes." He said: "Then you have come to me with the request that I should adjudge between you. No, by Allah (swt)! I will not give any other judgment except this until the arrival of the Doomsday. If you are unable to hold the property on this condition, return it to me."

Source: Saheeh Muslim. Vol. 1, Pg. # 840.



Al-Bukhari:

Narrated Malik bin Aus bin Al-Hadathan: Once I set out to visit Umar (bin Al-Khattab). (While I was sitting there with him his gate-keeper, Yarfa came and said, "Uthman, Abdur Rahman (bin Awf), Az-Zubayr and Sa'd (bin Abi Waqqas) are seeking permission (to meet you)." Umar said, "Yes." So he admitted them and they entered, greeted, and sat down. After a short while, Yarfa came again and said to Umar, "Shall I admit Alee (a.s) and Abbas?" Umar said, "Yes." He admitted them and when they entered, they greeted and sat down. Abbas said, "O Chief of the Believers! Judge between me and this (Alee (a.s))." The group, Uthman and his companions Sa'd said, "O Chief of the Believers! Judge between them and relieve one from the other." Umar said, "Wait! I beseech you by Allah (swt), by Whose permission both the Heaven and the Earth stand fast! Do you know that Allah's Apostle (saw) said, 'We (Apostles) do not bequeath anything to our heirs, but whatever we leave is to be given in charity.' And by that, Allah's Apostles (saw) meant himself?" The group said, "He did say so." Umar then turned towards Alee (a.s) and Abbas and said, "I beseech you both by Allah (swt)! Do you know that Allah's Apostle (saw) said that?" They said, "Yes." Umar said, "Now, let me talk to you about this matter. Allah (swt) favoured His Apostle with something of this property (war booty) which He did not give to anybody else. And Allah (swt) said: 'And what Allah (swt) has bestowed on His Apostle (as Fai Booty) from them for which you made no expedition with either cavalry or camelry...Allah is Able to do all things.' {59.6} So this property was especially granted to Allah's Apostle (saw). But by Allah (swt)! He neither withheld it from you, nor did he keep it for himself and deprive you of it, but he gave it all to you and distributed it among you till only this remained out of it. And out of this property, Allah's Apostle (saw) used to provide his family with their yearly needs, and whatever remained, he would spend where Allah's (swt) property (the revenues of Zakat) used to be spent. Allah's Apostle (saw) kept on acting like this throughout his lifetime. Now I beseech you by Allah (swt), do you know that?" They said, "Yes." Then Umar said to Alee (a.s) and Abbas, "I beseech you by Allah (swt)! Do you both know that?" They said, "Yes." Umar added, "When Allah (swt) had taken His Apostle unto Him, Aboo Bakr said, 'I am the successor (Wali) of Allah's Apostle (saw). So he took charge of that property and did with it the same what Allah's Apostle (saw) used to do, and both of you knew all about it then." Then Umar turned towards Alee (a.s) and Abbas and said, "You both claim that Aboo Bakr was so-and-so! But Allah (swt) knows that he was honest, sincere, pious and right (in that matter). Then Allah (swt) caused Aboo Bakr to die, and I said, 'I am the successor (Wali) of Allah's Apostle (saw) and Aboo Bakr.' So I kept this property in my possession for the first two years of my rule, and I used to do the same with it as Allah's Apostle (saw) and Aboo Bakr used to do. Later, both of you (Alee (a.s) and Abbas) came to me with the same claim and the same problem. (O Abbas!) You came to me demanding your share from (the inheritance of) the son of your brother, and he (Alee (a.s)) came to me demanding his wives share from (the inheritance of) her father. So I said to you, 'If you wish I will hand over this property to you, on condition that you both promise me before Allah (swt) that you will manage it in the same way as Allah's Apostle (saw) and Aboo Bakr did, and as I have done since the beginning of my rule; otherwise you should not speak to me about it.' So you both said, 'Hand over this property to us on this condition.' And on this condition I handed it over to you. I beseech you by Allah (swt), did I hand it over to them on that condition?" The group said, "Yes." Umar then faced Alee (a.s) and Abbas and said, "I beseech you both by Allah (swt)! Did I hand it over to you both on that condition?" They both said, "Yes." Umar added, "Do you want me now to give a decision other than that? By Him with Whose permission (order) both the Heaven and the Earth stand fast, I will never give any decision other than that till the Hour is established! But if you are unable to manage it (that property), then return it to me and I will be sufficient for it on your behalf."

Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. # 1364 - 1365, H. # 5358.



By describing Aboo Bakr and Umar as "liars, sinful, treacherous, oppressors, evil-doers and dishonest," Imam Alee (a.s) confirmed his explicit rank as a complete Rafidhi. In direct opposition to Imam Alee (a.s) the Rafidhi, the so-called 'Ahl ul-Sunnah wa Al-Jama'ah' insist that all the companions, including Aboo Bakr and Umar and the Nawasib, were friends of Allah (swt).

The Shi'a Imamiyyah, following their Rafidhi Imam (a.s) who was also of the belief that Aboo Bakr and Umar were liars, sinful, treacherous, oppressors, evil-doers and dishonest. 

Imam Alee (a.s) considered both Aboo Bakr and Umar as sinful, treacherous and dishonest liars! How then could he possibly have regarded both individuals as the best of the Ummah? Does it make sense that the one who surpasses all the companions in virtue thought that sinful, treacherous and dishonest liars were better than himself and everyone else?! Besides, on what basis would he have declared himself an ordinary Muslim equal with all others despite everything that Allah (swt) and His Prophet (saw) had publicly and privately said about him? 

Imam Alee (a.s) was an outstandingly intelligent, sincere believer in Allah (swt) and His Messenger (saw), who could never have made such illogical comments. What we find, therefore, in the books of the so called 'Ahl ul-Sunnah' concerning his alleged admission of the superiority of Aboo Bakr and Umar over himself are only cheap polemical stunts pulled by the Umayyad propaganda. Even by the testimony of Aboo Bakr himself, he did not consider himself better then anyone else.

Ibn Kathir:

And Muhammad ibn Ishaq said Al-Zuhri narrated from Anas ibn Malik said that: When Aboo Bakr was giving the pledge at Saqifah, the next day Aboo Bakr sat on the pulpit, while Umar got up to speak before him. After thanking and praising Allah (swt) as His due, he said: "O people! Yesterday I said things which I did not find in the Book of Allah (swt) nor did the Prophet (saw) entrust them to me. However, I believed that the Prophet (saw) would manage our affairs and be the last of us to die. Allah (swt) has left among you His book by which He guided His Prophet (saw). If you firmly adhere to it, Allah (swt) will guide you as He guided him (saw). Allah (swt) has placed your affairs in the hands of the best one among you, the Companion of the Prophet (saw), 'the second of the two, when they were in the cave', so get up and pay allegiance to him."

The people paid allegiance to Aboo Bakr publicly after the allegiance that took place in Saqifah the day before that. Aboo Bakr said after praising Allah (swt):

"O people! I have been given authority over you but I am not the best of you! If I do well, help me and if I do wrong then correct me. Truthfulness is in honesty and falsehood is in treachery. The weak person among you is strong in my eyes until I restore him his right if Allah (swt) wills. and the strong person among you is weak in my eyes until I take the right from him. No people withhold from Jihad in the way of Allah (swt) but Allah (swt) strikes them with humiliation. Whenever obscenity prevails among a people, Allah (swt) overwhelms them with affliction. Obey me as long as I obey Allah (swt) and His Messenger (saw), and in case that I disobey Allah (swt) and His Messenger (saw) you owe me no obenience. Rise to your prayer. May Allah (swt) have mercy on you."

Ibn Kathir: The chain is this narration is Saheeh (Authentic), and his (Aboo Bakr's) saying, ''I have been given authority over you but I am not the best of you." Is in the way of humbling oneself and modesty, for they all agree that he is the most superior of them and the best of them, may Allah (swt) be pleased with them."

Source: Al-Bidayah Wa'an Nihayah. Vol. 8, Pg. # 89 - 90.


 

Ibn Kathir attempts to snub the words of Aboo Bakr by claiming that he was merely being humble. We can argue by applying the same principles. Why is it that the so-called 'Ahl ul Sunnah' can not accept this very reasoning when it comes to Imam Alee (a.s) saying: "I am only an ordinary Muslim?" Was Imam Alee (a.s) just an ordinary Muslim despite the plethora of evidence we have shown earlier? Ibn Hazim confesses the true reality of the testimony of Aboo Bakr and his status among the Ummah.

Ibn Hazim:

Praise be to the Lord of the Worlds, to grant us success by His mercy we say, And from Allah Almighty we seek help:

It is Saheeh (Authentic) that Aboo Bakr Al-Siddique gave a sermon when he became leader after the death of the Messenger of Allah (saw) and said: "O people! I became your leader (Wali) and I am not the best among you." And it is Saheeh (Authentic) from him that he announced it in the presence of all companions that he is not the best among them and not one of them denied that statement which shows their obedience to him. And there is no dispute that there is no human being among those present in that sermon about whom it is said that he is better than Abi Bakr, except for Alee (a.s) and ibn Masoud and Umar. But the majority of our opponents in this matter from among Ahl Al-Sunnah and Al-Murjiha, and Al-Mu'tazila and Al-Khawarij, they all don't have disagreement about the superiority of Aboo Bakr over Alee (a.s) and Umar and ibn Masoud and that he is better than them, so it is correct that no one remains except the wives of the Prophet (saw). If someone says that Aboo Bakr said that out of courtesy, we say to him that this is surely void, because Al-Siddique (the truthful one) who has been given this title by the Messenger of Allah (saw), it is not possible for him to lie, and by no means that is possible and he does not say except the right thing and the truth, and it is Saheeh (Authentic) that the majority of companions confirmed him in that, so if that is true then it remains no reason that any of the companions were better than Aboo Bakr except the wives of the Prophet (saw), and more explicitly, if we say that there is consensus among companions on that, we have not claimed something unlikely.

Source: Al-Fasl Fil Milal Wal Ahwaa Wal Nihal. Vol. 4, Pg. # 209.


It is true that our opponents consider Aboo Bakr, Umar then Uthman to be the best of our
Ummah, followed by Imam Alee (a.s). However, during the lifetime of the Prophet (saw), it was a different story entirely. The companions would consider Imam Alee (a.s) to be the best person after the Prophet Muhammad (saw). 

Ibn Hajar:

"Shi'ism is the love of Alee (a.s) and whoever prefers him over Aboo Bakr and Umar is an excessive Shi'a also known as Rafidhi, otherwise he is Shi'a. If he adds to it mockering and manifests his enmity (towards certain companions) he is an exaggerator in Rafdh, and if he believes in Al-Raj'ah to the world he is strict in exaggeration."

Source: Had'i Al-Sari Muqaddimatul Fathul Bari. Pg. # 1238.



Ibn Hajar:

Ahmad, Aboo Dawud and Al-Nasa'i have recorded with a Saheeh (Authentic) chain from Al-Nu'man b. Bashir: Aboo Bakr sought permission to enter the house of the Prophet, peace be upon him, and heard the voice of A'isha, very loud, and she was saying (to the Prophet (saw)), "I have known that Alee (a.s) is more beloved to you than my father."

Source: Fath Al-Bari Sharh Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Vol. 8, Pg. # 348.


Ahmad ibn Hanbal:
Abd Allah (b. Ahmad) narrated from his father (Ahmad b. Ḥanbal) narrated from Aboo Na'im narrated from Yunus narrated from Al-Ayzar ibn Ḥurayth narrated from Al-Nu'man ibn Bashir: he said, "Aboo Bakr sought the permission of the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, to enter his house, and heard the voice of Ai'sha, very loud. She was saying, "I swear by Allah (swt), I have discovered that Alee (a.s) is more beloved to you than my father and me." She said it twice or thrice. So Aboo Bakr sought permission (again) and entered, and reached for her, and said, "O daughter of such-and-such woman! Did I hear you raising your voice upon the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him?"
Footnote: Shuaib Al-Arna'ut The Hadeeth is Hasan (Reliable).
Source: Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Vol. 30. Pg. # Pg. 372 - 373. H. # 18421.


Ahmad ibn Hanbal:

Abd Allah (b. Ahmad) narrated from his father (Ahmad b. Ḥanbal) narrated from Aboo Na'im narrated from Yunus narrated from Al-Ayzar ibn Ḥurayth narrated from Al-Nu'man ibn Bashir: he said, "Aboo Bakr sought the permission of the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, to enter his house, and heard the voice of Ai'sha, very loud. She was saying, "I swear by Allah (swt), I have discovered that Alee (a.s) is more beloved to you than my father and me." She said it twice or thrice. So Aboo Bakr sought permission (again) and entered, and reached for her, and said, "O daughter of such-and-such woman! Did I hear you raising your voice upon the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him?"

Footnote: Narration is Saheeh (Authentic) according to Ahmad Shakir.

Source: Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Vol. 14. Pg. # 169. H. # 18333.


Ibn Abd Al-Barr:

Regarding Aboo Tufayl (r.a) Aboo Umar said: "He accepted the merit of Aboo Bakr and Umar but he considered Alee to be the most superior!"
Source: Al-Isti'ab. Vol. 4, Pg. # 1697.


Ibn Abd Al-Barr:
Salman, Aboo Dharr, Al-Miqdad, Khabab, Jabir, Aboo Sa'id Al-Khudri and Zayd b. Arqam narrated that Alee b. Abi Ṭalib, may Allah be pleased with him, was the first to accept Islam, and they considered him the most superior (among the companions).
Source: Al-Isti'ab. Vol. 3, Pg. # 1090.


Al-Mizzi:

Salman, Aboo Dharr, Al-Miqdad, Khabab, Jabir, Aboo Sa'id Al-Khudri and Zayd b. Arqam narrated that Alee b. Abi Ṭalib, may Allah be pleased with him, was the first to accept Islam, and they considered him the most superior (among the companions).

Source: Tahdheeb Al-Kamal. Vol. 2, Pg. # 353.

 


Objection Six

Al-Bukhari does not include the words 'liar, sinful, treacherous and dishonest' therefore this report must be rare as opposed to what has been narrated in Saheeh Muslim.

Response Six

Al-Bukhari and Muslim have narrated the Hadeeth from a different chain of transmission. Therefore to suggest these words are rare is not a valid argument. There can be several possibilities. Either the narrators in Bukhari withheld these words and replaced them with, "such and such," or it had been narrated to them as per the objection. Alternatively, Al-Bukhari himself had a desire to hide these words. 
This narration has come to us from other chains which include similar words.

Ibn Hibban:

Umar said..."And both of you (i.e. Alee (a.s) and Al-Abbas) thought him (Aboo Bakr) to be an oppressor and evil doer concerning it, and Allah (swt) knows that he was truthful, virtuous and a follower of the truth. Then I became its (Wali) after Aboo Bakr. Two years into my rule, I did the like of what the Messenger of Allah (saw) and Aboo Bakr did concerning it. And both of you thought me to be an omitter and evil-doer concerning it, and Allah (swt) knows that I am truthful, virtuous and a follower of the truth."

Shu'aib Al-Arnaut: The hadeeth is Saheeh (Authentic).

Source: Saheeh ibn Hibban. Vol. 14, Pg. # 577 - 578.


Abi Aw'wanah:

 ......So both of you thought him to be a liar, sinful, treacherous and dishonest.

Narration is Saheeh (Authentic).

Source:  Musnad Abi Aw'wanah. Vol. 4, Pg. # 245 - 247, H. # 6666.



If one were to actually ponder over the words themselves, namely the terms "liar, sinful, treacherous and dishonest," we can understand why they were included, since Imam Alee (a.s) deemed them sinful on account of their decision in the matter of Fadak. This in itself negates those who insist that Aboo Bakr's decision was pursuant to the Holy Qur'aan and Sunnah. If indeed that was the case, one must question as to why Imam Alee (a.s) regarded Aboo Bakr for his ruling, and Umar for upholding it, as sinful? As the narration says, "But Allah (swt) knows that he was honest, sincere, pious, and right." It does not take a genius to figure out what "such and such" could be, i.e. the exact opposite of "honest, sincere, pious, and right."  

Objection Seven

If we accept the Saheeh Muslim version, then we must also accept that Abbas thought Imam Alee (a.s) was a "liar, sinful, treacherous, and dishonest." In such a case, if the Shi'a can disregard Abbas' words to Alee (a.s), then what prevents the Ahl us Sunnah from disregarding Alee's (a.s) words to Aboo Bakr and Umar?


Response Seven

As for those that argue that in the early portion of the text, Abbas, the uncle of the Prophet (saw) referred to Alee (a.s) as a liar, sinful, treacherous and dishonest, they should realise that this is not our headache. This has come from a book which is regarded as 'saheeh' by the so-called, 'Ahl ul Sunnah.' It should be noted that this narration actually shows a companion holding an extreme view in regards to another companion, so one must question, where does that leave the romantic picture that is so desperately painted of the companions possessing the utmost love, respect and understanding for one another? Our opponents can try their best to deny it, but the fact remains is that their second Caliph attested to the fact that Imam Alee (a.s) and Abbas deemed Aboo Bakr as, "a liar, sinful, treacherous and dishonest," a position that remained unchanged even after Aboo Bakr death, and that too for Umar!  

Objection Eight
Imam Alee (a.s) did not want the Caliphate, thus his words to Abbas prior to the Prophet's (saw) death;

Narrated Is'haq from Bushr ibn Shu'ayb ibn Abi Hamza from his father from Al-Zuhri from Abdullah ibn Ka'b ibn Malik Al-Ansari from Abdullah ibn Abbas: Alee ibn Aboo Talib (a.s) came out of the house of Allah's Apostle (saw) during his fatal illness. The people asked, "O Aboo Hassan (i.e. Alee (a.s))! How is the health of Allah's Apostle (saw) this morning?" Alee (a.s) replied, "He has recovered with the Grace of Allah (swt)." Abbas ibn Abdul Muttalib held him by the hand and said to him, "In three days you, by Allah (swt), will be ruled (by somebody else), and by Allah (swt), I feel that Allah's Apostle (saw) will die from this ailment of his, for I know how the faces of the offspring of Abdul Muttalib look at the time of their death. So let us go to Allah's Apostle (saw) and ask him who will take over the Caliphate. If it is given to us we will know as to it, and if it is given to somebody else, we will inform him so that he may tell the new ruler to take care of us." Alee (a.s) said, "By Allah, if we asked Allah's Apostle (saw) for it (i.e. the Caliphate) and he denied it us, the people will never give it to us after that. And by Allah (swt), I will not ask Allah's Apostle (saw) for it."

Source: Saheeh Bukhari.


Response Seven

Al-Bukhari:

Narrated Aboo Huraira: The Prophet (saw) said, "You people will be keen to have the authority of ruling which will be a thing of regret for you on the Day of Resurrection. What an excellent wet nurse it is, yet what a bad weaning one it is." Narrated Aboo Musa: Two men from my tribe and I entered upon the Prophet (saw). One of the two men said to the Prophet (saw), "O Allah's Messenger (saw)! Appoint me as a governor," and so did the second. The Prophet (saw) said, "We do not assign the authority of ruling to those who ask for it, nor to those who are keen to have it."

Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. # 1766, H. # 7148 / 7149.


The above narrations discourage seeking leadership positions. The intention of one seeking a position even in the community is vital like all actions, and should be made purely for the sake of Allah (swt) to serve the community; not for the fame and title of a position. We see the qualities of a leader in the modest way in which Imam Alee (a.s) does not himself seek the Caliphate, though according to the school of the Ahlulbayt (a.s) this was a position already designated to him by Allah (swt).

Imam Alee (a.s) according to the principles of our opponents, did not say anything wrong, and his words are in conformity of the Hadeeth of the Prophet (saw). It is rather fascinating how Abbas was aware that the Prophet (saw) would die in three days and the people would be ruled over by someone, but the Prophet Muhammad (saw) did not. Why would the Prophet (saw) leave such a vital matter ambiguous?

The declaration that Alee (a.s) would be the Wali (Master) over the believers had already been declared before the companions. We have already proven the authenticity of this tradition in one of our earlier articles. It should be noted this Hadeeth has come to us from Zuhri who was aware of this, and adopted a policy of self censorship fearing a hostile reaction from the Ummayads under whose patronage he operated. On the other hand, he is famous for his loyalty to the Umayyads and working for them, and also denying the merits of the Ahlulbayt (a.s).

Ibn Hajar:

Al-Hakim reported that ibn Ma'een said: "The best of chains of narrators is Al-A'mash from Ibraheem from Al-Qama from Abdullah." Then someone said to him: "Was Al-A'mash like Al-Zuhri?" He replied: "Al-A'mash can never be like Al-Zuhri! Al-Zuhri was after wealth and award, and was working for Bani Umayyah, but Al-A'mash was a poor and patient man who used to avoid the ruler, and was a pious person and was knowledgeable about Qur'aan.

Source: Tahdheeb Al-Tahdheeb. Vol. 2, Pg. # 111.


Ibn Hajar:

Muhammad ibn Muslim ibn Ubaydullah ibn Shahab Al-Zuhri, the Madani islamic jurist, he used to live in Al-Shaam. He is famous as being an Imam and of high position. He was of Tabi'een. Al-Shafi'i and Al-Dar Al-Qutni and more than one scholar have described him as being a Mudallith (i.e. Fabricator of the chains of narrations and distorter of the context of it).

Source: Tabaqat Al-Mudallisin. Pg. # 15.


Al-Dhahabi:

Narrated Aboo Bakr ibn Shazan Al-Baghdadi from Alee ibn Muhammad Al-Sawwaq from Ja'far Al-Mukrim Al-Daqqaq from Aboo Dawood from Al-Shu'ba who said: "I and Hushaym left for Makkah. When we reached Kufa, Hushaym saw me with Abi Is'haq, he asked me: "Who is he?" I said: "He is the poet from As-Sabee (a district in Kufa)." When we left Kufa, I narrated a narration starting it by saying: "Narrated to me Aboo Is'haq..." Hushaym asked me: "Where did you see him?" I said: "He is the person about whom I said: 'He is the poet from As-Sabee.' When we reached Makkah, I passed by Hushaym and saw him sitting next to Al-Zuhri, I asked: 'Who is he?' He said: 'He is a police of Bani Umayyah.' When we returned home, Hushaym narrated a narration starting by: 'Narrated to me Al-Zuhri...' I asked: 'Where did you see him?' He replied: 'He is the one you saw me sitting next to him.' I said: 'Show me your writing.' When he gave me that, I torn it apart."

Source: Siyar A'lam An-Nubala. Vol. 7, Pg. # 226.


Al-Dhahabi:

I say: 'May Allah have mercy on him, he was a very wealthy person, and he had a high reputation in the Umayyad government.'

Source: Siyar A'lam An-Nubala. Vol. 5, Pg. # 337.


Ibn Asakir: 

Narrated Abul Qasim Zahir ibn Tahir from Aboo Sa'd Muhammad ibn Abul-Rahman from Al-Sayyed Abul-Hasan Muhammad ibn Alee ibn Al-Hussain from Sulayman ibn Ahmad Al-Hafiz from Muhammad ibn Is'haq Al-Hafiz from Isma'eel ibn Abi Uwais from Ja'far ibn Ibraheem Al-Ja'fari who said: "I was sitting before Al-Zuhri and I was listening to his narrations, then an old woman came to me and said: 'O Ja'far! I don't write his narrations, because he tends to Bani Umayyah and has taken their gifts.' I said: 'Who is she?' Al-Zuhri said: 'She is my sister Ruqayyah. Are you weak-minded (he asked her)?' She said: 'You are rather weak-minded, you deny and hide the merits of the family of Muhammad (saw).' Then she said: 'Narrated to me Muhammad ibn Al-Munkadir from Jabir ibn Abdullah who said: 'The Messenger of Allah(saw) took the hand of Alee (a.s) and said: "To whomever I am the Master, then Alee (a.s) is his Master. O Allah! Befriend of his friends and be enemy of his enemies, and help those who help him and degrade those who degrade him."'

Source: Tarikh Madina-Damishq. Vol. 42, Pg. # 227 - 228.



Narrated Abul Barakat Al-Anmati from Thabit ibn Bindar from Muhammad ibn Alee ibn Yaqoob Al-Qazi from Muhammad ibn Ahmad Al-Babasiri from Al-Ahwas ibn Al-Mufaddal ibn Ghassan from his father and also Muhammad ibn Abdullah Al-Ghulabi from Umar ibn Rudaih who said: "I was walking with ibn Shahab Al-Zuhri, and Amr ibn Ubayd saw me with him. After that he met me and said: 'Why are you accompanying the handkerchief of the rulers.' Referring to ibn Shahab."

Source: Tarikh Madina-Damishq. Vol. 55, Pg. # 370.


Ibn al-Athir:

It is narrated by Zuhri that Aboo Junaydah Junda ibn Amr ibn Mazin said: "I heard the Prophet (saw) said: "Whoso deliberately lied about me will go to hell straightaway." I have heard it myself or I may grow deaf in both ears. The Prophet (saw) returned from Hajjat-ul wada and arrived at Ghadeer Khum, and addressed the people. He said while holding Alee (a.s) hand: "One who has me as his guardian, has this (Alee (a.s)) as his guardian. O Allah (swt)! Befriend him who befriends him (Alee (a.s)) and be his enemy who is his (Alee (a.s)) enemy." Ubaydullah said: I said to Zuhri: "Don’t say these things in Syria, otherwise, you will hear so much against Alee (a.s) that your ears will get sore." (In reply to it) Zuhri said: "By God! There are so many qualities of Alee (a.s) safe and secure with me that if I narrate them I may be murdered."

Source: Usd Al-Ghaba Fi Ma'rifat Al-Sahaba. Vol. 1, Pg. # 572, Person # 812.



When Zuhri was fully aware of the declaration of Ghadeer and the lessons derived thereof, it was quite logical that he would seek to quash it's significance with this supposed narration, which has no bearing on reality.

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