Wednesday, 13 March 2013

The Oppression Of Sayeda Faatima (s.a) Part IV






Prophet Muhammad (saw) wished to commit to paper an instruction during the last days of his life which would serve as a guidance for the Ummah such that they would not go astray after him. It was a very delicate moment, but unfortunately, some of those present set out to prevent his instruction from being implemented. Some understood what the Prophet (saw) had intended to write down, and hence one of them said, “The Book of Allah (swt) is sufficient!” This was a cause for the disputation which arose between those that desired to carry out the Prophet’s (saw) wish, and those who were in opposition to it. In addition, a question mark was raised on the mental capacity of Prophet (saw), one which clearly conflicted with the fact that he (saw) had been chosen by Allah (swt). 


In this Section We Will Cover:



Responding To Common Objections

  • If Prophet (saw) Was Illiterate, Why Would The Prophet (saw) say, "Come, let me write for you a statement after which you will not go astray?"
  • Imam Alee (a.s) Disobedience Towards The Prophet (saw) When Ordered To Kill
  • Imams (a.s) Also Believed The Holy Qur'aan Is Enough
  • People Of The Household Quarrelled 
  • Imam Alee (a.s) Refused The Ink-Pot And Paper
  • Imam Alee (a.s) Was Not Interested In The Khalifat
  • Prophet (saw) Order For The Ink-Pot Was Directed At Everyone Present
  • Imam Alee (a.s) Disobeyed The Prophet (saw) At Hudaybiyyah
  • Prophet (saw) Intention To Appoint Aboo Bakr
  • Umar Opposed Until Prophet (saw) Rejected It
  • Why Did The Prophet (saw) Not Kill Umar?
  • Deprivation Of Laylat Al-Qadr 
  • The Prophet Had Three Days To Write His Document 
  • If The Appointment Of A Khalifah Was Of Importance, Why Was It Not Declared In The Qur'aan?
  • Did Prophet Muhammad Fail In Conveying His Message?
  • Was The Document Written?
  • Imam Alee (a.s) Never Cited The Will As Proof Of Leadership
  • The Prophet Wanted To Appoint Aboo Bakr




The Incident Of The Pen And Paper



{إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَغُضُّونَ أَصْوَاتَهُمْ عِنْدَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ أُوْلَئِكَ الَّذِينَ امْتَحَنَ اللَّهُ قُلُوبَهُمْ لِلتَّقْوَى لَهُمْ مَغْفِرَةٌ وَأَجْرٌعَظِيمٌ}

Surely those who lower their voices before Allah’s Apostle are they whose hearts Allah has tested for guarding (against evil); they shall have forgiveness and a great reward. 

Holy Qur'aan (49:3)

The Prophet (saw) while on his death bed requested that a pen and paper be brought to him. He wanted to write a document that would be a source of guidance for the people until the end of time and thus safeguard his Ummah from becoming divided into many sects and groups. It so happened that some individuals conspired to obstruct the Prophet (saw) from carrying out his (saw) will and testament. When ibn Abbas remembered this painful event, he cried profoundly. He often said, "Thursday! What took place on Thursday! The messenger of Allah (saw) said, ‘Bring me a piece of paper and an ink-pot to write you a book by which you shall not go astray after me' and they said, 'The messenger of Allah is delirious!' 


 Al-Hafidh Abul Rahman ibn Aboo Bakr Al-Suyuti: 

The meaning of Hadeeth Al-Qirtas:

["Thursday! And you know not what Thursday is?]

This indicates that the (speaker) was alerting the public on the graveness, greatness and the shocking and bitter circumstance which took place on that day, on the question of preventing the Prophet (saw) from writing that will or statement on that paper, according to ibn Abbas.


[So that I might write to you a statement...]

It is said that the Prophet (saw) wanted to write about some one who would be his Caliph after him, thus ensuring that no sedition (fitna) would arise after him, and some says that he had wanted to write something relating to ahkaam pertaining to juristic matters so as to prevent misunderstanding amongst his Ummah, and by it, the unity of purpose in implementing the religion should be achieved. The Prophet (saw) persisted on asking about writing that statement when he saw that it was for the interest of the Ummah to do so, and that he was being ordered through revelation to do the same; and the order from the heaven will definitely supersede the the first assumption. 


[Is he in a delirious state of mind?...

This indicates that the speaker aimed at stopping what was requested by saying, the person was in the state of delirium and that he was not fit to write anything! This meaning is clear when we pay attention at the root word of "Hajara and Yahjuru." Imam An-Nawawi says in his commentary of this, "If it is correct that Umar did say that, it has been said by mistake and without his own consciousness from what was happening before his eyes (Umar) of the sickness of the Prophet (saw), and that he was in shock and unknowing what to do while the Prophet (saw) was dying."


[Leave me..] 


Means keep me far from your dispute and noises:


[For I am in a better state then you are!..] 

"From being conscious of my Lord and meeting my Lord for I am better than what you are engaging therein." Then he said (the Prophet) three things: "Expel the Jews and Christians from the Arabian peninsula, from Yemen, Al-Yamama, Makkah and Madinah, and prepare the expedition of Usama!"


Source: Al-Dibaj on Saheeh Muslim ibn Hajjaj. Vol. 4, Pg. # 231 - 232.




Al-Bukhari:


Narrated Sa'id ibn Jubair: Ibn Abbas said, "Thursday! What took place on Thursday!" Then he started weeping until his tears wet the gravels of the ground. Then he said, "On Thursday the illness of Allah's Messenger (saw) was aggravated and he (Prophet) said, "Fetch me writing materials so that I may have something written to you after which you will never go astray." The people (present there) differed in this matter and people should not differ before a Prophet. They said, "Allah's Messenger (saw) is talking nonsense.' The Prophet (saw) said, "Let me alone, as the state in which I am now, is better than what you are calling me for." The Prophet (saw) on his death-bed, gave three orders saying, 'Expel the pagans from the Arabian Peninsula, respect and give gifts to the foreign delegates as you have seen me dealing with them.' I forgot the third (order)." (Ya'qub ibn Muhammad said, "I asked Al-Mughira ibn`Abdur-Rahman about the Arabian Peninsula and he said, 'It comprises Makkah, Madinah, Al-Yamama and Yemen." Ya'qub added, "And Al-Arj, the beginning of Tihama)."

Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. # 752, H. # 3053.

Al-Bukhari:

Narrated Ubaidullah ibn Abdullah: Ibn Abbas said, "When the ailment of the Prophet (saw) became worse, he said, 'Bring for me (writing) paper and I will write for you a statement after which you will not go astray.' But Umar said, 'The illness has defeated the Prophet (i.e. he is talking nonsense), and we have got Allah's Book with us and that is sufficient for us.' But the companions of the Prophet (saw) differed about this and there was a hue and cry. On that, the Prophet (saw) said to them, 'Go away (and leave me alone). It is not right that you should quarrel in front of me.' Ibn Abbas came out saying, 'It was most unfortunate (a great disaster) that Allah's Messenger (saw) was prevented from writing that statement for them because of their disagreement and noise."

Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. # 41, H. #  114.

Al-Bukhari:

Narrated Sa'id ibn Jubair: That he heard ibn Abbas saying, "Thursday! And you know not what Thursday is? After that ibn Abbas wept until the stones on the ground were soaked with his tears. On that I asked ibn Abbas, "What is (about) Thursday?" He said, "When the condition (i.e. health) of Allah's Messenger (saw) deteriorated, he said, 'Bring me a bone of scapula, so that I may write something for you after which you will never go astray.' The people differed in their opinions although it was improper to differ in front of a Prophet. They said, 'What is wrong with him? Do you think he is delirious? Ask him.' The Prophet (saw) replied, 'Leave me as I am in a better state than what you are asking me to do.' Then the Prophet (saw) ordered them to do three things saying, 'Turn out all the pagans from the Arabian Peninsula, show respect to all foreign delegates by giving them gifts as I used to do.' The sub-narrator added, "The third order was something beneficial which either ibn Abbas did not mention or he mentioned but forgot.'

Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. # 782, H. # 3168.


Al-Bukhari:

Narrated ibn Abbas: "Thursday! And how great that Thursday was! The ailment of Allah's Messenger (saw) became worse (on Thursday) and he said, 'Fetch me something so that I may write to you something after which you will never go astray.' The people (present there) differed in this matter, and it was not right to differ before a Prophet. Some said, "What is wrong with him? Is he delirious? Ask him." So they went to the Prophet (saw) and asked him again. The Prophet (saw) said, "Leave me, for my present state is better than what you call me for." Then he ordered them to do three things. He said, "Turn the pagans out of the Arabian Peninsula, respect and give gifts to the foreign delegations as you have seen me dealing with them." (Sa'id ibn Jubair, the sub-narrator said that ibn Abbas kept quiet as rewards the third order, or he said, 'I forgot it')."

Narrated Ubaidullah ibn Abdullah: Ibn Abbas said, "When Allah's Messenger (saw) was on his deathbed and there were some men in the house, he said, 'Come near, I will write for you something after which you will not go astray.' Some of them (i.e. his companions) said, 'Allah's Messenger (saw) is defeated by illness and you have the Qur'aan. Allah's Book is sufficient for us.' So the people in the house differed and started disputing. Some of them said, 'Give him writing material so that he may write for you something after which you will not go astray.' While the others said the other way round. So when their talk and differences increased, Allah's Apostle said, "Get up." Ibn Abbas used to say, "No doubt, it was very unfortunate (a great disaster) that Allah's Messenger (saw) was prevented from writing for them that writing because of their differences and noise."

Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. # 1087, H. #  4431 - 4432.


Al-Bukhari:

Narrated ibn Abbas: When Allah's Messenger (saw) was on his death-bed and in the house there were some people among whom was Umar ibn Al-Khattab, the Prophet (saw) said, "Come, let me write for you a statement after which you will not go astray." Umar said, "The Prophet (saw) is defeated by illness (i.e. he is talking nonsense) and you have the Qur'aan; so the Book of Allah is enough for us." The people present in the house differed and quarrelled. Some said, "Go near so that the Prophet (saw) may write for you a statement after which you will not go astray." While the others said as Umar said. When they caused a hue and cry before the Prophet (saw), Allah's Messenger (saw) said, "Go away!" Narrated Ubaidullah: Ibn Abbas used to say, "It was very unfortunate that Allah's Messenger (saw) was prevented from writing that statement for them because of their disagreement and noise."

Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. # 1438, H. # 5669.


Al-Bukhari:

Narrated ibn Abbas: When the time of the death of the Prophet (saw) approached while there were some men in the house, and among them was Umar ibn Al-Khattab, the Prophet (saw) said, "Come near, let me write for you a writing after which you will never go astray." Umar said, "The Prophet (saw) is defeated by illness (i.e. he is talking nonsense), and you have the Qur'aan, so Allah's Book is sufficient for us." The people in the house differed and disputed. Some of them said, "Come near, so that Allah's Messenger (saw) may write for you a writing after which you will not go astray." While some of them said what Umar said. When they made much noise and differed greatly before the Prophet (saw), he said to them, "Go away and leave me." Ibn Abbas used to say, "It was a great disaster that their difference and noise prevented Allah's Messenger (saw) from writing that writing for them.

Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. # 1817, H # 7366.


Muslim ibn Hajjaj:

#1:

Sa'id b. Jubair reported that ibn Abbas said: "Thursday, (and then said): What is this Thursday?" He then wept so much that his tears moistened the pebbles. I said: "Ibn Abbas, what is (significant) about Thursday?" He (ibn Abbas) said: "The illness of Allah's Messenger (saw) took a serious turn (on this day), and he said: 'Come to me, so that I should write for you a document that you may not go astray after me.' They (the Companions around him) disputed, and it is not meet to dispute in the presence of the Apostle. They said: 'What is wrong with him? Has he lost his consciousness? Ask him.' He (the Holy Prophet) said: 'Leave me. I am better in the state than the one in which you are engaged. I make a will about three things: Turn out the polytheists from the territory of Arabia, show hospitality to the (foreign) delegations as I used to show them hospitality.' He (the narrator) said: 'He (ibn Abbas) kept silent on the third point, or he (the narrator) said: But I forgot that.'

#2:

Sa'id b. Jubair reported from ibn Abbas that he said: "Thursday, and what about Thursday? Then tears began to flow until I saw them on his cheeks as if they were the strings of pearls. He said that Allah's Messenger (saw) said: "Bring me a shoulder blade and ink-pot (or tablet and ink-pot), so that I may write for you a document (by following which) you would never go astray." They said: "Allah's Messenger (saw) is in the state of unconsciousness." (i.e. he does not know what he is talking).

#3:

Ibn Abbas reported: "When Allah's Messenger (saw) was about to leave this world, there were persons (around him) in his house, Umar b. Al-Khattab being one of them. Allah's Apostle (saw) said: 'Come, that I may write for you a document you would not go astray after that.' Thereupon Umar said: 'Verily Allah's Messenger (saw) is deeply afflicted with pain. You have the Qur'aan with you. The Book of Allah is sufficient for us.' Those who were present in the house differed. Some of them said: 'Bring him (the writing material) so that Allah's Messenger (saw) may write a document for you and you would never go astray after him.' And some among them said what Umar had (already) said. When they indulged in nonsense and began to dispute in the presence of Allah's Messenger (saw), he said: 'Get up (and go away).' Ubaidullah said: Ibn Abbas used to say: "There was a heavy loss, indeed a heavy loss, that, due to their dispute and noise, Allah's Messenger (saw) could not write (or dictate) the document for them."

Source: Saheeh Muslim. Vol. 2, Pg. # 771 - 772, H. # 1637 (20, 21, 22).







Ahmad ibn Hanbal:

Narrated Wakee from Malik ibn Megh’wal from Talha ibn Musarraf from Sa'id ibn Jubair from ibn Abbas who said, "Thursday! What a Thursday!" Then I saw his tears coming down his cheeks like pearl balls, he then said: "On that day Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "Fetch me writing materials so that I may have something written to you after which you will never go astray." Then they said: “The Messenger of Allah (saw) is talking nonsense.”

Footnote: Its chain is Saheeh (Authentic) by the criteria of Shaykhayn.

Source: Musnad Ahmad. Vol. 5, Pg. # 351.



Al-Tabari:

Narrated Aboo Kurayb and Saleh ibn Sammal from Wakee from Malik ibn Megh’wal from Talha ibn Musarraf from Sa'id ibn Jubair from ibn Abbas who said, "Thursday! What a Thursday!" Then I saw his tears coming down his cheeks like pearl balls, he then said: "On that day Messenger of Allah (saw) said: 'Fetch me writing materials so that I may have something written to you after which you will never go astray.' Then they said: “The Messenger of Allah (saw) is talking nonsense.”

Footnote: It’s chain is Saheeh (Authentic) and the narration is Authentic as mentioned before, it is also narrated by Bukhari and Muslim.

Source: Saheeh Tarikh Al-Tabari. Vol. 2, Pg. # 378.



If one ponders over the sayings of the Prophet (saw), "Come, so I may write for you a document so you would not go astray" and the tradition of Al-Thaqalayn, "I have left for you two weighty things. If you adhere to them, you will never go astray. The Book of Allah (swt) and my family." One would apprehend that the main purpose of the two sayings are very much related. The Prophet (saw) during his illness wanted to finally write in detail what he had ordered during Hajjat Al-Wada (the 'Farewell Hajj'), so that the Ummah would not fall in to dispute after him, but unfortunately, due to Umars 'ilm al ghayb' this did not take place. We will further cite some narrations in regards to this for one to realise the importance of both these incidents which took place.


Al-Albani:

Narrated by Jabir ibn Abdullah: "I saw Allah's Messenger when performing the hajj seated on his she camel Al-Qaswa on the day of Arafah giving an address, and I heard him saying, "O people, I have left among you something of such a nature that if you adhere to it you will not go astray: Allah's Book and my close relatives, my Ahlulbayt (a.s)."

Narrated by Zaid b. Arqam: Allah's Messenger said, "I am leaving among you something of such a nature that if you lay hold of it you will not go astray after I am gone, one part of it being more important than the other: Allah's Book, a rope stretched from Heaven to Earth, and my close relatives, my Ahlulbayt (a.s). These two will not separate from one another until they come down to the reservoir, so consider how you act regarding them after my departure."

Note: Al-Albani comments about both Hadeeth as being Saheeh (Authentic). 

Source: Saheeh Sunan Al-Tirmidhi. Vol. 3, Pg. # 543 - 544, H. 3786 - 3788. 




For more information on the Hadeeth of 'Al-Thaqalayn,' please click the following link:

http://www.revisitingthesalaf.org/2013/01/hadeeth-al-thaqalayn_13.html




 {الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تَرْفَعُواْ أَصْوَتَكُمْ فَوْقَ صَوْتِ النَّبِىِّ وَلاَ تَجْهَرُواْ لَهُ بِالْقَوْلِ كَجَهْرِ بَعْضِكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ أَن تَحْبَطَ أَعْمَـلُكُمْ وَأَنتُمْ لاَ تَشْعُرُونَ}

O you who believe! Raise not your voices above the voice of the Prophet, nor speak aloud to him in talk as you speak aloud to one another, lest your deeds should be thwarted while you perceive not. 

Holy Qur'aan (49.2)

Al-Bukhari:

Narrated ibn Abi Mulaika: The two righteous persons were about to be ruined. They were Aboo Bakr and Umar who raised their voices in the presence of the Prophet when a mission from Bani Tamim came to him. One of the two recommended Al-Aqra' ibn Habeas, the brother of Bani Mujashi (to be their governor) while the other recommended somebody else. (Nafi, the sub-narrator said, I do not remember his name). Aboo Bakr said to Umar, "You wanted nothing but to oppose me!" Umar said, "I did not intend to oppose you." Their voices grew loud in that argument, so Allah revealed: 'O you who believe! Raise not your voices above the voice of the Prophet.' (49.2) ibn Az-Zubair said, "Since the revelation of this Verse, Umar used to speak in such a low tone that the Prophet (saw) had to ask him to repeat his statements." But ibn Az-Zubair did not mention the same about his (maternal) grandfather (i.e. Aboo Bakr).


Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. # 1222 - 1223, H. # 4845.




Muslims know they must maintain not only respect but total willful subservience for the Prophet (saw). The Qur’an itself outlines how we much choose him over our own merits and the merits of our forebears. So what is one to think of what transpired here? The very companions of the Prophet (saw) so revered by the Ahlul-Sunnah wa Jammat prevented him (saw) from writing down his final will.  The voice of the Prophet (saw) was inundated by the noise raised by those around him. These very individuals had already been rebuked by Allah (swt) previously and had been warned that raising of voices in such a manner in the presence of the Prophet (saw) would cost them the loss of any earlier merits they had ascertained.  

Upon evaluation of the narrations, we come to know that the person who scrutinised the mental state of the Prophet (saw) was Umar ibn Khattab, after which some of those present concurred with what he said and repeated what he had opined. Umar preferred his own opinion to the clear verdicts of the Prophet (saw). His personal Ijtihad took precedence before a clear divine text. 

As we have shown earlier from the narration of ibn Abbas, the men in the house underwent a disputation. Some of them said: 'Give him writing material so that he may write for you something after which you will not go astray' and some others said as Umar had said, namely, "What is wrong with him? Is he delirious?" And in other narrations it has been said, "The illness had defeated the messenger of Allah (swt)." In reality, the words are the same as 'The Messenger of Allah (saw) is talking nonsense' and historians and scholars have explained the precise context wherein this statement was made.




 مُسْتَكْبِرِينَ بِهِ سَـمِراً تَهْجُرُونَ


"In arrogance: Talking nonsense about the (Qur'aan), like one telling fables by night."

Holy Qur'aan (23.67)


If we look at the word used in the Hadeeth, we find the term ‘Yahjur’تَهْجُر. This could be understood to mean: 'To desert, forsake, leave, renounce, abandon, to depart from one another, separate, forsake one another, become alienated and nonsense.' It is therefore necessary to apply the correct meaning to the word in accordance to the situation wherein it was said. The only usage of ‘Yahjur’ which would make most grammatical sense when the word is applied in context to the narrations related to the incident is 'nonsense.' But in order to soften the blasphemous statement of those present, we also find the expression, "He has been overcome by pain" being used.


Muhamud ibn Ahmad Al-Ayni:

Narrating Qutayba narrating Sufyan narrating Sulayman Al-Ahwal narrating Sa'eed ibn Jubair, he said; ibn Abbas said: "Thursday! And you know not what Thursday is?" The pains of the messenger of Allah (saw) got heavier then he said, “Bring me something so that I might write you a letter (note) that you shall never go astray afterwards." Then they [companions] disagreed and there should not be disagreement in the presence of a Prophet (saw). Then they said, "What does he want? Is he speaking nonsense?" Therefore they replied to him (according to what they decided) so he said: "Spare me your opinion, because what I am in is better state than what you are calling me." And he recommended three matters, he said: "Move the polytheists out of the Arab states and remunerate delegations the way I used to remunerate them" and He [ibn Abbas] did not say the third one or he said 'I forgot it.'

This hadeeth has been mentioned in the section of 'Knowledge' and 'Jihad' and it was narrated by Qubeysa ibn Uyaynah. The way he (ibn Abbas) mentioned that 'Thursday' intending to show how significant the day was. In the chapter of Jihad he added to the hadeeth (then he [ibn Abbas] cried till his tears dropped on the gravels. And the Prophet's (saw) saying "Bring me something...'' means bring me a book. And this is how the Hadeeth was mentioned in the section of knowledge and the statement (there should not be disagreement in the presence of a Prophet) was adhered by some to ibn Abbas, whereas the truth is that part of the hadeeth and this is also supported by the hadeeth in knowledge section. He (saw) said, "And there should not be disagreement in my presence" and the question, "Is he delirious?" was in interrogative form for all narrators of Al-Bukhari. However, in the Jihad section it was not interrogative but assertive and 'Is the messenger of Allah (saw) speaking nonsense?'

Source: Umdat Al-Qari Sharh Al-Bukhari. Vol. 18, Pg. # 79.



Al-Jaw'hari:

Narrated Al-Hasan ibn Rabi’from Abdulrazaq from Mo’ammar from Al-Zuhri from Alee ibn Abdullah ibn Abbas from his father who said: When Allah's Messenger (saw) was about to depart from this world, there were people (around him) in his house, Umar ibn Al-Khattab being one of them. Allah's Apostle (saw) said: "Bring me a tablet and ink-pot, so I may write for you a document so that you would not go astray after that!" Thereupon Umar said something which its meaning is: "Verily Allah's Messenger (saw) is deeply afflicted with pain, You have the Qur'aan with you and the Book of Allah is sufficient for us!" Those who were present in the house differed. Some of them said what the Messenger of Allah (saw) said and some of them said what Umar had said. When they indulged in nonsense and began to dispute in the presence of Allah's Messenger (saw) he became angry and said: "Get up (and go away), it is not right that people dispute in front of a Prophet like this!" Then they went and the Messenger of Allah (saw) died on that day. Ibn Abbas used to say: "There was a heavy loss, indeed a heavy loss, that they prevented Allah's Messenger (saw) from writing that document."

Source: Al-Saqifa Wa Fadak. Pg. # 76 - 77.


Ibn Athir:

In the narration of the illness of Allah’s Apostle (saw), they said: “'What is wrong with him? Has he lost his consciousness? Ask him.” It means that ‘is the Prophet (saw) talking nonsense because of his illness’ they wanted to know, and it means that ‘is he delirious because of his illness?’ This is the best way to interpret that narration and it should not be said as a declarative sentence, because it means either talking nonsense or delirious. And the person who said that is Umar, and this is not an accusation made against him (i.e. it is rather a fact).

Source: Al-Nihaya Fi Gharib Al-Hadeeth. Vol. 5, Pg. # 246.


Abil Baqa Al-Ik’bari:

Al-Hujr ‘delirium’ means talking delirious and nonsense, and Hujr is when someone talks nonsense, and that is something when a patient says when he has fever. And that is what Umar ibn Khattab said in the illness of the Messenger of Allah (saw): ‘The man is talking nonsense!’ As the Arabs would use that term.


Source: Diwan Abi Tayyib Al-Mutanab’bi Bi Sharh Abil Baqa Al-Ik’bari. Vol. 1, Pg. # 9.


Shahabuddin Al-Khafaji:

It is narrated through authentic narrations that the Prophet (saw) said: "Bring me a tablet and ink-pot, so that I write for you a document (by following which) you would never go astray." Whereupon Umar said: "The man is talking nonsense, Allah's Book is sufficient for us!" They (the companions around him) disputed, and it is not meet to dispute in the presence of the Apostle of Allah (saw). So the Prophet (saw) said: "Get out and go away." Ibn Abbas used to say: There was a heavy loss, indeed a heavy loss, that, due to their dispute and noise. Allah's Messenger (saw) could not write (or dictate) the document for them.

Source: Nasi’mul Ri’yadh Fi Sharh Shifa. Vol. 2, Pg. # 855.




The following book has been the subject of severe criticism. Some have suggested it has been falsely attributed to the author 'Al-Ghazali.' There is nothing therein that contradicts other facts that we have thus far evidenced in this article and shall expand on further. Sibt ibn Al-Jawzi who is known for his high intellect and diligence in research, has also attributed these words to Ghazali as we shall later see.

Al-Ghazali:
 

The people and scholars agree upon the context of the narration of the sermon on the day of Ghadir Khum in which the Prophet (saw) said, "Whoever I am the master then Alee (a.s) is the master." Then Umar said: 'Congratulations! Congratulations! Oh Abal Hassan (title of Imam Alee (a.s)), you have become my master and the master of every master.' (Al-Ghazali continues): This speech shows complete acceptance, submission and confirmation (of Alee's leadership) by Umar. However after that, he (i.e. Umar) was defeated by his desire and love of power in becoming Caliph, and he was dominated by desire, and the desire to hold the flag of leadership, and the joy to open and conquer states, and by that they (i.e. Umar, Aboo Bakr and their cohorts in Saqifa) reverted to the early phase, they dispensed with the agreement (of Ghadir Khum) and sold it at a low price. And also the Prophet (saw) in his last illness before his death said: “Bring me a tablet and ink-pot, so that I may write for whom is the successor after me and solve all the problems and mention to you, "who is worthy of successorship after me." Whereupon Umar said: "Don’t bring it, the man is talking nonsense."

Source: Sirr Al-Alamayn Wa Kash'f Ma Fid Darayn. Pg. # 23.


Sibt ibn Al-Jawzi:

Aboo Hamid Al-Ghazali says in his book ‘Sirr Al-Alamayn Wa Kash'f Ma Fid Darayn’ something like this: The Prophet (saw) said in Ghadir Khum, "Whoever I am the master then Alee (a.s) is the master." Then Umar ibn Khattab said: 'Congratulations! Congratulations! Oh Abal Hasan (title of Imam Alee), you have become my master and the master of every believer. This shows his submission and acceptance and confirmation (of Alee's leadership). However after that, he (i.e. Umar) was defeated by his desire and love of power in flag of leadership, and he was dominated by desire, and the desire to hold the flag of Caliphate, and the joy to open and conquer states, and by that they (i.e. Umar, Aboo Bakr and their cohorts in Saqifa) reverted to the early phase, they  dispensed with the agreement (of Ghadir Khum) and sold it at a low price. And also the Prophet (saw) in his last illness before his death said: "Bring me a tablet and ink-pot, so that I may write for you a document by following which you will never go astray" whereupon Umar said: "Don’t bring it, the man is talking nonsense.’

Source: Tadhkirat Ul-Khawa'is. Pg. # 62.




Status Of Sibt ibn Jawzi

Testifying to the truth at times comes with a heavy price. Whenever the crimes of the companions are revealed, the first line of attack usually is to discredit the scholar and accuse him of being Shi'ee. This should not come as a surprise, especially when there have been numerous scholars of the past who were accused of being Shi'ee simply because they spoke on unorthodox matters. Such differences even exist among scholars of Jarh wa Ta'deel wherein one scholar would authenticate a narrator while another may even reject his existence. Sibt ibn Jawzi is from among those very individuals who has been accused of being a Rafidi, though it appears the opponents have given a one-sided story. Let us look at whether this is a view shared by the majority of their scholars. 

Ibn Kathir:

Ibn Jawzi and resided in Damascus and it was the place where he passed away on the night of Tuesday the 21st of Dhul Al-Hijjah from this year, and the Sultan of the country Al-Nasir ibn Abdul Aziz and everyone with lower status attended his funerals, and Sheikh  Shahab Al- Deen Aboo Shama praised him especially his knowledge, virtues, headship, style of preaching, good voice, youthful face, humbleness, soberness and courtship but he added; ‘I was sick on the night he passed away and I saw his demise in my dream before attentiveness and I saw him in a denied [detestable] status and others have seen him having this status. Therefore we ask Allah (swt) salvation, and I could not attend his funerals and it was crowded since many people attended it starting with the Sultan to include everyone else and he was buried there and he was virtuous, knowledgeable, companionable, away from leaders of states  and denying the evils they commit and he was economical with his dress, and he was persistent in reading and working and gathering information and compilation and he was fair to people of knowledge and grace, and he was differing from determinist's and ignorance, and Kings and country leaders used to come visiting him and he spent around fifty years of his life having this great status among Kings and people and his preaching gathering was sweet-sounding and his voice saying what he says was good and melodious may Allah (swt) have mercy and be pleased with him, and he is someone who deserves to be mourned with those verses; 'You spent your whole life working hardly, till I saw your name written in the board of life.'



And he was asked on the day of Ashura at the time of the King Al-Nasir of Aleppo to mention something about the martyrdom of Hussain (a.s). Therefore he took his place on the platform and sat for a while without talking. Then he put a wiper on his face and cried then he recited the following verses while crying:

"Woe be upon the one whose intercessors are his adversaries and the Soor is blown for the rising of all the dead, Fatima (a.s) must witness the day of Resurrection with her (s.a) shirt stained with Hussain’s (a.s) blood."

Then he went down and he was crying then he went to Al-Salihiya while he was still crying. May Allah (swt) have mercy with him.

Source: Al-Bidaya Wa'An-Nihaya. Vol. 17, Pg. # 344 - 355.

 

Ibn Shakir Al-Qutubi:

Yusuf bin Quezali the historian and preacher Shams Al-deen Aboo Al-Muzaffar Al-Turkey Al-Baghdadi Sibt Al-Sheikh Al-Imam Jamal Al-Deen, resided in Damascus, was born in in year 583 A.H and died in year 654 A.H. He heard from his grandfather and heard in Damascus and Mosel from a group (of people). He was an Imam, jurist (faqih) and preacher. He was unique in preaching, scholar (Allamah) in history and biography (Seerah), very respectable, loved by the people, sweet in preaching. He went to Damascus in his twenties. He spent (money as charity) for people, the sons of the King went to him, he authored books in preaching and history. His father was a slave of the minister Auon Al-Deen ibn Hubayra. He is the author of Mirat Al-Zaman. Sheikh Shams Al-Deen said: ‘Qutb Al-deen Al-Yuniti summarized (the book) and commented on it.’ When he died, the Sultan (King) and others attended his funeral. He studied in Al-Sheblia (school) for some time. He then studied in Al-Badria school. He studied literature under the teachings of Abi Al-Baq’a, studied fiqh under the teaching of Al-Husairy, and he wore the (scholar’s) uniform by Abdul Wahab ibn Sukaina. He was Hanbali, he then converted to Hanafi for the remainder of his life. He authored a one volume book about the merits of Aboo Hanifa. He authored Ma’aden Al-Abriz Fi Al-Tafsir in 29 volumes and Sharh Al-Jami'a Al-Kabir in two volumes.

Source: Fawat Al-Wafiyat. Vol. 4, Pg. # 356 - 357.


Abdul Qadir Qurashi:

Yusuf bin Quzali bin Abdullah, or Alee Aboo Al-Madhaffar Sibt Al-Imam Al-Hafiz Abi Al-Faraj bin Al-Jawzi, he narrated from his grandfather in Baghdad. He heard (narrations) from Abi Al-Faraj ibn Kulaib and Abi Hafs bin Tubrezd. He heard (narrations) in Mosel & Damascus. He reported (narrations) in Egypt and he was acceptable by the Kings, Princes, scholars and the people because of his preaching etc. In Mirat Al-Zaman, he mentioned that Sheikh Muwfaq Al-deen ibn Qudamah Al-Hanbali used to attend his preaching classes. He had books Sharh Al-Jami’a Al-Kabir and Ithar Al-Asnaf. He passed away on Tuesday night 21th of Dhul-Hijjah in year 654 at Qasioun mountain. They prayed on him at the front door of northern Jabal Qasioun mosque and prayed on him the Ling Salah Al-deen Yusuf bin Muhammad bin (the King) Al-Tahir Ghazi bin Yusuf ibn Ayoub.
Al-Dhahabi says in Al-Mizan: "And he has written "Mir'atul Zaman" and we see that he has narrated in it unknown stories and I dont think he is trustworthy in what he says. He has tendency towards falsehood, he rather rejects (Abi Bakr and Umar), and he has a book about it."

Imam Sharaf Al-Din Aboo Yusuf Yaqub ibn Ahmad Al-Halabi narrated to me and said: I heard our Sheikh Al-Hafiz Jamal Al-Din Abi Muhammad ibn Alee ibn Mahmoud Al-Mahmoodi Al-Sabooni: 'The Imam, heir of the Salaf Aboo Madhaffar Yusuf ibn Quz Alee ibn Abdullah Al-Baghdadi died on the Thursday, 20th of Sha'ban of the year 632.

Source: Al-Jawahir Al-Madhaia Fi Tabaqat Al-Hanafiya. Vol. 3, Pg. # 633 - 635.


Jamal Al-Din Yusuf bin Al-Amir Sayf Al-Din Taghribirdi:

And in this year died the Sheikh, Imam, jurist, preacher, historian Allamah Shamsuddin Aboo Al-Mudhafar Yusuf bin Quzaghli bin Abdullah Al-Baghdadi then Dimashqi, Al-Hanafi, grandson of Hafiz Abi Faraj bin Al-Jawzi.

Source: Nujum Al-Zahira Fi Muluk Misr Wa'l-Qahira. Vol. 7, Pg. # 35.


Taqi ad-Deen Ahmad ibn Ali Al-Maqrezi:

Among those who died this year are Shamasudin Yusuf bin Qaghali bin Abdullah Abu Al-Muzaffar. He is son of Hafiz Abi Al-Faraj Abdur Rahman bin Jawzi. A Hanafi jurist and preacher.

Source: Al-Salooq La Marifati Duwalil Mulook. Vol. 1, Pg. # 491.


Allamah Abdul Hai Lucknawi:

Sibt Ibn Jawzi was to begin with a Hanbali but upon reaching Damascus and learning Fiqh from Allamah Jamaludeen Mahmood Hasri, converted to Hanafi. 

Source: Fawa'id Al-Bahiya Fi Tarajam Al-Hanafiyah. Pg. #  230.





Even if we assume 
Sirr Al-Alamayn Wa Kash'f Ma Fid Darayn had been falsely attributed to Ghazali we still find the very same text in another one of his famous works.

Al-Ghazali:

About the order of Khilafat and Kingdom

The scholars disagreed about the order of Khilafat and obtaining it, therefore some of them claimed that it is dictated by text and their argument is the saying of Allah the Highest "16. Say (O Muhammad) to the Bedouins who lagged behind: "You shall be called to fight against a people given to great warfare, then you shall fight them, or they shall surrender. Then if you obey, Allah will give you a fair reward, but if you turn away as you did turn away before, He will punish you with a painful torment." [Al-fatah; 16]. And Aboo Bakr called them to obey [his commands] after the [the demise of ] Messenger of Allah and they answered his call [for obedience] and some Qur'aan interpreters said in the explanation of His - the Most High- saying "And (remember) when the Prophet disclosed a matter in confidence to some of his wives" [al-Tahreem;3], he [the Prophet] said; "Your father is the Caliphate (successor) after me" and a woman asked; 'If we lost you then for whom shall we refer ?" then he pointed his fingers towards Aboo Bakr and because he led the Muslims with the presence of the Messenger of Allah and Imamate is the pillar of the Religion, these were the arguments of those who stick to the dictation of texts and they did not mention his virtues and he is not defamed by being the fourth one as the prophecy of the Messenger of Allah is not defamed for being the last one. And those who took different opinion claimed that this argument was not valid and the issue of Imamate and rules is similar to the issue of prophecy of Dawood and Sulaiman, and Zakariya and Yahya and they asked his wives; for whom is the Imamate? and they stick to this argument and it is not valid and if it [the Imamate] was hereditary then al-Abbas would be more eligible however the valid argument revealed itself and people and scholars agree upon the context of the narration of the sermon on the day of Ghadir Khum in which the Prophet (saw) said, "Whoever I am the master then Alee is the master." Then Umar said: 'Congratulations! Congratulations! Oh Aba al-Hassan (title of Imam Alee, you have become my master and the master of every master.' (Al-Ghazali continues): This speech shows complete acceptance, submission and confirmation (of Alee's leadership) by Umar. However after that, he (i.e. Umar) was defeated by his desire and love of power in becoming Caliph, and he was dominated by desire, and the desire to hold the flag of leadership, and the joy to open and conquer states, and by that they (i.e. Umar, Abu Bakr and their cohorts in Saqifa) reverted to the early phase, they dispensed with the agreement (of Ghadir Khum) and sold it at a low price. And also the Prophet (saw) in his last illness before his death said: "Bring me a tablet and ink-pot, so that I may write you whom is the successor after me and solve all the problems and mention to you, "who is worthy of successor ship after me." Whereupon Umar said: "Don’t bring it, the man is talking nonsense." therefore if your reference to the interpretation of the texts was proven delusive and you go back to the consensus [consensus of the nation] and this is found in the texts also; al-Abbas and his sons and Alee and his wife and his sons did not attend the event of giving allegiance and the companions at the Saqeefah antagonized you by following al-Khazraji and Muhammad the son of Aboo Bakr went to his father when he was sick and about to die then Aboo Bakr said; 'oh son bring me your uncle so I may nominate him for Caliphate'

Source: Majmu'at Rasa'il al-Imam. Pg. # 482.
  

 




Aboo Abdullah Al-Qurtubi:

And his [the Prophet] saying ''Bring me something so that I may write you a book that you shall never go astray afterwards" without any doubt the word 'bring me' is an order and a demand directed for everyone whom was present, and it was more for anyone present to rush to answer this demand, certainly he [the Prophet] joined it with his saying, "You shall never go astray afterwards'' but as for Umar and a group with him that order was not considered as mandatory rather they viewed it as guidance (for the better) although the content of the book of Allah (swt) is guidance for everything like He - the Exalted- said; "Clarification for all things [Surah-an Nahl] 89'' and due to the pains the Prophet (saw) was feeling, they disliked that he [the Prophet] may burden himself with (a task) that may be difficult and burdensome for him so they decided that it would be better if he [the Prophet] does not write it. The other group wanted him to write it, holding to the strict order, grasping for more clarification and the removal of any ambiguity and I wish that it never happened or took place! Allah (swt) however predetermined that and He does as is His will. In spite of this, there is neither admonishment nor blame against the first group because the Prophet (saw) did not reprimand or criticise them.

Source: Al-Mufuhimu Lima Ushkila Talkhisi Kitabi Muslim. Vol. 4, Pg. # 558 - 559.



According to the teachings of the Ahlulbayt (a.s), if anybody believes in complete predestination, they cannot, at the same time believe in the Day of Judgment. For if Allah (swt) decrees our every act, then it is a gross injustice to inflict punishment upon us for committing sins of evil, polytheism, disbelief and immoralities, since it was Allah (swt) who had already predestined all of this for us. In other words, our actions would come solely from Allah (swt) and not from our own selves. The Holy Qur'aan holds that no human will be treated unjustly and everything will be judged by Allah (swt). Allah (swt) says in the following verses:


 قُل لاَّ تُسْـَلُونَ عَمَّآ أَجْرَمْنَا وَلاَ نُسْـَلُ عَمَّا تَعْمَلُونَ - قُلْ يَجْمَعُ بَيْنَنَا رَبُّنَا ثُمَّ يَفْتَحُ بَيْنَنَا بِالْحَقِّ وَهُوَ الْفَتَّاحُ الْعَلِيمُ

"Say: You will not be questioned as to what we are guilty of, nor shall we be questioned as to what you do. Say: Our Lord will gather us together, then will He judge between us with the truth; and He is the greatest Judge, the All-knowing."

Holy Qur'aan (34: 25-26)

يَوْمَ يَقُولُ الْمُنَـفِقُونَ وَالْمُنَـفِقَـتُ لِلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ انظُرُونَا نَقْتَبِسْ مِن نُّورِكُمْ قِيلَ ارْجِعُواْ وَرَآءَكُمْ فَالْتَمِسُواْ نُوراً فَضُرِبَ بَيْنَهُم بِسُورٍ لَّهُ بَابٌ بَاطِنُهُ فِيهِ الرَّحْمَةُ وَظَـهِرُهُ مِن قِبَلِهِ الْعَذَابُ

"On the Day when the hypocrites men and women will say to the believers: "Wait for us! Let us get something from your light!'' It will be said: "Go back to your rear! Then seek a light!'' So, a wall will be put up between them, with a gate therein. Inside it will be mercy, and outside it will be torment."

Holy Qur'aan (57: 14)



The Holy Qur'aan makes it clear that mankind will be sent to Hell due to their own choice of committing sin, and likewise, be sent to heaven by performing good deeds. Allah (swt) also states that had He (swt) seen any good in them, he would have made them listen but it is they themselves who reject faith.

وَلَوْ عَلِمَ اللَّهُ فِيهِمْ خَيْرًا لأَسْمَعَهُمْ وَلَوْ أَسْمَعَهُمْ لَتَوَلَّواْ وَّهُم مُّعْرِضُونَ

"And if Allah had known any good in them He would have made them hear, and if He makes them hear they would turn back while they withdraw."

Holy Qur'aan (8:23)

وَلَوْ شَآءَ رَبُّكَ لَجَعَلَ النَّاسَ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً وَلاَ يَزَالُونَ مُخْتَلِفِينإِلاَّ مَن رَّحِمَ رَبُّكَ وَلِذلِكَ خَلَقَهُمْ وَتَمَّتْ كَلِمَةُ رَبِّكَ لاّمْلاّنَّ جَهَنَّمَ مِنَ الْجِنَّةِ وَالنَّاسِ أَجْمَعِينَ 

"Nor would thy Lord be the One to destroy communities for a single wrong-doing if its members were likely to mend. If thy Lord had so willed, He could have made mankind one people: But they will not cease to dispute, except those on whom thy Lord hath bestowed His Mercy: And for this did He create them: And the Word of thy Lord shall be fulfilled: "I will fill Hell with Jinns and Men all together."

Holy Qur'aan (11: 118)


Al-Nasa'i:

Narrated Muhammad ibn Isma'eel ibn Ibraheem from Uthman ibn Umar from Qur’ra ibn Khalid from Abi Al-Zubair from Jabir ibn Abdullah who said: "The Messenger of Allah (saw) asked for a tablet on his deathbed to write a document for his Ummah, he said: 'So that you may not go astray and not mislead others.' That caused a dispute in the house, Umar ibn Khattab said something and Prophet (saw) left it."

Narrated Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Al-Mubarak from Wakee from Malik ibn Megh'wal from Talha ibn Musarraf from Sa'eed ibn Jubayr from ibn Abbas who said: "Thursday! What a Thursday!" The Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "Fetch me writing materials or a tablet and ink-pot so that I may have something written to you after which you may never go astray." Then they said: “The Messenger of Allah (saw) is talking nonsense.

Source: Sunan Al-Kubra. Vol. 5, Pg. # 368.



Abi Yahla:

Narrated Ubaydallah from his father from Qur’ra from Abi Al-Zubair from Jabir ibn Abdullah who said: "The Prophet (saw) asked for a table on his deathbed to write a document for his Ummah, he said: 'So that you may not go astray and not mislead others.' That caused a dispute in the house, Umar ibn Khattab talked and as a result the Prophet (saw) did not write it.

Footnote: It’s narrators are narrators of Saheeh (Authentic).

Narrated ibn Numair from Sa’eed ibn Rabi from Qur’ra ibn Khalid from Abi Zubair from Jabir who said: “The Messenger of Allah (saw) asked for a tablet on his deathbed to write a document so that Muslims would not go astray and not mislead others.” There was a dispute in the house then Umar ibn Khattab talked and the Prophet (saw) did not write it.


Footnote: It’s narrators are narrators of Saheeh (Authentic).

Source: Musnad Abi Yahla. Vol. 3, Pg. # 393 - 395.



We have again, the same narration but through a different chain of narrators.

Ahmad ibn Hanbal:

Narrated Moosa ibn Dawood from ibn Lahi’a from Abi Zubair from Jabir who who said: “The Messenger of Allah (saw) asked for a tablet on his deathbed to write a document so that Muslims would not go astray after his death.” Umar ibn Khattab opposed it until he rejected it.

Footnote: Its chain is Hasan (Reliable).

Source: Musnad Ahmad. Vol. 11, Pg. # 526.



Ibn Fil:
  
Narrated Hasan from Muhammad ibn Al-Ala’ Aboo Kurayb from Younis ibn Bakir from Qur’ra ibn Khalid from Abi Zubair from Jabir who who said: “The Messenger of Allah (saw) asked for a tablet while on his deathbed to write a document for his Ummah so that they wouldn't go astray after his death.” Whereupon there was dispute in the house and then Umar ibn Khattab rejected the Messenger of Allah (saw).

Footnote: It is Saheeh (Authentic).

Narrated also Al-Hasan from Amir ibn Isma’eel Al-Baghdadi from Uthman ibn Umar from Qur’ra ibn Khalid from Abi Zubair from Jabir who who said: “The Messenger of Allah (saw) asked for a tablet on his deathbed …” and narrated like the previous narration.

Footnote: It is Saheeh (Authentic).

Source: Juz’ ibn Fil. Pg. # 156.





Disputes and disagreements increased amongst those present in the household. Some of them wanted to carry out the Prophet’s (saw) wish whereas others were opposed to it. The wives of the Prophet (saw) kept calling from their private quarters but their appeals that writing material be brought fell onto deaf ears. Umar replied harshly to the women, attacking their characters which then attracted the ire of the Prophet (saw) who provided a swift riposte, “Leave them alone! They are better than you!” Undoubtedly, if Umar ibn Khattab wanted to recommend the Holy Qur'aan with the intention to ease the Prophet's (saw) pain, he would not reply so impudently.

Tabarani:

Narrated Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Abi Khay’thama from Muhammad ibn Alee ibn Khalaf Al-Attar from Musa ibn Ja’far ibn Ibraheem Ibm Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Abdullah ibn Ja’far ibn Abi Talib from Hisham ibn Sa’d from Zayd ibn Aslam from his father from Umar ibn Khattab who said: When the Prophet (saw) was on his deathbed, he said: “Bring me a tablet and an ink-pot, so that I write down a document, adherence of which shall ensure that you never go astray at all.” We disliked the Prophet (saw) write a letter. Then he said again: “Bring me a paper so that I write down a document for you by following which you may never go astray afterwards.” The women said from behind the veil: "Don’t you hear what the Messenger of Allah (saw) is asking for?” Then I said: "You are like the companions of Yusuf, when the Messenger of Allah (saw) is sick you squeeze your eyes and cry and when he recovers you put your arms around his neck (i.e. tease him). Then the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: “Leave them alone! they are better than you.”


Source: Mu’jam Al-Awsat. Vol. 5, Pg.  # 287 - 288.


Al-Haythami:

Narrated Umar ibn Khattab: 'When the Prophet (saw) was on his deathbed he said: “Bring me an tablet and an ink-pot, so that I write down a document for you that If you follow you will never go astray at all”, we disliked an immense dislike. Then he said again: “Bring me a paper so that I write down a document for you by following which you may never go astray after that at all.” The women said from behind the veil: "Don’t you hear what the Messenger of Allah (saw) is asking for?!” Then I said: 'You are like the companions of Yusuf, when the Messenger of Allah (saw) is sick you squeeze your eyes and cry, and when he recovers you put your arms around his neck (i.e. tease him).' Then the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: “Leave them alone! They are better than you.”

Source: Majmahul Zawahid. Vol. 8, Pg. # 436 - 437.


Al-Haythami has not weakened this narration because the narration exists with another chain in which Muhammad ibn Ja'far ibn Ibraheem and other narrators of Tabarani are included. We recognise that when multiple narrations with the same content exist, then it is certain that each one is thereby strengthened.

Ibn Sa'd:

Narrated Muhammad ibn Umar from Hisham ibn Sa'd from Zayd ibn Aslam from his father from Umar ibn Khattab: 'We were with the Prophet (saw) and there was veil between us and the women, then the Prophet (saw) said: “Wash me with seven containers and bring me a tablet and an ink-pot so that I write down a document for you that if you adhere to, you may never go astray at all.” Then the women said: 'Bring him what he wants.' I said (Umar): 'Shut up! You are like the companions of Yusuf, when the Messenger of Allah (saw) is sick you squeeze your eyes and cry and when he recovers you put your arms around his neck (i.e. tease him)." Then the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: “They are better than you.”

Source: Tabaqat ibn Sa'd. Vol. 2, Pg. # 214.



The Excuses Of Resistance


Numerous attempts have been made to excuse the occurence of this lamentable calamity. The scholars have attempted to place the blame on the entire crowd instead of pin-pointing the culprits and exposing their evil designs. But despite all these vain efforts, the evidence has been brought to light and the facts exhibited to the public eye.

Muhammad ibn Yusuf Al-Salehi Al-Shami:

Al-Mazari said: 'It was allowed for the companions to disagree about this 'book' despite the Prophet’s explicit order, because orders can be accompanied with some evidence that may turn it from being 'mandatory,' as if an evidence came out from him [the Prophet] that it was not an order rather it was optional, therefore their judgement differed, and Umar was determined to refrain in view of what he had as evidence [leading to judge] that he (saw) said that without any assertive intent and his (saw) determination was by revelation or by judgement, and it should be the same case for dropping out his (saw) determination. So if the order was by revelation, than dropping it out should be by revelation, and if it was by judgement than it should by judgement too.' 

Al-Nawawi said: 'Scholars agreed that Umar's saying 'The book of Allah is sufficient' was due to his strong jurisprudence and foresight, because he was afraid that he [the Prophet] may write things that they might be unable to adhere to and they would merit punishment for that because it is prescribed and he wanted not to close the door for [own] the judgement (religious judgment) of scholars and his [the Prophet] rejection by virtue of Umar’s statement is an evidence that he [Umar] was right and he pointed by his words 'The book of Allah is sufficient for us' was supported by the saying: 'We have not neglected in the Book a thing.' Surah Al-An’am. Verse 38.

And this does not antagonise ibn Abbas’ saying: "The calamity ...etc." because Umar was definitely more knowledgeable than him [in terms of jurisprudence] and it cannot be said that ibn Abbas was not content with the Qur'aan even though he is the scholar of the nation and the most knowledgeable from among the people about the explanation of the Qur'aan, but he was sorry for  the missed declaration and having it recorded [in written format] because it is better than using deduction.

And their saying ‘hajara’ in the interrogative form ["did he say any 'hujr'?"] and hujr means delirium that comes out in the speech of a patient that has no order and it is inconsiderable because it has no use, and the occurrence of such thing for the Prophet (saw) is impossible. Therefore it was rather in an inquisitive question form, which indicates denial and annulling, i.e. the Prophet (saw) is not delirious: they did not dispute on taking what he (saw) said or on him (saw) writing the letter, and this is not delirium at all.

Source: Subul Al-Huda Wa Al-Rashad Fi Sirat Khayr Al-Ibaad. Vol. 12, Pg. # 249.



{مَآ ءَاتَـكُمُ الرَّسُولُ فَخُذُوهُ وَمَا نَهَـكُمْ عَنْهُ فَانتَهُواْ}

(And whatsoever the Messenger gives you, take it; and whatsoever he forbids you, abstain (from it).

Holy Qur'aan (59.7)

Whatever the Prophet Muhammad (saw) commands must be obeyed, and whatever he forbids then it must be avoided. He (saw) would only command good and forbid evil, and hence if the Prophet (saw) wanted to write a document that would serve as guidance for the nation and called for writing materials, he (saw) should have been obeyed without question or any confusion. To suggest that it was optional is utterly nonsensical. Obedience to the Prophet (saw) means just that, as in he (saw) must be obeyed, there is no such thing as optional obedience for a true believer and neither is there any indication of this in the Holy Qur'aan.

Muslim ibn Hajjaj:

Aboo Hurayra reported that he heard Allah's Messenger (saw) as saying: "Avoid that which I forbid you to do and do that which I command you to do to the best of your capacity. Verily the people before you went to their doom because they had put too many questions to their Prophets and then disagreed with their teachings."

Source: Saheeh Muslim. Pg. # 1106 - 1107, H. # 130.




Ibn Hazim:

Narrated ibn Abbas, he said: ''When the pains of the messenger of Allah (saw) got heavier, he said: "Bring me a book so that I may write you something that you will never go astray after me." Then Umar said: "The pain has overtaken the Messenger of Allah, and we have the Book of Allah and it is sufficient for us." Then they disagreed and the noise got louder. The Prophet (saw) said, "Go away from me, and there should never be disagreement in my presence." Then ibn Abbas came out saying, ''The true and real calamity was the prevention of the Messenger of Allah writing his Book.''

Narrated ibn Abbas, he mentioned this hadeeth: ''Some people talked about the Prophet (saw) on that day and said: "What is the matter with him? Is he speaking nonsense?'' Aboo Muhammad said: "This is the mistake of the scholar, that people were aware of it in the old times, and it happened to be in the previous knowledge of Allah (swt) that there will be differences among us, and a group would go astray and another one would be guided by the guidance of Allah (swt), and this is the reason behind Umar and the others saying what they said, which was the reason of being deprived the favour of the Book which if it was written there "Would never be astray after it." And this hadeeth remains of great importance for us and represents deep grief in our souls and a torment causing us pain, and we were sure that Allah the Almighty will not leave the book that His Prophet (saw) wanted to write so that no one would go astray after it without revealing it [the book] so that he whom he lives [safely] would do so based on evidence, until Allah the Almighty favoured us that we found it, so that the trouble vanished and Allah is the praised One.

Source: Al-Ahkaam Al-Ahkaam. Vol. 7, Pg. # 123 - 124.




Ibn Hajar and Nawawi:

Al-Nawawi said: 'The scholars are in agreement about the statement of Umar when he said: “The Book of Allah (swt) is enough for us.” That it was due to the strength of his Fiqh and precision of his visions; because he feared that if it was written, maybe people could not bear it and fail in acting upon it and therefore deserve the punishment. Because (if it was written) it was an explicit wording (which could not be opposed anymore), he (i.e. Umar) wanted that the door for Ijtihaad obstruct for the scholars (!!!) And that the Prophet (saw) gave up to write his will according to the rejection of Umar. There is an agreement on Umar’s view. And Umar’s statement “the Book of Allah (swt) is enough for us” is due to the verse that Allah (swt) that says: ‘We have neglected nothing in the book.’ [6:38]. And it is possible that Umar wanted to decrease the burden of the messenger of Allah (saw) when he saw the intensity of his illness, and there is a witness for this in the fact that the will was not an obligatory and necessary thing that the Ummah needed it, because if it was so, the Prophet (saw) would not leave it due to their disputes in his house, and the statement of ibn Abbas, “It was a calamity that they did not let the Prophet (saw) to write down his will” does not contradict this possibility, because Umar was certainly more knowledgeable than ibn Abbas. Al-Khattabi has said: ‘Umar did not make a mistake when he rejected it, because his rejection was due to the intensity of the illness of the Prophet (saw) and because he feared that if he writes that will the Hypocrites would taunt the authenticity of that will in that situation and that is the reason that Umar stopped it, and it was not so that he wanted to oppose the Prophet (saw) intentionally, because it is not allowed to dispute with the Prophet (saw), this is never true’ hadeeth of ibn Abbas has been discussed at the end of  Chapter of Knowledge.

Source: Fath Ul-Bari. Vol. 9, Pg. # 593.



If it was truly Umars desire to relieve the intensity of the Prophet (saw) illness and to make his (saw) heart delight, he would most certainly have achieved this through handing the writing material at his (saw) request. This way the Prophet (saw) would have been satisfied and relieved that his nation would be firmly instructed once again in the last moments of his life to be safe from misguidance. The Prophet (saw) wanted those present to bring him a piece of paper and an ink-pot to write a book, but Umar and others who supported his view opposed it until Prophet (saw) finally gave up due to his weakness in health. Those present had no right whatsoever to disobey his (saw) orders.

وَمَا كَانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ وَلاَ مُؤْمِنَةٍ إِذَا قَضَى اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ أَمْراً أَن يَكُونَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ مِنْ أَمْرِهِمْ وَمَن يَعْصِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلَـلاً مُّبِيناً

It is not for a believer, man or woman, when Allah and His Messenger have decreed a matter that they should have any option in their decision. And whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger, he has indeed strayed into a plain error

Holy Qur'aan (33:36)

The resistance of the companions and their disputes and clamors before the Prophet (saw) were more tiresome to him (saw) than dictating the document. So how did those who pitied the Prophet (saw) for being tired because of dictating the book, resist him and surprise him by saying: "The messenger of Allah (saw) is speaking nonsense?" How did they think that by not bringing the paper and the ink-pot it was better for the Prophet (saw) despite the fact that he (saw) had ordered for it? Did the Prophet (saw) order something which was better to be neglected when saying, "You will never go astray?" If they feared that the Prophet (saw) would write some things that people would not be able to carry out, why would anyone deserve punishment for carrying such a great burden? On what grounds did Umar fear this when the Prophet (saw) had said: "You will never go astray?" Was Umar more aware of the ends than the Prophet (saw) himself?

If Umar feared that the hypocrites would consider the book to be untrue, why would the Prophet (saw) say: "You will never go astray?" He (saw) had confirmed the book would save the Ummah from deviation, so how would it be a cause for sedition if the hypocrites criticized it?

It is odd that the excuse is made that If Umar was afraid that the hypocrites may consider the book untrue. Because by claiming "the messenger of Allah (saw) is speaking nonsense?" he in fact strengthened the arguments of the Prophet's (saw) opponents. If the Prophet (saw) does indeed ever speak nonsense, then why should anyone believe the book he brought ?

{ انظُرْ كَيْفَ ضَرَبُوا لَكَ الْأَمْثَالَ فَضَلُّوا فَلَا يَسْتَطِيعُونَ سَبِيلًا}

 See how they coin similitudes for you, so they have gone astray, and they cannot find a Right Path

Holy Qur'aan [25:9]

Ibn Al-Jawzi:

Explanation of the Hadeeth: "... Bring me a tablet and an ink-pot...":

The scholars are not in agreement about the will of the Prophet (saw), there are two views: The first view: He wanted to write down the names of his successors after him. The second view: He wanted to write a letter about book of laws and with that remove the differences (of practice) among Muslims. But the first view is more accurate. The statement of Umar: "The Book of Allah is enough for you” means: It suffices. Al-Khatabi has said: “Umar rejected it because if the Prophet (saw) had written his will down to remove the differences, the virtues and intellect of Scholars and Ijtihad would be void.” Al-Jawzi says: 'I say This is wrong due to two reasons, first: (if it was true) then it suggests that Umar’s view was more generous (towards scholars) than the Prophet (saw). Second: That if he has written down an explicit wording about an issue or issues, it would not remove the need for Ijtihaad, because the things that need Ijtihad are more than what someone can count, but Umar’s rejection was rather because he thought what the Prophet (saw) might write down in that intense illness cannot be from intellect, and if they were sure that it is from intellect they would bring what the Prophet (saw) wanted.

Source: Kashf Al-Mushkil Min Hadeeth Al-Sahihayn. Vol. 2, Pg. # 2, H # 315.




Need we say anymore? Does one see an apologetic pattern where Sunni ulema are trying hard, very very hard, to maintain the integrity of Umar ibn Al-Khattab no matter what he does. When they could not succeed in killing the Prophet (saw) in Tabuk, they conspired to oppose every wish of the ailing Prophet (saw). They refused to assemble under the banner of Usama ibn Zayd, violating the Prophet’s (saw) specific and repeated orders, frustrated the Prophet’s (saw) desire to write down his document which followed by having the audacity to say the Qur’aan was sufficient, thus implying that there was no further requirement for guidance or any sort of direction from a delirious and dying Prophet (saw). Umar confessed his own delusion and doubt of Muhammad (saw) being a Prophet in the peace treaty of Hudaybiya by which he says: “By God, I had never doubted since I embraced Islam except on that day, so I went to the messenger of Allah (saw) and said: 'Are you truly the Apostle of Allah?' The Prophet (saw) said, 'Yes, indeed!'” And once again, we see his stance unchanged in that he questions the Prophet (saw) judgement whilst being on his death bed questioning as to whether the direction given by the Prophet (saw) was from other than Allah (swt). Each and every person who claims to be a Muslim is commanded and obliged to unquestionably submit to the command of the Prophet (saw) under any circumstances, for whatever comes from his (saw) mouth is undoubtedly nothing but the truth!

Aboo Abdullah Al-Washtani Al-Maliki:

The Imam (An-Nawawi) said, "The Prophet (saw) is infallible from speaking lies, and from speaking what may distort his own message which he received from his Lord, apart from that he is not infallible from sickness which will not degrade him from his status or adulterate some aspects of his shariah which he has brought for people"


Source: Ikmal Al-Deen Al-Mu`allim. Pg. # 379.



Al-Albani:

Narrated Abdullah ibn Amr ibn Al-As: I used to write everything which I heard from the messenger of Allah (saw). I intended (by it) to memorise it. The Quraysh prohibited me saying: "Do you write everything that you hear from him while the messenger of Allah (saw) is a human being: He speaks in anger and pleasure?" So I stopped writing, and mentioned it to the messenger of Allah (saw). He signalled with his finger to his mouth and said: "Write, by Him in Whose hand my soul lies, only right comes out from it!"

Source: Saheeh Sunan Aboo Dawood. Vol. 2, Pg. # 408.


Ahmad ibn Hanbal:

Yahya ibn Sa'eed narrated to us from Abdullah ibn Al-Akhnas Al-Walid ibn
 Abdullah narrated from Yusuf ibn Mahak from Abdullah ibn Amr said: "I used to write everything I heard from the Prophet (saw) but Quraysh did not allow me. They said, "You write everything you hear from the Prophet (saw), and the Prophet is a human, he speaks in anger and when he is in a pleasant mood." So I stopped writing the book so I mentioned that to the Prophet (saw): He (saw) said "Write for by the One who holds my soul everything comes out from me is the truth!"

Footnote: The chain is Saheeh (Authentic).

Source: Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Vol. 11, Pg. # 57 - 58, H. # 6510.


Hakim Al-Nishaburi:

Aboo Abdullah Muhammad ibn Abdullah Al-Safar told us that Muhammad ibn Muslim narrated from Yazid ibn Haroon from Muhammad ibn Ishaq from Amr ibn Shuayb from his father from his grandfather that he said, "O messenger of Allah (saw)! Do you allow me to write what I hear from you?" The Prophet (saw) said, "Yes." He asked, "In both when you are in a pleasant mood or angry?" The Prophet (saw) said, "Yes because from it, is not meant for me to say in pleasantness or anger except the truth."

Footnote: Narration is Saheeh (Authentic). 

Source: Al-Mustadrak Alaa Al-Sahihain. Vol. 3, Pg. # 606 - 607, H. # 6246.



Umar said: "The illness has defeated the Prophet (i.e. he is talking nonsense), and we have got Allah's Book with us and that is sufficient for us."



Aboo Bakr Al- Ajuri:

The decision about all the religious duties that Allah (swt) ordered in His Book cannot be known without the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah (saw). This is the opinion of the scholars of Muslims, and anyone who says something contrary to this, then it throws those individuals out of the fold of Islam and they become apostate.


Source: Kitab Al-Sharia. Vol. 1, Pg. # 412.



Abd Al-Aziz ibn Baz:


It is known by all scholars that the Sunnah is the second tenant among Islam's basis, and its importance in Islam is prime after the Book of Allah (swt), and it is the pillar relied upon after the Book of Allah (swt) with the consent of all scholars. And it is an independent standing argument over the Ummah [the nation of Muslims] and the one who renounces to it or denies it or claimed that it is acceptable to object against it and stick solely to the Qur'aan alone then he is astray and commits bigger infidelity. They are renounced from Islam by this speech and by such a statement and belief, he/she will be accusing Allah (swt) and His Messenger (saw) of lying and denying what Allah (swt) and His Messenger  (saw) have recommended. And by abandoning a great source of knowledge that Allah (swt) has recommended to refer to and count on it and follow it.

And he/she would be denying the consent of the scholars over it and renouncing to it i.e the Sunnah and abandoning it shows that the reference to debates and disagreements about issues should be referred to Allah and His Messenger, scholars have said; 'The meaning of referring to Allah (swt) is referring to the Book of Allah and the meaning of referring to the Messenger is referring to the Messenger during his life and to his Sunnah after his demise peace and prayers of Allah be upon him'. Therefore his Sunnah is independent and it is a followed base [for Islam and Islamic rules].


And He (swt) said at the end of Surah Al-Nur [verse 63]; 'So let those who dissent from the Prophet's order beware that a fitnah (stir) may strike them or a painful punishment'. Therefore the one who denies this is like the one who denies the Book of Allah, and the one who says that he follows the Book of Allah without the Sunnah then he is lying and committing a mistake and disbelieving, because the Qur'aan ordered to follow the Messenger therefore the one who did not follow 'him' did not follow the Book of Allah and did not believe in the Book of Allah and did not apply the rules of the Book of Allah since the Book of Allah ordered to obey the Messenger and follow his orders and warned from disobeying him peace and prayers of Allah be upon him. And the human being cannot be following the Qur'aan without following the Sunnah therefore it was a must that his Sunnah clarifies the Book of Allah and explains the Book of Allah and pointing out what can be hidden in the Book of Allah and his Sunnah came with some regulations that the Book of Allah did not come with, It came with independent regulations that Allah the non-reachable and the Almighty legislated without being mentioned in the Book of Allah the most High who has no similar.

Source: Majmoo' Fatawa wa Maqalat Mutanawwi'ah. Vol. 9, Pg. # 176 - 184.














Al-Albani: 

There are many important issues in these texts of verses and narrations that can be summarized as follows;


1- There is no difference between the judgement of Allah (swt) and the judgement of His Messenger and the believer does not have the opportunity to disobey to either one of them both and disobedience to the Messenger is similar to the disobedience of Allah the most High and it is clear astray.


11- It is among the traits of hypocrites who show Islam and hide disbelief that if they were called to refer to the Messenger and his Sunnah when they have disagreement they would not answer to this call and they even repel to it.


12- Unlike the disbelievers, when the believers are called to refer to the Messenger peace and prayers of Allah be upon him then they would rush to answer this call as if they are saying "We heard the call and we obeyed" and by this they will be successful and they will gain the heavens of paradise


17- The Qur'aan does not dispense us from using the Sunnah and it is similar to it in terms of the obligation to obey and follow it. And the one who claims Qur'aan causing Sunnah to be dispensable is opposite to the Messenger peace and prayers be upon 'him' and not obedient to 'him' and he is converse to the previous verses.


18- Anything that the Messenger prohibits is similar to what Allah (swt) has prohibited and it is the same for everything that the Messenger came with and it is not found in the Qur'aan then it is as if it came in the Qur'aan because of 'his' saying; "I have been given the Qur'aan and its similar with it"


19- The immaculacy from deviation and astray is by holding to both the book and the Sunna and it is a persistent legislation till the day of Judgment and it is not permissible to separate between the Book of Allah and the Sunna of His Prophet


Dear Brothers, these previous texts from the Book and the Sunnah have clearly stated the strict obligation to firmly follow the Sunnah in all what the Prophet came with and that the one who does accept to refer to it in judgment and abide by it is not a believer, I also want to point out that with its generalization it marks two other important issues in addition to what we have stated; 


Source: Al-Hadeethu Hujjatun Bi-Nafsihi Fi'l-Ahkami Wa'l-'Aqa'id. Pg. # 31 - 35.



Ibn Hazim:

If anyone said; 'We do not accept but what we don't find in the Qur'aan then he would be a disbeliever with the consent of all the nation [Ummah] and it would have been sufficient for him to make one Rak’ah (bowing) between the decline of the Sun and the real darkness of the night and another one at the dawn because this is the least that can be considered as a prayer and there is no maximum for that and the killer of such a person is a disbeliever and polytheist and his blood and money have no respect and those who went for this opinion and the extremists among Rafidha [Shia] whom the Nation consented about their disbelief and by Allah the most High we ask Guidance.

Source: Ahkam Fi Usul Al-Ahkam. Pg. # 80.



 


Allah (swt) says:

{ وَمَا يَنطِقُ عَنِ الْهَوَى، إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا وَحْيٌ يُوحَى}

 (He does not speak out of (his own) desire. It is but revelation revealed (to him)

 Holy Qur'aan [53:3-4]


{ وَأَطِيعُواْ اللّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَلاَ تَنَازَعُواْ فَتَفْشَلُواْ وَتَذْهَبَ رِيحُكُمْ وَاصْبِرُواْ إِنَّ اللّهَ مَعَ الصَّابِرِينَ}

 (Obey Allah and His Messenger, and do not quarrel with each other, lest you should lose courage, and your prowess should evaporate; and be patient. Surely, Allah is with the patient)

Holy Qur'aan [8:46]


{وَمَا آتَاكُمُ الرَّسُولُ فَخُذُوهُ وَمَا نَهَاكُمْ عَنْهُ فَانتَهُوا وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ}

 (And whatever the Messenger gives you, take it, and whatever he forbids you from, abstain (from it). And fear Allah. Indeed Allah is severe in punishment)

 Holy Qur'aan [59:7]


{يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ اسْتَجِيبُواْ لِلّهِ وَلِلرَّسُولِ إِذَا دَعَاكُم لِمَا يُحْيِيكُمْ وَاعْلَمُواْ أَنَّ اللّهَ يَحُولُ بَيْنَ الْمَرْءِ وَقَلْبِهِ وَأَنَّهُ إِلَيْهِ تُحْشَرُونَ}

 (O you who believe, respond to Allah and the Messenger when He calls you to what gives you life, and be sure that Allah intervenes between man and his heart, and that to Him you shall be gathered)

 Holy Qur'aan [8:24]


{فَلاَ وَرَبِّكَ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ حَتَّىَ يُحَكِّمُوكَ فِيمَا شَجَرَ بَيْنَهُمْ ثُمَّ لاَ يَجِدُواْ فِي أَنفُسِهِمْ حَرَجًا مِّمَّا قَضَيْتَ وَيُسَلِّمُواْ تَسْلِيمًا}

 (So, never by your Lord! Never shall they become believers, unless they make you the judge in the disputes that arise between them, then find no discomfort in their hearts against what you have decided, and surrender to it in total submission)

Holy Qur'aan [4:65]

What would be the status of those who dispute with the Prophet (saw) and accuse him of speaking nonsense? It is without question and of a certainty that they would be from amongst the hypocrites and apostates. It is for this very reason the Prophet (saw) told those present to go away due to the loud disputes. Had they been believers, the Prophet (saw) would not have thrown them out of his house, because Allah (swt) says:

{وَاخْفِضْ جَنَاحَكَ لِمَنِ اتَّبَعَكَ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ}

 (And be kind with humbleness to the believers who followed you)

 Holy Qur'aan [26:215]


{وَلاَ تَطْرُدِ الَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ رَبَّهُم بِالْغَدَاةِ وَالْعَشِيِّ يُرِيدُونَ وَجْهَهُ مَا عَلَيْكَ مِنْ حِسَابِهِم مِّن شَيْءٍ وَمَا مِنْ حِسَابِكَ عَلَيْهِم مِّن شَيْءٍ فَتَطْرُدَهُمْ فَتَكُونَ مِنَ الظَّالِمِينَ}

 (Do not expel those who call out to their Lord morning and evening seeking His pleasure. You are not responsible for anything in their account, and they are not responsible for anything in your account, that you should expel them, and thus become one of the unjust)

 Holy Qur'aan [6:52]


Allah (swt) says: "The Book Of Allah Requires The Interpretation Of The Prophet (saw)."


{ وَمَا أَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ إِلاَّ لِتُبَيِّنَ لَهُمُ الَّذِي اخْتَلَفُواْ فِيهِ وَهُدًى وَرَحْمَةً لِّقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ}

 (We have sent down the Book to you, only because you may explain to them what they differed about, and (so that it may be) guidance and mercy for a people who believe)

 Holy Qur'aan [16:64]


{مَثَلُ الَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُوا مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ أَوْلِيَاء كَمَثَلِ الْعَنكَبُوتِ اتَّخَذَتْ بَيْتًا وَإِنَّ أَوْهَنَ الْبُيُوتِ لَبَيْتُ الْعَنكَبُوتِ لَوْ كَانُوا يَعْلَمُونَ }

 (The example of those who have adopted patrons other than Allah is like the spider that has made a house, while indeed the weakest of houses is the house of the spider. If only they know)

Holy Qur'aan [29:41]


Al-Tirmidhi & Ibn Majah:

Narrated Muhammad ibn Munkadir and Saalim Aboo Nadr reported from, Ubaydullah ibn Aboo Rafi from Aboo Rafi, and others tracing it up to the Prophet (saw) that he said: "Let me not find one of you reclining on his couch while he receives a narration in which I have commanded something or forbidden something and he says, “I do not know. (We only) that which we find in Allah’s Book we follow.”


Footnote Al-Albani: Narration is Saheeh (Authentic).

Narrated Miqdam ibn Madikarib that the Prophet (saw) said, “Know that a man will receive a hadeeth from me while he is reclining on his couch and he will say, “Between us and you is Allah’s Book. What we find in it to be permissible, we will regard it as permissible and what we find in it to be disallowed, we will regard it to be disallowed, and that which Allah’s Messenger (saw) disallowed is like which Allah has disallowed.”


Footnote Al-Albani: Narration is Saheeh (Authentic).

Source: Saheeh Sunan Al-Tirmidhi. Vol. 3, Pg. # 63 - 64.


Source: Saheeh Sunan ibn Majah. Vol. 1, Pg. # 21.



Ahmad Ibn Hanbal:

Narrated Miqdam ibn Madikarib that the Prophet (saw) said, “Know that a man will receive a hadeeth from me while he is reclining on his couch and he will say, “Between us and you is Allah’s Book. What we find in it to be permissible, we will regard it as permissible and what we find in it to be disallowed, we will regard it to be disallowed, and that which Allah’s Messenger (saw) disallowed is like which Allah has disallowed.”

Footnote: The narration is Saheeh (Authentic)...Al-Hakim authenticated it and Al-Dhahabi confirmed it.

Source: Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Vol. 28, Pg. # 429.



Al-Dhahabi:

One of the Marasil of ibn Abi Mulaika is that Aboo Bakr gathered people after the death of the Prophet (saw) and said: "You narrated narrations from the Prophet (saw) that create separations among people and people after you will face more problems and separations so do not narrate from the Prophet (saw) a thing, and if someone asks tell them: 'Between us and you is Allah’s Book.' What you find in it to be permissible, you should regard it as permissible and what you find in it to be disallowed, you should regard it to be disallowed."

Al-Dhahabi: This Mursal shows what Aboo Bakr meant was to stabilize and validate the narrations, not to close the door of narrating Hadeeth. Don’t you see when he did not know the judgement about grandmother and he could not find it in Qur’aan, he asked about it from the Sunnah i.e. Prophetic Hadeeth. When trustworthy people informed him, he was not satisfied until he asked another trustworthy person about it and he did not say that, 'The Book of Allah is enough' like the Khawarij used to say.

Source: Tadhkirat Ul-Huffaz. Vol. 1, # 2 - 3.


The confession, “The Book of Allah is enough” is exactly what the Kharijites would say, and most Muslims, if not all, are aware of the fact that they were apostates. The Sheikhayn realized only too late that the Holy Qur’aan was insufficient to guide the people in their daily lives and it was a must to access the traditions of the Prophet (saw). When the dispute took place between the Quraysh and Ansar for leadership, instead of seeking a solution from the Holy Qur’aan, Umar said, “Leaders must be from Quraysh.” In practice, Umar was not following his own dictum. Indeed, the Holy Qur’aan without its interpreters (The Ahlulbayt) is most certainly insufficient!


The Prophet (saw) Nomination Of The Sheikhayn


Many scholars were of the view that the Prophet (saw) had every intention to appoint his leader(s) after him. Typically, from the list of candidates were Aboo Bakr and Umar, who were in priority to others. Now let us analyse this absurd claim. 

Ibn Hajar:

The statement: “I may write a letter.” The letter was to appoint the successor after the Prophet (saw), and it will be mentioned in the book of Ahkaam in the 'Chapter of Al-Is'tikhlaaf.'

Source: Fat'hul Bari Sharh Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Vol. 9, Pg. # 591.


Ibn Hajar:

Book of Ahkaam In The Chapter of Al-Is'tikhlaaf

Narrated Al-Qasim ibn Muhammad: A'isha said, "O my head!" Allah's Messenger (saw) said, "If that (i.e. your death) should happen while I am still alive, I would ask Allah to forgive you and would invoke Allah for you." A'isha said, "O my life which is going to be lost! By Allah, I think that you wish for my death, and if that should happen then you would be busy enjoying the company of one of your wives in the last part of that day." The Prophet (saw) said, "But I should say, 'O my head!' I feel like calling Aboo Bakr and his son and appoint the former as my successors lest people should say something or wish for something (i.e. wish for the leadership). Then I said: Allah will insist (on Aboo Bakr becoming a Caliph) and the believers will prevent (anyone else from claiming the Caliphate)," or "Allah will prevent (anyone else from claiming the Caliphate) and the believers will insist (on Aboo Bakr becoming the Caliph)."

Narrated Abdullah ibn Umar: It was said to Umar, "Will you appoint your successor?" Umar said, "If I appoint a Caliph (as my successor) it is true, because somebody who was better than I (i.e. Aboo Bakr) did so, and if I leave the matter undecided, it is true because somebody who was better than I (i.e. Allah's Messenger (saw) did so." On this, the people praised him. Umar said, "People are of two kinds: Either one who is keen to take over the Caliphate or one who is afraid of assuming such a responsibility. I wish I could be free from its responsibility in that I would receive neither reward nor retribution, I won't bear the burden of the caliphate in my death as I do in my life."

Explanation of Ibn Hajar: 

The statement: “And appoint” refers to the appointment of a successor who would gain the power after him. This is what Al-Bukhari has understood from it and therefore he has narrated it in this chapter, even though the word appointment has a more general meaning. But according to the narration of Urwah from A'isha: “Call your father and brother so that I may write a letter” and at the end of it: “Allah will prevent (anyone else from claiming the Caliphate) and the believers will insist (on Aboo Bakr becoming the Caliph).” And in the narration of Muslim: “Call your father and brother for me so that I may write a letter, because I fear that someone wish (the Caliphate) and Allah and the believers are not satisfied except with Aboo Bakr (to become Caliph).” And in the narration of Al-Bazzar: “I seek refuge with Allah that the people fight over the Caliphate with Aboo Bakr.” And all of these point out that the meaning of it was the successorship. But Al-Muhallab has gone to the extreme by claiming that: In this narration there is an undisputable evidence about the appointment of Aboo Bakr as Caliph, and it is strange that he himself says after that: “It is evident that the Prophet (saw) has not appointed any successors."

Source: Fat’hul Bari Sharh Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Vol. 17, Pg. # 57 - 58.



Now let us see how A'isha contradicts herself .

Muslim ibn Hajjaj:

Ibn Aboo Mulaika narrated: I heard A'isha as saying she was asked as to whom Allah's Messenger (saw) would have nominated his successor if he had to nominate one at all. She said: 'Aboo Bakr.' It was said to her: 'Then whom after Aboo Bakr?' She said: 'Umar.' It was said to her. 'Then whom after Umar?' She said: 'Aboo Ubaida ibn Al-Jarrah,' and then she kept quiet at this.

Source: Saheeh Muslim.  Pg. # 1120-1121, H. # 2385.





{إِنَّمَا يَفْتَرِي الْكَذِبَ الَّذِينَ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِآيَاتِ اللّهِ وَأُوْلئِكَ هُمُ الْكَاذِبُونَ}

(The example of those who have adopted patrons other than Allah is like the spider that has made a house, while indeed the weakest of houses is the house of the spider. If only they know)

Holy Qur'aan [16:105]

Is'haq ibn Rahwayh:

Narrated from Wakee from Abul Amis from ibn Abi Mulaika from A'isha who said: "The Messenger of Allah (saw) passed away and he did not appoint any successors." She (A'isha) then said: "The Messenger of Allah (saw) said: “If I was going to appoint a successor I would have appointed Abi Bakr or Umar.”

Footnote: It is Saheeh (Authentic). All of its narrators are trustworthy and of the narrators of Bukhari and Muslim. The narration has been narrated also by Al-Nasa'i, Muslim in his Saheeh and Ahmad ibn Hanbal in his Musnad.

Source: Musnad Is'haq ibn Rahwayh. Vol. 3, Pg. # 660.



If the Prophet (saw) had made it clear that Aboo Bakr would be given the position of successorship after him, a few questions would spring to mind as to why the gathering at Saqifah took place? Why did the Ansar disagree with Aboo Bakr becoming the leader? Why the dispute?

Al-Bukhari:


Narrated ibn Abbas from Umar: ...And no doubt after the death of the Prophet (saw) we were informed that the Ansar disagreed with us and gathered in the shed of Bani Sa'ida. Alee and Zubair and whoever was with them, opposed us, while the emigrants gathered with Aboo Bakr...

Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Vol. 8, Book 82, Hadeeth 817.



Muslim ibn Hajjaj:


We have on the authority of ibn Umar saying that his father Umar on his death bed said, "If I would appoint my successor, (I would because) one better than me did so. (He meant Aboo Bakr.) If I would leave you alone, (I would do so because) one better than me (i. e. the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him)), did so.

Source: Saheeh Muslim. Pg. # 884, H. # 11.





When Aboo ­Bakr was arduously affected by his disease, he commanded Uthman to write his will. When he reached the following words: "I have appointed as a successor" he fainted before mentioning the name of his appointee. When Aboo ­Bakr regained his consciousness, he asked Uthman to read what he had written down. So he said, "I nominate Umar ibn Khattab." So he replied, “You would have been fitting for it had you written your own name instead.” 

The Prophet (saw) was prevented from writing a document on the account of his health then on what grounds did Umar accept this document being written from Aboo Bakr? Did he not think to say "The Qur'aan is sufficent" or, "We have not neglected anything in the book?" Umar was nothing more then a hypocrite hungry for the seat of leadership. We find not a single trace of evidence to suggest that the Prophet (saw) was not in the right state of mind to write a document, unlike Aboo Bakr who was falling in and out of consciousness and despite his testimony, is given proof over the Prophet (saw).

Al-Muttaqi Hindi:

Narrated Aslam who said: "Uthman wrote the document which contains the will for the caliphate, but Aboo Bakr requested Uthman to leave a space and not to fill the space with the name of any one, and afterwards he became unconcious, but Uthman took the document and filled the space with Umar's name, and then Aboo Bakr woke up and enquired, 'Show me the document!' When he read the document he saw that there was Umar's name and he said, 'Who did this?' Uthman replied saying, 'It is I.' Aboo Bakr said, 'May Allah (swt) have mercy on you and reward you good, but if you had kept your name therein, you could be worthy of it.'"
 

Footnote: Ibn Kathir said 'This report is correct in its chain.'

Source: Kanz Al-Ummal. Vol. 5, Pg. # 281.




Abi Shaybah:

Affan narrated from Sa’eed ibn Zayd narrated from Assem ibn Bahdala narrated from Aboo Wa’el narrated from A'isha, she said: Uthman was writing the will of Aboo Bakr, she said: Then he fainted, therefore he rushed and wrote Umar ibn Al-Khattab and when he (Aboo Bakr) woke up again, he (Aboo Bakr) asked him: "Whom did you write?" He replied: ‘Umar ibn Al-Khattab.’ Then he (Aboo Bakr) said: ‘You wrote (the name of) the one whom I wanted to mention, and if you have had mentioned yourself then you would have been eligible for it.’

Source: Al-Musannaf ibn Abi Shaybah. Vol. 11, Pg. # 128, H. # 32576.



Ibn Shabba:

Narrated Zaid ibn Aslam from his father who said: Uthman wrote the document which contains the will for the caliphate, but Aboo Bakr requested Uthman to leave a space not to fill the space with the name of any one, and afterwards he became unconcious but Uthman took the document and filled the space with Umar's name, and then Aboo Bakr woke up and enquired, 'Show me the document!' When he read the document he saw that there was Umar's name and he said, 'Who did this?' Uthman replied saying, 'It is I.' Aboo Bakr said, "May Allah have mercy on you and reward you good, but if you had kept your name therein, you could be worthy of it." [Ibn Kathir said, this report is correct in its chain (sanad)] (ii) Narrated A'isha who said: 'Uthman used to write the will for Aboo Bakr, then Aboo Bakr became unconcious, but Uthman continue to write in that state that 'Umar is the caliph after him, then Aboo Bakr woke up, and asked 'what did you write? Uthman said, "I wrote that Umar is the Caliph after you!" Then Aboo Bakr said, 'You have written what I had wanted to order you to write, had you wrote it for yourself, you could be worthy of it.'

Narrated Qays ibn Abi Hazen: "Umar came out to us and he had Shadeed, the servant of Abi Bakr and he had a jareeda which people sit on. He said, "O people! Listen to what the Khalifa of Rasool Allah (saw) says." He said, "I have accepted Umar for you, so do bayah to him."

Narrated Qays: "I saw Umar and in his hand was a branch of palm tree and he was sitting with people saying, "Listen to the Khalifa of the Prophet of Allah (saw)." Then a servant of Abi Bakr named Shadeed came with a paper so he read it to people that Aboo Bakr said, "Listen and obey to the one whose name is on this paper, for by Allah (swt), I have not chosen for you but the best. Qays said 'Then I saw Umar on the minbar."...Ibn Jarir narrated this in his book of history and it is labelled as Saheeh (Authentic).

Source: Tarikh Al-Madina. Vol. 2, Pg. # 232 - 233 / 235.




Muhammad ibn Jarir:

Chapter of Appointing Umar ibn Al-Khattab as a successor and Aboo Bakr's agreement about Umar Ibn Al-Khattab during his sickness that he died due to:

Aboo Ja'far said and Al-Waqidi said: Ibraheem ibn Abi Al Nadar narrated from Muhammad ibn Ibraheem ibn Al-Harith, he said: "Aboo Bakr called for Uthman alone, then he said: 'Write: In the name of Allah (swt). The Beneficent, Ever-Merciful. This is what Aboo Bakr ibn Abi Quhafa consigned for Muslims.' After this... He said: 'Then he (Aboo Bakr) fainted and went out, then Uthman wrote: After this, I have appointed Umar ibn Al-Khattab as my successor over you, and I have not accredited anyone better than him.' Then Aboo Bakr woke up and asked Uthman to read for him. Then he (Uthman) read for him (Aboo Bakr). Then Aboo Bakr did takbeer and said: ''I see that you were afraid that people may disagree with each other if I pass away while I am unconscious!'' He replied: 'Yes!' Then he said: ''May Allah (swt) recompense you with good on the behalf of Islam and Muslims." And Aboo Bakr confirmed it based on this perspective.

Footnote: Narration is Saheeh (Authentic).

Source: Saheeh Tarikh Al-Tabari. Vol. 3, Pg. # 123 - 124.



 

Abul Qaasim Hibatullaah:

Al-Hussain ibn Umar narrated from Ismail ibn Muhammad narrated from Al-Hussain ibn Arfa narrated Shubaba narrated Abd Al-Aziz ibn Abi Salma Al-Majashoon narrated from Zayd ibn Aslam narrated from his father he said: 

Uthman ibn Affan dictated the agreement about the successor of Abi Bakr and he ordered him not to mention anyone's name and he left among the man [successor] then Abi Bakr fainted for a while then Uthman took the agreement (contract) and wrote the name of Umar, he said: 'Then Aboo Bakr woke up' and he said: 'Show us the agreement.' Then he found the name of Umar therein then he said: 'Who wrote this?' Then Uthman replied: 'I did.' Then he said: 'May Allah have mercy with you and recompensate you, and by Allah (swt) I say that if you had wrote your name then you would have been eligible for that.'

Muhammad ibn Abd Al Rahman ibn Al-Abbas narrated from Ahmad ibn Sulaiman narrated from Al-Zubair ibn Bakr narrated from Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Qudama narrated Uthman ibn Ubaidullah ibn Abdullah ibn Umar ibn Al-Khattab he said: 'When Aboo Bakr was near death, he called for Uthman ibn Affan and dictated him his will. Then Aboo Bakr fainted before naming anyone for being his successor, then Uthman wrote 'Umar ibn Al-Khattab.' Then Aboo Bakr woke up  and asked Uthman: 'Did you write anyone's name?' Then Uthman replied: ' I thought you were severely afflicted in pain and I was afraid of the separation (between people) therefore I wrote Umar ibn Al-Khattab, then he said, "May Allah (swt) grant you mercy and by Allah (swt), I say that if you had mentioned your name, then you would have been eligible for that.' Then Talha ibn Ubaidullah came in and said: 'I am the messenger of those who sent me to you to tell you that you had known how hard and unkind Umar was to us during your life, so how would it be after your death if you entrust him our issues. And Allah (swt) will question you about him, so be careful about what you tell him. Then he said: 'You are threatening me with Allah (swt)?! You will be disappointed, and what you think about is an illusion, because if Allah (swt) asks me about him, then I would say: 'I have designated as my successor over Your people the best among them." And (addressing Talha), 'Tell those who sent you what I said.'

Muhammad ibn Abdul Rahman narrated from Yahya ibn Muhammad ibn Sa'eed said: Abdul Jabbar ibn Al'ala said: Sufyan ibn Uyaynah narrated Ismail ibn Qays said: 'I saw Umar ibn Al-Khattab sitting next to him while moving his hand and having Shadeed, a servant of Aboo Bakr, next to him and saying: 'Listen and obey to the speech of the successor of the messenger of Allah (saw) and he is saying, 'By Allah (swt)! I swear that I can not choose anyone better (than him) for you.' And Shadeed, the servant of Aboo Bakr, had the book of Aboo Bakr in which he designated Umar to succeed him.'

Source: Sharh Usool I'tiqaad Ahl Sunnah Wal-Jamaa'ah. Vol. 4, Pg. # 1403 - 1404.


Ibn Al-Jawzi:

And from the accidents this year, the sickness of Aboo Bakr and what happened, is he made the leadership for Umar in his sickness... and when he wanted that he called Abdul Rahman ibn Awf and said, "Tell me about Umar ibn Al-Khattab." He said, "I swear he is the best you have an opinion for from men, but the only problem is that he is mean." So Aboo Bakr replied, "That's because he seems me too soft and if I give this (khilafa) to him he will preserve everything." Then he called Uthman and said, "Tell me about Umar." He said, "What I know about him is what is inside his heart is better than what he shows out, and no one among us is like him." Then Aboo Bakr said, "May Allah (swt) have mercy on you. I swear if I had left Umar, I would have chosen you." Then he said, write: 'In the name of Allah (swt), the Beneficent Ever-Merciful. This is what Aboo Bakr has written to Umar.' This is the last testament of (Abdullah ibn Abi Quhafa) during this world. And his first testament for the 'akhira' [after life] on his way into it where the unbelievers and the obscene becomes certain [and the liar believers], I have appointed as successor. Then he (Aboo Bakr) fainted, then Uthman wrote, "I have left for you Umar ibn Al-Khattab." So when Aboo Bakr woke up he said, "Read it for me." So he read it and he said, "I see that you were afraid people might differ, for my existence left when I fainted." Then he said, "Yes!" Then he replied, "May Allah (swt) bless you on the behalf of Islam and its people." And Aboo Bakr accepted it, then ordered it, and went out to the people with the book and they did bayah to who was mentioned in the book, and they knew it was Umar, and then people went to him (Aboo Bakr) and said, "What will you say to your Lord when he asks you that you left to us Umar and you see his harshness?!" Then he said, "Are you trying to scare me with Allah (swt)? May Allah (swt) not give victory to who oppresses you! I will tell Allah (swt) I have left you the best of people." Then he called Umar and gave him the wasiya.


Source: Muntazam Fi Tarikh Al-Muluk. Vol. 4, Pg. # 125 - 126.







According to the followers of the Ahlulbayt (a.s), the only legitimate rulers after the Prophet (saw) are the twelve Imams (a.s), who are the immediate descendants of the Prophet (saw) irrespective of whether they ruled directly or indirectly. All other rulers, from the time of Aboo Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Mu'awiyah, Yazid and so on, are considered usurpers and oppressors of the people. No ambiguity can exist in regards to the messenger of Allah (saw) wanting to announce his twelve successors by name, this, to prevent the Ummah from falling into confusion and turmoil. 

Muhamud ibn Ahmad Al-Ayni:

The scholars disagreed about the document which the Prophet (saw) wanted to write. Al-Khatabi said: “There are two explanations for it: One: He wanted to name the Imams after him so as to prevent the great crises like the Battle of Al-Jamal (between Alee and A'isha) and the Battle of Siffeen (between Alee and Mu'awiyah). And it has been said: He [the Prophet (saw)] wanted to write a book that shows the important laws (religious) so that there would be agreement over what it has been legislated (religiously) then it appeared for the Prophet (saw) that the general welfare lies in leaving it, or he (saw) has been inspired to do so, and Sufyan ibn Uyaina said: 'He wanted to nominate the names of his successors so that there would be no disagreement' and this is supported by the fact that he (peace and prayers be upon him), said at the beginning of his sickness when he was with A'isha, "Call your father and your brother for me so that I may write a book, because I am afraid that someone would desire [to succeed me without having the right to do so] or someone would say (something not true related to succeeding me), whereas Allah (swt) and believers do not accept anyone but Aboo Bakr. Narrated by Muslim and in Al-Bukhari the same meaning can be found.

Source: Umdat Al-Qari Sharh Al-Bukhari. Vol. 6, Pg. # 257 - 258.




Al-Ayni has recorded that Sufyan ibn Uyaina said that the Prophet (saw) wanted to appoint his successors in this document. Interestingly, Sufyan ibn Uyaina also narrated in Al-Bukhari that he forgot the third verbal declaration of the Prophet (saw). From this, we can establish the third declaration would have been the name(s) of his (saw) successors.  The question is, why did Sufyan ibn Uyaina hide this fact? The answer is very obvious. The names of the successors were not to his likening and he therefore happened to forget what the third declaration was. But in the above narration, he says something else and reveals the true will of the Prophet (saw). Insha'Allah Ta'Ala we will investigate the narrator Sufyan Ibn Uyaina later on in this article to show his inconsistency.

Alee Al-Qastalani Al-Misri:

The Prophet’s (saw) order means, "So that I write a document for you in which I will name the Imams after me."

Source: Irshad Al-Sari Fi Sharh Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Vol. 2, Pg. # 258.


Ahmad Amin:

The Messenger wanted to announce his successor after him in his fatal illness.

Source: Yawm Al-Islam. Pg. # 41.


Prophet Muhammad (saw) referred to the Qur'aan and Ahlulbayt (a.s) as the 'Two Khalifah's' who would take his place from among his followers, thereby restricting his Khilafah to them alone. It also establishes the fact that the Khilafah would take effect after his death, and would continue unbroken until the day of Judgement. 

Al-Haythami:

Zaid ibn Thabit from the Prophet of Allah (saw) he said: "I left you two things to follow, what is most important to me is the Khalifatayn. The book of Allah (swt) and my progeny Ahlulbayt (a.s) and they will not separate until they return to me at the pond (of Kawthar in paradise)."

Footnote: The narrators are Jayyid (Good).

Source: Majma Al-Zawa'id. Vol. 9, Pg. # 256, H # 14957.


Al-Suyuti:
Prophet of Allah (saw) he said: "I left you two things to follow. What is most important to me is the Khalifatayn. The book of Allah (swt) and my Ahlulbayt (a.s) and they will not separate until they return to me at the pond (of Kawthar in paradise)."

Footnote: Al-Albani comments both Hadeeth as being Saheeh (Authentic).

Source: Jamia Al-Sagheer. Vol. 1, Pg. # 482, H # 2457 - 2458.


Ibn Abi Hasim:

Narrated Zaid ibn Thabit: Allah’s Apostle (saw) said: “I will leave among you THE two Khalifahs after me: The Book of Allah and my Itrah (Ahlulbayt). Both shall never separate until they meet me at the Lake-Font.”
 
Source: Zilal Al-Jannah. Vol. 2, Pg. # 643. H. # 1049.   


Ibn Hajar:
Narrated Masruq: We were sitting with Abd Allah ibn Mas'ud and he was reciting the Qur’aan to us. Then a man said to him: “O Aboo Abd al-Rahman! Did you (companions) ask Allah’s Apostle (saw), the number of Khalifahs that will rule this Ummah?” Abd Allah ibn Mas'ud replied: “None before you has ever asked me concerning this since I arrived in Iraq. Verily, we asked Allah’s Apostle (saw), and he said: ‘Twelve, like the captains of Banu Israil.”

Footnote: Hadeeth is Hasan (Reliable).

Source: Fath Ul-Bari Fi Sharh Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Vol. 17, Pg. # 68.



Shuaib Al-Arna'ut:

Zayd ibn Thabit said: "The Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "I am leaving among you two successors. The book of Allah (swt) and my Ahlulbayt (a.s), and they will not separate from each other until they enter upon me together on the fount-lake."

Footnote: Al-Arna'ut says: This narration is Saheeh 'Authentic' with its witnesses (i.e. other narrations that support it), with the exception of the last part: "And they will not separate from each other until they enter upon me together on the fount-lake."

Source: Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal 
(Published in 1995). Vol. 35, Pg. # 512, H. # 21654.



Shuaib Al-Arna'ut authenticates the complete narration including the last sentence later in his works.

Al-Tirmidhi:

Alee ibn Munzir Al-Kufi narrated from Muhammad ibn Fudayl narrated from Al­-Amash narrated from Atiyyah from Aboo Sa'id and Al­-Amash narrated Habib ibn Abi Thabit narrated Zayd ibn Arqam, they both said, "The Messenger of Allah said, 'I am leaving among you [two things] that if you adhere to it then you should never go astray after [my death], and one is greater than the other. The Book of Allah (swt), which is an extended rope from the Sky to the Land, and my Family whom they are my Household and both of them will never separate till they come back to me at lake-font. Therefore be careful about how you would succeed about them."

Al-Tirmidhi: This is Hasan (Reliable) in this form.

Footnote: The narration through Zayd ibn Arqam is Saheeh (Authentic) and was also recorded by Muslim (2408), Al-Nasa'i in Al-Kubra (8148), (8175) & (8464). Also found in Al-Musnad' (19265) & (19313) and 'Saheeh ibn Hibban' (123). As for the hadeeth through Aboo Sa'eed it is Saheeh (Authentic) according to its other witnesses, (even though) its chain is weak and it is found in al Musnad (11104).

Source: Jamia Tirmidhi Sunan Al -Tirmidhi(Published 2009). Vol. 6, Pg. # 337, H. # 4122.




Muslim ibn Hajjaj:

Narrated Jabir ibn Samurah: I heard the messenger of Allah, peace be upon him saying:  “The affairs of the people will continue to be conducted as long as twelve men are their rulers.” Then the Prophet (saw) said words which were obscure to me. I asked my father: “What did the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him say?” He said: “All of them (the twelve men) will be from the Quraysh.”

Narrated Amir ibn Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas: I wrote (a letter) to Jabir ibn Samurah and sent it to him through my servant Nafi', asking him to inform me of something he had heard from the messenger of Allah, peace be upon him. He wrote to me (in reply): I heard the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, saying on a Friday evening, the day on which Al-Aslami was stoned to death (for committing adultery):  “The religion will continue to stand until the Hour has been established, or there have been over you twelve Khalifahs, all of them being from the Quraysh.” 

Source: Saheeh Muslim. Pg. # 882, H. # 1821 - 1822.


Concluding all of these facts together, we can establish the following points:


  • The Ahlulbayt (a.s) are the Khalifah's as mentioned in Hadeeth Al-Thaqalayn.
  • The Khalifahs are only Twelve men.
  • They are all from the Quraysh.
  • The existence of humanity and Islam has been linked to the existence of these Twelve men. 
  • Islam will continue to exist as long as there are Twelve Khalifahs, since Islam will exist until Qiyamah and according to the teachings of the Ahlulbayt (a.s) the last of them is in occultation.


Prophet Muhammad (saw) was fully aware with the knowledge given to him by Allah (swt) that Imam Alee (a.s) and his followers would submit to the content of that document whether it had been written or not. Hence, the correlation between the statement on both occasions i.e. On his death bed and that of Al-Thaqalayn, "Come so I may write for you a letter that you may never go astray" is one and the same.

Ibn Sa'd:

Narrated Yahya ibn Hammad from Aboo Awaana from Sulayman i.e. A'mash from Abdullah ibn Abdullah from Sa'eed ibn Jubayr from ibn Abbas who said: The Prophet (saw) was ill, it was a Thursday, then ibn Abbas cried, and while he was crying he said: "Thursday and what a Thursday! The illness of the Prophet (saw) intensified and he said: “Bring me a ink-pot and a tablet so that I may write for you a letter that you may never go astray after that.” Then some of the people who were present there said: 'Verily the Prophet (saw) is talking nonsense!’ Then (i.e. when those who opposed left the house) it was said to the Prophet(saw): 'Should we not bring what was asked for? The Prophet (saw) said: ‘After what they said?!’ So he did not ask for it.

Source: Tabaqat ibn Sa'd. Vol. 2, Pg. # 213.



Ibn Bushran:

Narrated Aboo Bakr Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Ibraheem Al-Shafi'i from Is'haq ibn Al-Hasan Al-Harbi from Aboo Hudhaifa from Muharraf ibn Wasil from A'mash from Abdullah ibn Abdullah Al-Razi from Sa'eed ibn Jubayr from ibn Abbas who said: "When it was Thursday, a Thursday, what a Thursday!" Then he cried and said: "The illness of the Prophet (saw) intensified and then he said: 'Bring me an ink-pot and a tablet so that I may write for you a letter that you may never go astray after that.' Then he fainted again, some of the people said: 'Should not we bring you the ink-pot and tablet? He (saw) said: “After what they said...?! After what they said...?!'"

Source: Amali. Vol. 2, Pg. # 130.


Al-Tabarani:

Narrated Umar ibn Hafs Al-Sadusi from Asim ibn Alee from Qais ibn Al-Rabi from A'mash from Abdullah ibn Ubaydullah from Sa'eed ibn Jubayr from ibn Abbas who said: 'When it was Thursday, and what a Thursday it was!' Then he cried and said: 'The Messenger of Allah (saw) said: “Bring me an ink-pot and a tablet so that I may write down a letter for you that you may never go astray after that.” Then they said: ‘The Messenger of Allah (saw) is talking nonsense!’ Then they silenced and he silenced, then it was said to him: 'Should we not bring it now?' He said: "After what (they said).....?!”

Source: Mu'jam Al-Kabir Al-Tabarani. Vol. 11, Pg. # 445.


Coming back to Sa'eed ibn Jubayr, let us look at the above narration through Abdullah ibn Abdullah Al-Razi. But before doing so, let us look at what Al-Bazzar has said about the above narration.

Al-Bazzar:

Narrated Muhammad ibn Al-Muthanna from Yahya ibn Hammad from Aboo Awaana from Sulayman i.e. A'mash from Abdullah ibn Abdullah from Sa'eed ibn Jubayr from ibn Abbas who said: "It was a Thursday and what a Thursday it was!" Then ibn Abbas cried, then said: "The Prophet (saw) in his last illness in which he died said: “Bring me a ink-pot and a tablet so that I may write for you a letter that you may never go astray after that.”

Al-Bazzar comments: This narration has been narrated through authentic chains. Abdullah ibn Abdullah has added a word into it so that it makes the Hadeeth Munkar (unknown) because of that word, we do not mention that word due to respect the Messenger of Allah (saw).

Abdullah ibn Abdullah was in Kufa and he was judge of the city Rai. He has narrated unknown narrations that are not known through other narrators, and that through other than ibn Abbas. And Abdullah ibn Abdullah is not strong in Hadeeth, because he has narrated narrations that others did not.

Source: Musnad Al-Bazzar. Vol. 11, Pg. # 267, H. # 5055.


Al-Bazzar is ashamed to mention the filthy word which was said about the Prophet (saw) and so decided not to narrate it. He only mentions the first part of the narration and tries to blame 'Abdullah ibn Abdullah' for using this hidden word. However, this narration was not in this form but also from Sa'eed ibn Jubayr with the words 'Yahjuru' or 'Hajara' and their meaning is the same: Delirium, talking nonsense and hallucinations. These words have also come through Talha ibn Mis'raf from Sa'eed ibn Jubayr in Saheeh Muslim, Musnad Ahmad, Saheeh Tarikh Al-Tabari, and through Sulayman Al-Ahwal from Sa'eed ibn Jubayr in Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Clearly, Al-Bazzar obviously has a problem digesting these reports. Let us see the status of Abdullah ibn Abdullah Al-Razi among the scholars of Jar'h wa Ta'deel and the status of the sub-narrators who have narrated this Hadeeth from him. We take a look at the oldest and the nearest chain to him which is recorded in Tabaqat ibn Sa'd.


Analysis Of The Chain Of Narrators:

The status of these four narrators in the books of Rijal:

      1 -  Abdullah ibn Abdullah Al-Razi
      2 -  Al-A'mash
      3 -  Aboo Awaana
      4 -  Yahya ibn Hammad

1 - Abdullah ibn Abdullah Al-Razi

Al-Arna'ut and Aw'wad Ma'roof:

Ibn Hajar: Abdullah ibn Abdullah Al-Razi, servant of Bani Hashim, the judge, Aboo Ja'far, he is originally from Kufa. He is truthful, from the 4th generation of narrators. (Aboo Dawood, Al-Tirmidhi, Al-Nasa'i and ibn Majah have narrated from him). Al-Arna'ut and Aw'wad Ma’roof: He was rather trustworthy, described as trustworthy by: Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Abbad ibn Al-Awam, Yaqoob ibn Sufyan, ibn Numayr, Al-Ijli, ibn Hibban, ibn Shaheen, ibn Khalfoon and Al-Dhahabi. Ibn Al-Madini says: He is famous. And Al-Nasa'i is the only one who says: There is problem about him. Al-Arna'ut and Aw'wad Ma'roof: There is no bad opinion about him (i.e. no scholar has said anything that weakens him).

Source: Tahreer Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Vol. 2, Pg. # 228, Person # 3418.


2 - Al-A'mash

Ibn Hajar:

A'mash ibn Mehran Al-Asadi Al-Kahili, Aboo Muhammad Al-Kufi, A'mash: He is trustworthy Hafiz knowledgable on Qira’aat, pious, but was Mudallis. He was of the fifth generation. Died in 147 or 148, he was born in the beginning of the year 61. (Bukhari, Muslim, Aboo Dawood, Al-Tirmidhi, Al-Nasa'i and ibn Majah have narrated his narrations).

Source: Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Pg. # 195, Person # 2615.


3 - Aboo Awana

Ibn Hajar:

Wadh'da, Al-Wasiti, Al-Bazzaz, Aboo Awana, he is famous by his title Aboo Awana: He is trustworthy firm and stable (in narrations), from the seventh generation. Died in 175 or 176 A.H. (Bukhari, Muslim, Aboo Dawood, Al-Tirmidhi, Al-Nasa'i and ibn Majah have narrated his narrations).

Source: Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Pg. # 510, Person # 7407.


4 - Yahya ibn Hammad

Ibn Hajar:

Yahya ibn Hammad ibn Abi Ziyad Al-Shaibani, their servant, Al-Basri, close companion of Aboo Awana: Trustworthy and pious, of the late ninth generation. (Bukhari, Muslim, Aboo Dawood, Al-Tirmidhi, Al-Nasa'i and ibn Majah have narrated his narrations).

Source: Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Pg. # 519, Person # 7535.


It is evident that the narration through Abdullah ibn Abdullah from Sa'eed ibn Jubayr is impeccable. Now let us investigate the authenticity of the narration wherein it was said: "Is the Prophet (saw) talking nonsense?"

Firstly, it is important to ensure one is aware that the Hadeeth has been narrated through 4 major chains from ibn Abbas, which are as follows:

1 - Ibn Shahab Al-Zuhri from Ubaydallah ibn Abdullah from ibn Abbas.
2 - Sufyan ibn Uyaina from Sulaiman Al-Ahwal from Sa'eed ibn Jubayr from       ibn Abbas.
3 - Talha ibn Musarraf from Sa'eed ibn Jubayr from ibn Abbas.
4 - Abdullah Ibn Abdullah Al-Razi from Sa'eed ibn Jubayr from ibn Abbas.

We have three out of the four chains ending with Sa'eed ibn Jubayr from ibn Abbas. All the narrations that narrate these filthy words of Umar conclude with Sufyan ibn Uyaina from Sulaiman Al-Ahwal from Sa'eed ibn Jubayr from ibn Abbas. It is clear that Sufyan ibn Uyaina, despite narrating from reliable narrators, has also fabricated and distorted narrations. In the previous examples cited from Saheeh Al-Bukhari and Saheeh Muslim, we have seen narrations accepted from Sulaiman Al-Ahwal from Sa'eed ibn Jubayr from ibn Abbas.

The first narration in this article which is also through Sufyan ibn Uyaina from Sulaiman Al-Ahwal surprisingly does not narrate the filthy sentence in question form as: "Is the Prophet (saw) talking nonsense?" He rather narrates it that they insistently said: "The Messenger of Allah (saw) is talking nonsense."

It is recorded that there is one sub-narrator between Bukhari and Sufyan ibn Uyaina and that is Qubeysa. He is a trustworthy narrator who is known for his memory and that he would narrate exactly as he heard. This evidences the fact that Qubeysa directly heard it from Sufyan ibn Uyaina exactly as Bukhari narrated it from him.

Aba Hatam Al-Razi:

My father used to say: "I have not seen any of the scholars who memorized a narration and narrate it always in the exact same way as they have learned it except for Qubeysa."

Source: Kitab Al-Jar'h Wa Ta'deel. Vol. 6, Pg. # 178.


On other occasions, Sufyan ibn Uyaina narrates the Hadeeth using different words. He obviously changed into a question form to decrease its indecency which is not something unlikely, because Sufyan ibn Uyaina is famous for his distortion of Hadeeths.

Al-Dhahabi:

Sufyan was famous in distorting and fabricating (of Hadeeths), he used to remove the names of the narrators who had narrated him narrations from Al-Zuhri and replaced them with his own name, and he used to fabricate them, but he did not do this unless the narrator was trustworthy in his opinion.

Source: Siyar A'lam An Nubala. Vol. 8, Pg. # 465.



Ibn Hajar:

Sufyan ibn Uyaina Al-Hilali Al-Kufi then Makki, the famous Imam lived in Hijaz, Faqeeh of his time. He used to distort narrations but he did not use to distort the narration except the narrations of trustworthy narrators. Ibn Hibban claims that this is something special about him and scholars like Al-Nasa'i and other scholars describe him also as a fabricator.

Source: Tabaqat Al-Mudallisin. Pg. # 9.



It is also worth pointing out that Sufyan ibn Uyaina has narrated all of the above mentioned narrations through Sulayman Al-Ahwal, and he is one of the famous scholars of Hijaz. Ahmad ibn Hanbal has said in regards to Sufyan ibn Uyaina that he made many mistakes in his narrations and that he has taken from the scholars of Hijaz. But the fact is, that he has not made mistakes, rather he has altered and distorted the narrations.

Al-Khateeb Al-Tabrizi's Explanation of Mishkatul Masabih:

In the narration of Sulayman ibn Abi Muslim Al-Ahwal: The author (i.e. Mullah Alee Al-Qari) said: He was the uncle of ibn Abi Najeeh, he was a Tabi’ee and was of the most trustworthy scholars and Imams of Hijaz. He has heard narrations from Tawoos and Aba Salama and from him narrate: Ibn Uyaina, ibn Juraij and Sho’ba.

Source: Mirqatul Masabih Sharh Mishkatul Mafatih. Vol. 11, Pg. # 114.


Al-Khateeb Al-Baghdadi:

Fadhl ibn Ziyad said: Ahmad ibn Hanbal was asked: "Sufyan Al-Thawri is better in his memorized Hadeeths or ibn Uyaina?" He said: "Al-Thawri was better and he has less mistakes. Ibn Uyaina was a Hafiz, but he has numerous mistakes in the narrations of the people of Kufa and he also has mistaken sometimes in his narrations from the people of Hijaz."

Source: Tarikh Baghdad. Vol. 10, Pg. # 240.


Now let us present the very same narration of Sufyan ibn Uyaina recorded in Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal through which the distortion becomes more apparent. What makes it even more weighty is that Ahmad ibn Hanbal has heard it directly from Sufyan, and on every occasion Sufyan has altered the words of the narration.

Ahmad ibn Hanbal:

Narrated Sufyan from Sulaiman ibn Abi Muslim the uncle of ibn Abi Najeeh from Sa'eed ibn Jubayr from ibn Abbas who said: "Thursday! And you know not what Thursday is? After that ibn Abbas wept till the stones on the ground were soaked with his tears. On that I asked ibn Abbas, "What is (about) Thursday?" He said, "When the condition (i.e. health) of Allah's Messenger (saw) deteriorated, he said, 'Bring me a bone of scapula, so that I may write something for you after which you will never go astray.' The people differed in their opinions although it was improper to differ in front of a Prophet. They said, 'What is wrong with him? Is he delirious?' Sufyan said: i.e. is 'He talking hallucination? Ask him. Then they went to him (saw) to ask, so the Prophet (saw) replied, 'Leave me as I am in a better state than what you are asking me to do.' Then he ordered to do three things. On one occasion Sufyan said: 'He willed three things: He (saw) said: 'Turn out all the pagans from the Arabian Peninsula, and equip the armies that I prepared.' Sa'eed was silent about the third thing, ‘so I don’t know whether he did not mention it.’ On another occasion Sufyan said: ‘Or he forgot it.’ On another occasion Sufyan said: ‘Or maybe he has left it or forgot.’

Footnote: It’s chain is Saheeh (Authentic) by the criteria of Shaykhain.
Source: Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Vol. 3, Pg. # 409, H. # 1935.


This narration shows that Sufyan ibn Uyaina was frequently distorting and altering the narration in an attempt to cover up what was actually said. The words, "Is he delirious / speaking nonsense" were not used in the form of a question, but rather more insistently. Al-Zuhri also replaced the word by something less offensive as we have already shown, but this should not come as a surprise, as we shall now look at how Zuhri distorted other facts. A sane minded individual should now question as to why the Sunni religion is based around distorting the nature of so-called righteous companions.

Al-Dhahabi:

I (Dhahabi) say the words of truth if it will become evident to us that by the deviant desires and racism one will ignore the facts. But one will shrink his mind and stop to narrate the facts as it appears to you that they have stopped narrating what happened during the wars, and the differences between the companions and the effect of this is still passed through us in books and narrations. But most of them are weak and some are fabricated reports, and all these tales are in our hands and in the hands of our scholars; and so it is necessary to hide them and keep them aloof but also to destroy this information so that the love of the companions might grow and become evident to (the Muslims); and by wishing them pleasure of Allah (swt) might be a daily task. And to hide this is necessary to general public and to the doubtful scholars. But those scholars who are of liberal minds and have balance approach should be allowed just to read and comprehend with the one principle that he must request forgiveness for the companions as Allah (swt) taught us saying, "And those who came after them say: "O Our Lord, forgive us and our brothers who proceeded us with faith and do not make in our hearts any malice to those who believe..." Thus, these people have merits of being the first and predecessors and they do not have acts of kufr, and they participated in the Jihad and other acts of worship deeply and we are not like them in any way!

Source: Siyar A'lam An-Nu'bala. Vol. 10, Pg. # 92.




Al-Balazari:

Narrated Ahmad ibn Ibraheem from Aboo Hasim Al-Nabeel from Malik ibn Migh'wal from Talha ibn Mitraf from Sa'eed ibn Jubayr from ibn Abbas who said: 'Thursday, and what about Thursday? On that day the illness of the Messenger of Allah (saw) intensified, then ibn Abbas cried for a long time. Then he said: "When his illness intensified, he said: 'Bring me a shoulder blade and ink-pot (or tablet and ink-pot), so that I write for you a document (by following which) you would never go astray.' They said: 'Do you see him? He is talking nonsense.' Then they disputed and there was a hue and cry. Upon which the Messenger of Allah (saw) became very sad and offended and said: “Go away from me!” And he did not write anything.

Source: Ansaab Al-Ashraaf. Vol. 1, Pg. # 562.





The chain of this narration is the same as the narration of Muslim. There are two new narrators in this book and both of them are trustworthy and firm Hafiz as we will prove it now.

Ibn Hajar:

Ahmad ibn Ibraheem ibn Kathir ibn Zayd Al-Duraqi Al-Nukri, Al-Baghdadi: He is a trustworthy Hafiz, of the tenth generation. Died in 246 A.H. (Muslim, Aboo Dawood, Al-Tirmidhi, and ibn Majah have narrated his narrations).

Source: Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Pg. # 17, Person # 3.


Ibn Hajar:


Al-Dhahak ibn Mukhlid ibn Al-Dhahak ibn Muslim Al-Shaibani, Aboo Hasim Al-Nabeel, Al-Basri: He is trustworthy, firm and stable (in narrations), of the ninth generation. Died in 212 A.H or after that. (Bukhari, Muslim, Aboo Dawood, Al-Tirmidhi, Al-Nasa'i and ibn Majah have narrated his narrations).

Source: Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Pg. # 221, Person # 2977.



Blasphemy Law In Islam


Blasphemy is the act of insulting or showing contempt or lack of reverence for any religious deity or the irreverence towards religious or holy persons or things. Islam does not even permit one to insult a false deity as it has been revealed in the Holy Qur'aan (6.109). The general view of scholars in Islam has differed on how the individual is punished. Some might receive a fine, imprisonment, flogging, amputation, hanging, or beheading. In some cases, scholars even impose a religious Fatwa against the individual. We appeal to justice to all those who truly love the messenger of Allah (saw) in demanding what course of action chooses fit for those who insulted the the Prophet (saw) and accused him of speaking nonsense and questioning his sanity.


Al-Nawawi:

Urwa ibn Zubair reported that Abdullah ibn Zubair had narrated to him that a person from the Ansar disputed with Zubair in the presence of Allah's Messenger (saw) in regard to the watering places of Harra from which they watered the date-palms. The Ansari said: "Let the water flow!" But He (Zubair) refused to do this and the dispute was brought to Allah's Messenger (saw) and he said to Zubair: "Zubair, water (your date-palms), then let the water flow to your neighbour." The Ansari was enraged and said: "Allah's Messenger, (you have given this decision) for he is the son of your father's sister." The face of Allah's Apostle (saw) underwent a change, and then said: "Zubair, water (your date-palms), then hold it until it rises up to the walls." Zubair said: "I think, by Allah, that this verse: 'Nay, by the Lord, they will not (really) (believe) until they make thee a judge of what is in dispute among them, and find in this no dislike of what thou decide and submit with full submission.'"

Explanation of Al-Nawawi:

The scholars say that if today someone says the same thing that the Prophet (saw) said, and attributes that the Prophet (saw) follows his desires. It is disbelief and the laws of Apostasy is applicable on him, and it is obligatory to kill him. And they say that the Prophet (saw) left him because it was in the beginning of Islam and he wanted to bring people to Islam by a good way and he was patient over the bothering of the Hypocrites and those whose hearts were ill.

Source: Saheeh Muslim Sharh Al-Nawawi. Vol. 15, Pg. # 2 - 3.



Qazi Ayadh:

Chapter on the rights of the Prophet (saw). Cursing, insulting, using abusive language and association of imperfection to him:

You should know may Allah (swt) grant us success, that cursing the Prophet (saw) or slandering or associating an imperfection to him or his forefathers or his faith or one of his characteristics, or insulting him, or comparing him to something in an abusive way, or humiliating him, or belittling his position and associating a flaw to him, all of these are abusive and insulting him. And the law for it is like cursing, who should be killed as we will explain later. And there is no exception for one of these above mentioned points, whether it is explicitly emphasised or just implication. The same applies to someone who curses or invokes against him, or wishes harm for him, or associates to him something which is abusive to his status in a insulting way, or associating to him the improper things and talking nonsense, or associating to him bad language and lie, or slander him in his hardships and tribulations, or humiliate him over some of his afflictions that are normal. All of these are agreed upon issues between scholars and Imams of Fatwa and the Sahaba until the end times. Aboo Bakr ibn Al-Munzir said: "All of the scholars agree upon the law that the punishment for insulting the Prophet (saw) is death. Some of these scholars are: Malik ibn Anas, Al-Layth, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Is'haq ibn Rahwayh and Shafi'i." Al-Qadhi Abul Fadhl said: "And that is according to the saying of Aboo Bakr, and his repentance is not accepted before the above mentioned scholars." And Aboo Hanifa and his companions say the same, and Al-Thawri and the people of Kufah and Al-Awza'ee said, "He is Muslim." But the others say: "It is apostasy." It is narrated like that from Al-Walid ibn Muslim from Malik. Al-Tabari reports like that from Aboo Hanifa and his companions about someone who insults the Prophet (saw) or disassociates from him or rejects him.

Source: Al-Shifaa of Al-Qazi Ayadh. Vol. 2, Pg. # 932 - 933.



Among other sins which nullify good deeds and amount to disbelief is harming or hurting the feelings of the Prophet (saw). The Holy Qur'aan mentions very clearly that each and every good deed of one who annoys and hurts the Prophet (saw) goes in vain, hurting the Prophet (saw) is tantamount to denial of his (saw) Prophethood and Messengership. Thus what would be the status of those who accused him of speaking nonsense? Consider the Ansari man who committed the lesser evil as opposed to what they did. If we apply the same principles as what Qazi Ayadh refers to, then they become apostate and hence it would be obligatory for the Muslims to kill them.

Responding To Common Objections


If Prophet (saw) Was Illiterate, Why Would The Prophet (saw) say, "Come, let me write for you a statement after which you will not go astray?"


People who pose such a question need to ask themselves how are they any different to Umar who believed the Prophet (saw) was hallucinating and speaking nonsense? If any loved one were to demand anything on their death bed, one would go to whatever extent necessary to fulfill their last wish. The Holy Qur'aan has repeatedly mentioned total obedience to the commands of the Prophet (saw). We see that firstly, according to Bukhari, the document was not written, which lead it to be given verbally. Some of the scholars as mentioned earlier, also confirmed this was a physical document. It is not necessary, that he (saw) himself wanted to write the document, rather it was an instruction for those around his death bed to dictate his request both verbally and physically. Some scholars held the belief the Prophet (saw) did know how to read and write but after revelation.


Ibn Hajar:

And the Prophet (saw) statement: “I may write down for you…” It is used metaphorically and it means actually that ‘I may dictate to you to…’.

Source: Fat'hul Bari Sharh Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Vol. 1, Pg. # 364.


Al-Nawawi:

There was the reconciliation of Hudaybiyyah, and the Prophet (saw) asked Alee (a.s) to write the conditions of the conciliation with the polytheists (and the Prophet (saw) asked Alee (a.s) to write the following]:

In the name of God, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. 

This is what Muhammad the Messenger of Allah ...

Then the polytheists renounced it saying, 'If we knew that you are the Messenger of Allah then we would have followed you. But write Muhammad ibn Abd-Allah. Therefore he asked Alee (a.s) to erase it [Messenger of Allah ]. Then Alee (a.s) replied, 'By Allah! I swear that I would not erase it.' Then the Messenger of Allah (saw) said, 'Show me where you wrote it?' Then he showed him and he erased it and wrote (ibn Abd-Allah).

Al-Qadi Ayyad said, "That some people used this as an argument favoring that the Prophet (saw) wrote it with his hands according to the meaning of the sentence (and he erased it and wrote ibn Abd-Allah)." 

Al-Bukhari narrated something similar, referring to the narration of Isra’il narrating Aboo Isaac and he said, "The Messenger of Allah (saw) took the book and wrote, and he added using another source. However, he did not know how to write, then he wrote." The adherent to this view said, "Allah the Highest, made this run through his hand that the pen in his hand wrote without him [the Prophet (saw)] knowing what it is being written, or that Allah the Highest taught him that when the order came. Therefore he wrote, and Allah (swt) then made it one of His miracles if he was illiterate, the same way He taught him what he did not know, and made him read what he could not, and recite what he did not recite before. He (God) taught him, the Prophet (saw) to write and plot what he did not know (before) after the Prophecy or made it run through his hand." They (the scholars) said, "This is not antagonizing his description as ‘illiterate.’" And they argued using some trails left by Al-Sha’by and other old scholars that the Prophet peace and prayers of Allah be upon him did not die before he wrote."

Qadi Ayyad said, "Al Baji argued in favor of this, and referred to Al-Samanani and Aboo Dharr and others, and many went for antagonizing all of this. The first scholars said, 'His saying that the Prophet (saw) did not recite nor write ‘before’ (the revelation) because he received no education.'"

"And you did not recite before it any scripture, nor did you inscribe one with your right hand. Otherwise the falsifiers would have had [cause for] doubt; Surah Al-Ankabut: 48."
Therefore as it became possible for him to recite after it [because the Prophet (saw) recited the Qur'aan after Prophecy and revelation] then it is the same for writing.


Source: Saheeh Muslim Sharh Al-Nawawi. Vol. 12, Pg. # 137 - 138.



Authentic Narration On The Incident Of Pen And Paper From Shi'ee Sources

Sheikh Al-Mufid:

A single report that its narration is agreed upon by the Shi'ee and the Sunnis is the statement of the Prophet (saw) during the end of his life when he said: “Bring to me pen and paper so that I write for you a document that you will never go astray after it.” And Umar said: “The man is delirious!”

Source: Awail Al-Maqalat. Pg. # 409.




Those that lodge such a challenge are clearly devoid of the rules of Sunni / Shi'ee polemics. The basic concept of such debates is such that each side proves his point by citing the books of their opponents. There is no onus on us whatsoever to produce the 'pen and paper' incident from Shi'ee books. If it were for the purpose of highlighting flaws in the character of Umar ibn Al-Khattab, our opponents should already be aware that we have a plethora of authentic traditions that highlight his transgression and sins. Moreover, if we were to produce such traditions, what value would that serve for our opponents? They would only immediately reject on the premise that they are from Shi'ee books and hence no set proof for them!

Misuse Of Shi'ee Text Regarding The Calamity Of Thursday

Nawasib rejoice when they identify narrations wherein we are informed that the Prophet (saw) on his deathbed was falling in and out of consciousness at the time of asking for writing materials to be brought to him. Falling gravely ill, and falling unconscious is a condition which can affect the Prophets (saw) and Imams (a.s). We have the examples of Prophet Ya'qub (a.s), whose grieving for his son was such that he lost his eyesight, or Zayn Al-Abidin (a.s) who frequently fell in and out of consciousness during the battle of Karbala. The chosen leaders as appointed by the Blessed Creator Allah (swt) may well faint, but their mental capacity is never affected by such states, they remain compus mentus no matter how severe their condition becomes. We have no issue with those traditions whether they be from a Sunni or Shi'ee source wherein we are informed that the Prophet (saw) became unconscious. We learn that despite his failing health, the Prophet (saw), the mercy of all mankind was still looking out for the best interests of the Ummah and still wanted to document something down so as to protect the Ummah from deviation after him (saw). Despite his (saw) failing health and his bouts of fainting, he still wanted this instruction to be fulfilled, as it clearly demonstrates how important he deemed this document to be. This tragedy has been highlighted so that one may recognise the importance of the instruction, and thus seek to fulfill the wishes of the dying Prophet (saw), but Umar saw it apt to interject and question the sanity of Prophet (saw) for issuing such an order. In a person's final hour, every effort is taken by his near and dear ones to respect his final wishes so that he leaves the earth calm and content. We are not talking about some ordinary dying man here, we are talking about the last and final messenger, whose order was being challenged and his sanity shamelessly questioned.

The Prophet (saw) Appointed Abbas

Sheikh Al-Mufid:

When they (the people) had left (the room), he (the Prophet) said: “Send back to me my brother (Alee) and my uncle (Abbas).” They sent for someone to call them and he brought them. When he had them sitting close, he (the Prophet) said: “Uncle of the Apostle of Allah, will you accept my testamentary bequest (wasi), fulfill my promise, and carry out my religion?” “Apostle of Allah, your uncle is an old man with the responsibilities of a large family,” answered Al-Abbas. “You vie with the wind in liberality and generosity. You have made promises which your uncle could never fulfill.” Then he (the Prophet) turned to Alee ibn Abi Talib, and said: “Brother, will you accept my testamentary bequest (wasi), fulfill my promises, carry out my religion on my behalf and look after the affairs of my family after me?” “Yes, Apostle of Allah,” he (Alee) replied...

Source: Kitab Al-Irshad. Pg. # 131.



This narration has nothing to do with his appointing a successor. Here the Prophet (saw) is asking whether his uncle would pay off his debts and support his family members. The word ‘Deeni’ does not exclusively mean ‘religion,’ it is also used for the term ‘debts.’ Sheikh Al-Kulayni in Al-Kaafi also recorded this narration and sheds further light on this incident. It appears in the very same Hadeeth which Nawaasib accuse the followers of the Ahlulbayt (a.s) for having narrated a Hadeeth from a donkey which in fact he does not appear in the chain of narrators rather he is mentioned in the content of the Hadeeth something we shall Inshallah'tala respond to in future articles.

Al-Kulayni:


Muhammad ibn Al-Husayn has narrated from Ali ibn Muhammad from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Muhammad ibn Al-Walid Shabab Al-Sayrafi from Aban ibn Uthman from abu Abdallah (a. s.) who has said the following: "When the Messenger of Allah (saw) was about to die, he called to him Al-Abbas ibn Abd Al-Muttalib and Amir Al-Mu’mineen (a.s.). He said to Al-Abbas, "O uncle of Muhammad (saw)! Will you inherit the legacy of Muhammad (saw, pay his debts and fulfill his promises and commitments?" He responded, "O the Messenger of Allah (saw)! May Allah (swt) take my soul and the souls of my parents in service for your cause. I am an old man with a large number of dependents with very little belongings while in generosity compete the winds." He (the Messenger of Allah) said, "I will give them away to  whoever would want them along with its rights and responsibilities." Then the Holy Prophet (saw) said, "O Alee (a.s), brother of Muhammad (saw), will you pay off the liabilities of Muhammad (saw), pay off his debt and take possession of his legacy?" He said, "Yes. May Allah take my soul and the soul of my parents in service for your cause, it is my responsibility and in my favour." Alee (a.s.) has said, "I looked at him and he (saw) took off even his ring from his finger and said to me wear this ring in my life time." He (Alee) (a.s.) has said, "I looked to the ring when wearing on my finger and wished to have it out of all his properties." He then called upon Bilal (r.a) loudly, "Bring me my helmet, the coat of arms, the flag, the shirt, the dhulfiqar (famous sword), Al-Sahab (the Turban), Al-Burd (the cloth), Al-Abraqa (the belt)and the staff." Alee (a.s.) has said, "I had never before seen that belt. When it was brought, its shine would almost take away one’s sight. It was of the belts of paradise." He (the Messenger of Allah) then said, "O Alee (a.s)! Jibra'eel (a.s) brought this for me and said, "O Muhammad (saw), place it in the ring of the coat of arms and use it as a belt around your midsection." Then he asked that the two pairs of Arabian shoves be brought to him along with the shirt. One of them was already stitched and the other was not yet stitched. It was the shirt with which he took for the Isra’ (the night journey). The shirt, while wearing it, he came out on the day of Uhud. Three caps were brought, the cap used while on a journey, the cap used on the ‘Id days and the cap used on Fridays. Also the cap that was used during his meeting with his companions was brought to him." Then he (the Messenger of Allah ) said, "O Bilal (r.a), bring to us the two mules, the grey one and Dul dul and the two camels, Al-Ghadba nand Al-Qaswa and the two horses." Al-Jannah would be kept near the door of the Mosque in case the Messenger of Allah (saw) needed it. Whenever he would need anything he would let a man to ride on it to go for the task and the horse wound run for the needs of the Messenger of Allah (saw). Also Hayzum was brought to him, the donkey called Ufayr were brought to him. He then said, "Take possession of these in my life time." Amir Al-Mu’mineen (a.s.) has said, "The first one of the animals died was Ufayr who died within the same hour that the Messenger of Allah (saw) died. He brook off his bound until and began to run until he came to the well of Banu Khatma in Quba and threw himself into it and it became his grave." It is narrated that Amir Al-Mu’mineen (a.s.) has said, "That donkey spoke to the Messenger of Allah (saw) who said, "May Allah take my soul and the soul of my parents in service for your cause, my father related to me from his father from his grand father from his father who lived with Noah in the Ark. Once Noah came to him and whipped him on his back and said, "From the descendents of this donkey there will a donkey on whose back is the master and the last of the Prophets will ride. I thank Allah (swt) who has made me that donkey."

Source: Usool Al-Kafi. Vol. 1, Pg. # 140.




Imam Alee (a.s) Disobedience Towards The Prophet (saw) When Ordered To Kill

In summary, the narration is as follows:

 Sheikh Al-Sadooq (r.a):

Then the Prophet (saw) said, ‘O Alee! Go and kill him.’ Once I started to go, the Prophet (saw) told me, ‘Kill him if you find him there.’ Once I returned I said, O Prophet of God (saw)! I did not find anyone there.’ Then the Prophet (saw) said, ‘Would you have killed him if you found him there?’’ They replied, ‘By God. Yes.’ Then Alee (a.s) said, ‘I swear to you by God! Is there anyone amongst you about whom the Prophet (saw) said, ‘Your friends are in Paradise and your enemies are in Hell’, other than me?’ They replied, ‘By God; no.’ Then Alee (a.s) said, ‘I swear to you by God! Do you know that A'isha told God’s Prophet (saw), ‘Ibraheem (the son of Mariya al-Qabti) is not your son. He is the son of so and so Al-Qabti.’ The Prophet (saw) told me, ‘O Alee! Go and kill him!’ Then I asked God’s Prophet (saw), ‘Are you sending me there as a heated iron to execute this decree as soon as I get there, or do you want me to discover the truth?’ The Prophet (saw) replied, ‘No. Go and discover the truth.’ Then I went after that Al-Qabti man. Once he saw me, he ran away into a garden. I followed him into the garden. Then he climbed up a date palm tree. I pursued him to the top of the tree. Once he realized that I was chasing him, he took off his under shorts and I noticed that he had been totally castrated. Then I returned and told the Prophet about it. The Prophet (saw) said, ‘Thanks God for removing this accusation from the Household.’ Wasn’t it done by me?’ They replied, ‘By God. Yes.’ Then Alee (saw) said, ‘O God! Please be a witness to this.’”

Source: Al-Khisal. Chapter Section Forty And Above Numbers.




This narration is also recorded in Bakri Hadeeth literature. Had Imam Alee (a.s) carried out the Prophet (saw) command the innocent person would have been killed. Imam Alee (a.s) refrains from killing him once he realized that the affair could not have been possible. If this narration  would mean the Prophet (saw) passed a judgement against an individual without establishing the truth of the matter and failing to call any witnesses. The case, as reported in the narratoin, was that of adultery for which there should either have been four witnesses or a confession by the accused or any other certain evidence of sexual involvement. It is unimaginable that the Prophet (saw) would have issued a order to kill someone on the accusation of adultery when he himself refrained from sentencing a women accused of adultery due to the lack of evidence against her. 


Then there is the question of who actually spread this lie (A'isha). Did the Prophet (saw) stipulate the punishment of slander once it had been proven that the man was innocent? It would have been the responsibility of the Ummmah to bring the culprits to justice but,  we do not find any evidence of the Prophet (saw) punished A'isha for what she did.

Even if this inciden is true, what is the supposed disobedience that occurred here?Aboo Bakr and Umar were ordered (on separate occasions) to kill an individual that was alleged to have had a relationship with his (saw) wife. The Shaikhayn returned having failed to do so, on the premise that he was offering Salaah. Thereafter, Alee (a.s) was sent to implement the order but did not do so because the individual was no longer in prayer. Alee (a.s) confirmed to the Prophet (saw) that he would have killed the said individual had he found him. The Prophet (saw) told him to go again, but on this occasion investigate the matter since the rumour had been started by A'isha. Alee (a.s) pursued the man, and discovered he was devoid of genitalia. Prophet (saw) was thereafter pleased that his (s.a) wife was vindicated.

On the first occasion, Alee (a.s) was unable to implement the order of the Prophet (saw) as the person was no longer present. On the second occasion, he (a.s) investigated the matter just as Prophet (saw) requested. So, how can this be compared to the insolence of Umar who refused to implement the order, and questioned the mental state of Prophet (saw)? The only people that are shamed from this tradition are three, them being the Shaikhayn who refused to implement the order of the Prophet (saw) and A'isha who through her legendary slanderous tongue had accused a spouse of the Prophet (saw) of fornicating and conceiving a son that had been attributed to him (saw). Her slander nearly led to the death of an innocent man who was only saved due to the account of Imam Alee (a.s) pointing out that the testimony of A'isha should not be relied upon.

Imams (a.s) Also Believed The Holy Qur'aan Is Enough

Imam Raza (a.s) said: “What do you say about the Qur'aan?” So he replied, “It is the speech of Allah (swt); do not exceed and move ahead of it, and do not seek guidance from other than it; otherwise, you would go astray.”

Source: Bihar Al-Anwar. Vol. 92, Pg. # 117.




Despite narration having a defect due to ibn Masroor who is Majhool (Unknown) according to Al-Khoei we find the Imam (a.s) words are in accordance to the verse, "We have not neglected anything in the Book" (6:38). There is a complete context to these words and the Mufasirs have themselves explained the verse means that all knowledge about all things is with Allah (swt). No Muslim would use this as basis to seek guidance from the Qur'aan alone be it the Imam (a.s) or even Umar. When comparing both scenario we find two different contexts. Umar made his statement whilst ‘rejecting’ the demand of the Holy Prophet (saw) to bring a pen and paper so that he (saw) could issue directions on matters which would ensure that the Ummah would never go astray. The belief of the Aima (a.s) was not that the Holy Qur'aan was the only source of guidance since the followers of the Ahlulbayt (a.s) books are replete with statements from the Imams (a.s) wherein they have emphasized the importance of adhering to both the Qur'aan and the Ahlulbayt (a.s).

People Of The Household Quarrelled 


We find that the linguistic term 'Ahlulbayt' is multi-faceted it can include every individual present in the house from a servant to a cat. Typically, the Nawaasb have thought to attribute  the phrase فَاخْتَلَفَ أَهْلُ الْبَيْتِ 'People of the household differed' to the holy progeny of the Prophet (saw). However, who exactly are those who disputed in the house?


Ibn Hajar:

The statement: “Then the Ahlulbayt disputed” it means that the people who were present in the house disputed and it does not refer to the Ahlulbayt of the Prophet (saw).


Source: Fathul Bari Sharh Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Vol. 9, Pg. # 595.



Imam Alee (a.s) Refused The Ink-Pot And Paper


The first line of attack would be to attribute lies against Imam Alee (a.s). This should not come as a surprise, as Nasibis are only re-affirming their roots and opposing the pure teachings of Prophet Muhammad (saw) who taught the Muslims not to attribute lies against him.

Al-Hafiz ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani:

Ibn Hajar says: This Hadeeth is narrated by Ahmad through Ajlah Al-Kindi from Abdullah ibn Buraida and has added at the end of it, 'Do not produce falsehood about Alee (a.s), because he is from me and I am from him and he is your Master after me.' Ahmad and Al-Nasa'i also narrated through Sa'eed ibn Ubayda from Abdullah ibn Buraida in a shorter form and at the end of it he says: Then the face of the Prophet (saw) turned red and said: "Whomever I am his Wali so Alee (a.s) is his Wali." And Al-Hakim narrated such but longer, in it there is the story of a slave girl like the narration of Abdul Jalil, and all these chains strengthen each other.  

Source: Fath Ul-Bari Fi Sharh Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Vol. 7, Pg. # 487.



Ahmad Ibn Hanbal:

Alee ibn Aboo Talib (a.s) said: “Messenger of Allah (saw) ordered me to bring a paper where he can write down something so his nation will never go astray after him. I feared that he would die before I could do that, so I said, 'I will remember better than the paper.' And he said: “I advise to you pray, give zakat and be kind to those whom ones right hands possess.”

Footnote: Shuaib Al-Arna'ut says 'Na'eem ibn Yazeed who has narrated it on the authority of Imam Alee (a.s) is Majhool (Unknown).'

Source: Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Vol. 2, Pg. # 105, H. # 693.



Al-Albani:

Alee ibn Talib (a.s) reported that when the illness of the Prophet (saw) deepened he said, "Alee (a.s)! Bring me a page on which I can write something for my community after which they will not go astray." Alee (a.s) said, "I feared that he would die before I could do that, so I said, 'I will remember better than the paper.' His head was between my forearm and my leg. He recommended the prayer, zakat and kind treatment of slaves. He (saw) spoke like that until he died." He commanded him to testify, "There is no God but Allah (swt) and Muhammad is His slave and Messenger. Anyone who testifies to that is saved from the Fire."

Footnote: Al-Albani says 'Na'eem ibn Yazeed who has narrated it from Imam Alee (a.s) is Majhool (Unknown).'

Source: Da'eef Al-Adab Al-Mufrad Al-Imam Al-Bukhari. Pg. # 35, H. # 30.



Let us compare the verbal orders given by the Prophet (saw) as recorded in Saheeh Al-Bukhari with those mentioned above:

1. Prayer / Expel the pagans from the Arabian Peninsula.
2. Zakat  /  Respect and give gifts to the foreign delegates.
3. Kind treatment of slaves / The Third the narrator forgot.

In this narration not only is the chain weak, but it contradicts the verbal orders given in Saheeh Al-Bukhari. By accepting such a report, one would also have to acknowledge the Prophet (saw) died in the lap of Imam Alee (a.s) as opposed to A'isha's. Something commonly believed by the so-called 'Ahl us Sunnah.'

Imam Alee (a.s) Was Not Interested In The Khalifat

Al-Bukhari:

Narrated Is'haq from Bushr Ibn Shu'ayb ibn Abi Hamza from from father from Al-Zuhri from Abdullah Ibn Ka'b Ibn Malik Al-Ansari from Abdullah ibn Abbas: Alee ibn Abu Talib (a.s) came out of the house of Allah's Apostle (saw) during his fatal illness. The people asked, "O Aboo Hasan (i.e. Alee)! How is the health of Allah's Apostle (saw) this morning?" Alee (a.s) replied, "He has recovered with the Grace of Allah (swt)." Abbas ibn Abdul Muttalib held him by the hand and said to him, "In three days you, by Allah (swt), will be ruled (by somebody else), and by Allah (swt), I feel that Allah's Apostle (saw) will die from this ailment of his, for I know how the faces of the offspring of Abdul Muttalib look at the time of their death. So let us go to Allah's Apostle (saw) and ask him who will take over the Caliphate. If it is given to us we will know as to it, and if it is given to somebody else, we will inform him so that he may tell the new ruler to take care of us." Alee (a.s) said, "By Allah, if we asked Allah's Apostle (saw) for it (i.e. the Caliphate) and he denied it us, the people will never give it to us after that. And by Allah (swt), I will not ask Allah's Apostle (saw) for it."

Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Book 64, Hadeeth 4490.


The Zuhri narration alludes to a supposed reluctance on the part of Alee (a.s) to write anything from the Prophet (saw) lest it negates their claim to Khilafath. This can quite easily be negated by the fact that the declaration that Alee (a.s) would be the Wali (Master) over the believers had already been declared before the Sahaba, this being the case, why would there now be a fear that the Prophet (saw) might say something different on his death bed? We have already proven the authenticity of this tradition in one of our earlier articles. Prophet (saw) had already declared his intention at Ghadhir Khumm and the ironic thing is, Zuhri was both aware of this, and adopted a policy of self censorship fearing a hostile reaction from the Ummayads under whose patronage he operated. On the other hand he is famous for his loyality to Umayyads and working for them, and also denying the merits of the Ahlulbayt (a.s).

Ibn Hajar:

Al-Hakim reported that ibn Ma'een said: 'the best of chains of narrators is Al-A'mash from Ibra'heem from Al-Qama from Abdullah', then someone said to him: 'was Al-A'mash like Al-Zuhri?' he replied: 'Al-A'mash can never be like Al-Zuhri! Al-Zuhri was after wealth and award and was working for Bani Umayya, but Al-A'mash was a poor and patient man who used to avoid the ruler, and was a pious person and was knowledgable about Qur'aan.

Source: Tahdheeb Al-Tahdheeb. Vol. 2, Pg. 111.




Ibn Hajar:

Muhammad ibn Muslim Ibn Ubaidallah ibn Shahab Al-Zuhri, the Madani islamic jurist, he used to live in Al-Shaam, he is famous as being an Imam and of high position, he was of Tabi'een, Al-Shafi'i and Al-Dar Al-Qotni and more than one scholar have described him as being a Mudallith (i.e. Fabricator of the chains of narrations and distorter of the context of it).

Source: Tabaqat Al-Mudallisin. Pg. # 15.



Al-Dhahabi:

Narrated Aboo Bakar ibn Shazan Al-Baghdadi from Alee ibn Muhammad Al-Sawwaq from Ja'far Al-Mukrim Al-Daqqaq from Aboo Dawood from Al-Shu'ba who said: "I and Hushaym left for Makkah. When we reached Kufa, Hushaym saw me with Abi Is'haq, he asked me: 'Who is he?' I said: 'He is the poet from As-Sabee (a district in Kufa).' When we left Kufa, I narrated a narration starting it by saying: 'Narrated to me Aboo Is'haq...' Hushaym asked me: 'Where did you see him?' I said: 'He is the person about whom I said: He is the poet from As-Sabee.' When we reached Makkah, I passed by Hushaym and saw him sitting next to Al-Zuhri, I asked: 'Who is he?' He said: He is a police of Bani Umayyah. When we returned home, Hushaym narrated a narration starting by: 'Narrated to me Al-Zuhri...' I asked: 'Where did you see him?' He replied: 'He is the one you saw me sitting next to him.' I said: 'Show me your writing.' When he gave me that I torn it apart."

Source: Siyar A'lam An-Nubala. Vol. 7, Pg. # 226.




Al-Dhahabi:

I say: 'May Allah have mercy on him, he was a very wealthy person, and he had a high reputation in the Umayyad government.'

Source: Siyar A'lam An-Nubala. Vol. 5, Pg. # 337.


Ibn Asakir: 

Narrated Abul Qasim Zahir ibn Tahir from Aboo Sa'd Muhammad ibn Abul-Rahman from Al-Sayyed Abul-Hasan Muhammad ibn Alee Ibn Al-Husein from Sulayman Ibn Ahmad Al-Hafiz from Muhammad ibn Is'haq Al-Hafiz from Isma'eel ibn Abi Uwais from Ja'far Ibn Ibraheem Al-Ja'fari who said: "I was sitting before Al-Zuhri and I was listening to his narrations, then an old woman came to me and said: 'O Ja'far! I don't write his narrations, because he tends to Bani Umayyah and has taken their gifts.' I said: 'Who is she?' Al-Zuhri said: 'She is my sister Ruqayyah. Are you weak-minded (he asked her)?' She said: 'You are rather weak-minded, you deny and hide the merits of the family of Muhammad (saw).' Then she said: 'Narrated to me Muhammad ibn Al-Munkadir from Jabir ibn Abdullah who said: 'The Messenger of Allah(saw) took the hand of Alee (a.s) and said: "To whomever I am the Master, then Alee (a.s) is his Master. O Allah! Befriend of his friends and be enemy of his enemies, and help those who help him and degrade those who degrade him."'

Source: Tarikh ibn Asakir. Vol. 42, Pg. # 227 - 228.



Narrated Abul Barakat Al-Anmati from Thabit ibn Bindar from Muhammad ibn Alee ibn Yaqoob Al-Qazi from Muhammad ibn Ahmad Al-Babasiri from Al-Ahwas ibn Al-Mufaddal ibn Ghassan from his father and also Muhammad ibn Abdullah Al-Ghulabi from Umar ibn Rudaih who said: "I was walking with Ibn Shahab Al-Zuhri, and Amr Ibn Ubayd saw me with him. After that he met me and said: 'Why are you accompanying the handkerchief of the rulers.' Referring to ibn Shahab.

Source: Tarikh ibn Asakir. Vol. 55, Pg. # 370.


Ibn Athir:

“It is narrated by Zuhri that Aboo Junaydah Junda ibn Amr ibn Mazin said: "I heard the Prophet (saw) said: "Whoso deliberately lied about me will go to hell straightaway." I have heard it myself or I may grow deaf in both ears. The Prophet (saw) returned from Hajjat-ul wadā and arrived at Ghadir Khum, and addressed the people. He said while holding Alee (a.s) hand: "One who has me as his guardian, has this (Alee (a.s)) as his guardian. O Allah! Befriend him who befriends him (Alee) and be his enemy who is his (Alee) enemy." Ubaydullah said: I said to Zuhri: "Don’t say these things in Syria, otherwise, you will hear so much against Alee (a.s) that your ears will get sore." (In reply to it) Zuhri said: "By God! There are so many qualities of Alee (a.s) safe and secure with me that if I narrate them I may be murdered."

Source: Usd Al-Ghaba Fi Ma'rifat Al-Sahaba. Vol. 1, Pg. # 572, Person # 812.

 

When Zuhri was fully aware of the declaration of Ghadir and the lessons derived thereof, it was quite logical that he would seek to quash it’s significance with this supposed narration, which has no bearing on reality.

Prophet (saw) Order For The Ink-Pot Was Directed At Everyone Present

We are of course aware that the main intention behind such an absurd counter claim is to suggest that if Umar had wronged the Prophet (saw) on account of his refusing to grant him writing materials, then Alee (a.s) was just as guilty having not brought the writing materials to him. One should remember that the said episode was not done in some open area that could accommodate thousands of Sahaba, it was (as per Sunni narrations) inside the house of A'isha that would have thus accommodated a handful of people. Now, coming to the suggestion that Alee (a.s) failed to bring the writing materials to the Prophet (saw). The onus is on those advancing such a claim to submit an authentic narration from their books that places Alee (a.s) at that specific location at the point that the instruction was made. If they are unable to do so, and Alhamdulillah we know they cannot, then one wonders why they are seeking to advance a counter claim on baseless conjecture! We all know that the so-called 'Ahl ul Sunnah' gave the term 'Ahlulbayt' a very wide definition and included the wives of Prophet (saw) as falling within this definition, with this in mind, when we analyse the event we notice that these very ladies were present at the scene when the Prophet (saw) issued his instructions. Even if it is argued that the Ahlulbayt (a.s) were in the room and had an obligation to present Prophet (saw) with writing materials to enable him to implement his instruction, we need to ask ourselves who was the instructions aimed at?

When anyone is issuing a directive, they are of two types. Those that are general in nature, as in they are applicable to all, and those that are targeted towards a specific audience. Now, when the Prophet (saw) issued a direction to those in the room, was it an instruction for all those present to comply or was it only to specific individuals? The answer can be deduced from the instruction of the Prophet (saw), “Come near, let me write for you a writing after which you will never go astray.” – The order for writing materials was aimed at those that were at risk of going astray, so would such an order be aimed at the Ahlulbayt (a.s)? Clearly not, since the Ahlulbayt (a.s)  are those that can never go astray, since we have the testimony of Prophet (saw).

Al-Albani:

Narrated by Jabir ibn Abdullah: "I saw Allah's Messenger when performing the hajj seated on his she camel Al-Qaswa on the day of Arafah giving an address, and I heard him saying, "O people, I have left among you something of such a nature that if you adhere to it you will not go astray: Allah's Book and my close relatives, my Ahlulbayt (a.s)."

Al-Tirmidhi: This incident is narrated through Abi Zarr, Abi Sa'eed, Zayd ibn Arqam and Hudhaifa ibn Aseed. This is a Hasan Gharib hadeeth in this form. Al-Albani: It is Saheeh (Authentic).  

Source: Saheeh Sunan Al-Tirmidhi. Vol. 3, Pg. # 542 - 544.
Narrated by Zayd ibn Arqam: Allah's Messenger said, "I am leaving among you something of such a nature that if you lay hold of it you will not go astray after I am gone, one part of it being more important than the other: Allah's Book, a rope stretched from Heaven to Earth, and my close relatives, my Ahlulbayt (a.s). These two will not separate from one another till they come down to the reservoir, so consider how you act regarding them after my departure."

Al-Albani: It is Saheeh (Authentic). 

Source: Saheeh Sunan Tirmidhi. Vol. 3, Pg. # 542 - 544, H # 3787 - 3788.


The Ahlulbayt (a.s) were those individuals who were a source of guidance to the Ummah. Adherence to them (a.s) and the Holy Qur’aan was an insurance policy, in that one that did so would be protected from going astray. There was no risk in the Ahlulbayt (a.s) going astray. If there was a risk it was for all others that chose to turn away from them. Now when the Prophet (saw) had made an order for writing materials so as to commit to pen a will that would ensure that people never went astray after him, it was clearly aimed at those that were at risk of falling into error, misguidance and ultimately eternal damnation. We appeal to justice, why would the instruction be aimed at the Ahlulbayt (a.s) when these are those very personalities, whose guidance the Ummah is dependent upon, since anyone that follows them will never go astray? Prophet (saw) appointed the Ahlulbayt (a.s) as guides for the Ummah, adhering to them prevented deviation, so why would they benefit from an instruction that would ensure that people would not go astray after him? When the Ahlulbayt (a.s) were those that would never go astray, it is logical that any instruction asking for a will that would ensure those that adhered to the contents therein, would not be aimed at the Ahlulbayt (a.s), rather it would be aimed at those individuals that were at risk of deviation, namely the Sahaba, those that recipients from Hadeeth-e-Thaqalayn. It was the Sahaba that were at risk of falling into error after the Prophet (saw) which is why he told them to grasp the Holy Qur'aan and Ahlulbayt (a.s) after him. He was again seeking to commit to pen a will that would be for their benefit. The duty to provide the writing materials was therefore on those Sahaba present in the room at the time, since the instruction was for their benefit, not the Ahlulbayt (a.s).  

Ibn Sa'd:

Narrated Muhammad ibn Umar from Hisham ibn Sa'd from Zayd ibn Aslam from his father from Umar ibn Khattab: 'We were with the Prophet (saw) and there was veil between us and the women, then the Prophet (saw) said: “Wash me with seven containers and bring me a tablet and an ink-pot, so that I write down a document for you by following which you may never go astray at all.” Then the women said: 'Bring him what he wants.' I said (Umar): 'Shut up! You are like the companions of Yusuf, when the Messenger of Allah (saw) is sick you squeeze your eyes and cry and when he recovers you put your arms around his neck (i.e. tease him)." Then the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: “They are better than you.”

Source: Tabaqat ibn Sa'd. Vol. 2, Pg. # 214.




Now using the Sunni definition of Ahlulbayt, the only members whose presence during the pen and paper episode can be confirmed are the wives of the Prophet (saw), who opined that the order of the Prophet (saw) should be implemented forthwith. Their support attracted the ire of Umar, who resorted to insulting them in a manner that cast aspersions on their characters. Now we appeal to justice, when we know that the wives of the Prophet (saw) were present, and Prophet (saw) was so angered at the hue and cry that had been caused by what was a simple request that he ordered people to leave, is it plausible that this order was being directed at his wives? Was he (saw) ordering his wives to leave their apartments, that Allah (swt) had ordered them to remain in and head out onto the street? Moreover, what precisely would they have been punished for? After all, they were supporting Prophet (saw) and insisting that his order be followed through, so what would be the logic behind Prophet (saw) ordering their removal?


Muhamud ibn Ahmad Al-Ayni:

I said [the writer]: Adhering such issue (saying nonsense) to the Prophet (saw) is not permissible because he (saw) is infallible at any state, whether his well-being or his sickness because of his -the Rising above- saying ('Nor does he speak from [his own] inclination' (Surah An-Najam:3) and his [the Prophet] saying, "I do not say but right in both [states of] irritation and satisfaction."
And they spoke about this a lot and most of their talk is not worthy, and what should be said is that those who said, "What is the matter with him? Did he say nonsense?" Were those whom were recent in Islam and they did not know that such saying does not fit for the Prophet (saw) because they thought that he was like others in terms of human nature, that if pains got heavier over someone he would speak without being cautious to what he says and this is why they said: 'Ask him about his intention' because they did not understand what he wanted and this is why there has been quarrel among them till the Prophet (saw) reproved them by saying: "There should not be quarrel at the presence of a Prophet" and in the previous narration, "And there should not be quarrel in my presence" and one of their quarrels was their 'refuting' his order, therefore he said: 'Leave me because I am in a state of surveillance and preparation for the meeting of Allah the Great and Almighty, and it is more important for me than what you are calling me not to write." And this is why ibn Abbas said: 'The calamity, the real and true calamity was what made a hindrance between the messenger of Allah (saw) and his writing of that book for them.' And ibn Al'teen said: 'They went to refute his demand.'

Source: Umdat Al-Qari Sharh Al-Bukhari. Vol. 18, Pg. # 80 - 81.


Imam Alee (a.s) Disobeyed The Prophet (saw) At Hudaybiyyah

When we examine the conduct of Imam Alee (a.s) there is no evidence of him seeking to obstruct or prevent the order of the Prophet (saw). Rather, his own spiritual and physical nature prevented him from scrubbing out an established fact. Thus, the Prophet (saw) recognised this and crossed out the part of the document declaring 'Muhammad (saw) is the messenger of Allah (swt).' Imam Alee (a.s) did not once question the mental state of the Prophet (saw) by asserting that he was talking nonsense. The reaction of the Prophet (saw) is suffice to prove he was not enraged with Imam Alee (a.s) but to the contrary Umar was told the women i.e. 'The Wives of the Prophet (saw)' were better then him, and due to the noise he was banished from the confines of the Prophet (saw) home. Umar not only disobeyed the Prophet (saw) on his death bed, but also showed his intolerance at Hudaybiyyah. To make such a parallel would not support his cause.

Al-Qastalani:

And in another narration of Bukhari and Muslim, the Prophet (saw) told Alee (a.s), “erase it” then he replied: “I am not the one who will erase it.” 

Scholars said: What Alee (a.s) has done is a form of the desired manners, because he did not understand from the Prophet’s (saw) speech that he must erase his name, and this is why he [the Prophet (saw)] did not deny what Alee (a.s) has said. And if the Prophet’s (saw) speech determined that Alee (a.s) must erase his name, then it would be not eligible for Alee (a.s) to leave his name. Then he [the Prophet (saw)] said; “Show me its place.” Then he [Alee (a.s)] showed him [the Prophet (saw)] its place then he erased it and wrote ‘Ibn Abdullah’ [the son of Abdullah].

Source: Sharh Al-Mawahib Al-Ladunniyyah. Vol. 1, Pg. # 497.


Al-Nawawi:

“What Alee (a.s) did, falls under the ambit of preferred etiquette, because he realized that the Prophet (saw) was not compelling him to erase it by himself, which is why he (the Prophet (saw)) did not criticize him. Had he (the Prophet (saw) compelled him to erase it by himself, Alee (a.s) would not have been permitted to refuse it and the Prophet (saw) would not have remained silent about (Alee's) disobedience.”

Source:  Sharh Al-Nawawi Ala Sahih Muslim. Vol. 12, Pg. # 135 - 136.


Prophet (saw) Intention To Appoint Aboo Bakr

This narration conflicts with that in Saheeh Bukhari wherein it A'isha and not Rasulullah (s) who is unwell it was evident from the discussions that this was not at a point when Rasulullah (s) was gravely ill!  This is how it has been recorded in Saheeh Bukhari, Book 70, 
Hadeeth Number 570 :

Narrated Al-Qasim bin Muhammad: 'A'isha, (complaining of headache) said, "Oh, my head"! Allah's Apostle said, "I wish that had happened while I was still living, for then I would ask Allah's Forgiveness for you and invoke Allah for you." Aisha said, "Wa thuklayah! By Allah, I think you want me to die; and If this should happen, you would spend the last part of the day sleeping with one of your wives!" The Prophet said, "Nay, I should say, 'Oh my head!' I felt like sending for Aboo Bakr and his son, and appoint him as my successor lest some people claimed something or some others wished something, but then I said (to myself), 'Allah would not allow it to be otherwise, and the Muslims would prevent it to be otherwise".

Whilst this narrative is odd since we see an curious change of subjects from headaches, sleeping with other wives and then succession that that has no logical link whatsoever, it is clear that this discussion was not whilst Rasulullah (s) was in his final illness, it was at another point in time.

This contradiction from the same narrator is enough to call this event into question. It also conflicts with mainstream Bakri aqeedah that Rasulullah (saw) left no successor, as testified to by Umar as per the tradition in Saheeh Muslim.  If this was indeed true then why wasn’t this direction complied with? Why wasn’t Aboo Bakr summoned so that the will could be dictated, did Rasulullah (s) fail in conveying the message here? If it is argued the will was not written due to the disputes that arose thereafter, why can we not accept the same in the case of Imam Alee (a.s)?  When discussing the will in favour of Imam Alee (a.s) our opponents argue that the Prophet (saw) had three days to write this document, yet he failed to do so. What about applying the same principal here? Moreover why didn't the Prophet (saw) declare this in the presence of thousands of companions (as he did with Imam Alee (a.s) in Gadheer Khum) when He (saw) supposedly appointed Aboo Bakr to lead the prayers during his fatal illness? Would that not have been the most apt moment, declaring before the congregation that he had made a written testament that Aboo Bakr would succeed him and that his leading them in prayer was evidence of this appointment?  Whilst the purpose of this article is to deal with the incident of the pen and paper the ramification that stemmed from this failure of Rasulullah (s) to complete his instruction.  Had this order been complied with there would been no need for the meeting at Saqifah that thereafter led to the murder of Sa'd ibn Ubadah (r.a) and Malik ibn Nuwayra (r.a) during the Ridda wars.  Crucially whilst at Saqifa why didn’t Aboo Bakr seek to counter the claims of the Ansar by pointing out that Rasulullah (saw) had during his final illness sought to dictate a will wherein it was confirmed that Aboo Bakr was to succeed him?  Surely that would have been the opportune moment for doing so, why was he silent on this matter?

Most interestingly, why did A'isha not counter those companions that approached her suggesting that Rasulullah (s) had appointed Alee (a.s) as his wasi on his deathbed?  She came out with a outright denial, would the better approach not have been to silence them by pointing out that she was witness to the fact that Rasulullah (s) had in fact issued an order to summon Aboo Bakr so that he could he could put to pen a will that declared Aboo Bakr as his successor.  If she had cited this fact that she was supposedly a witness to that would have quashed the murmuring of this group automatically.  So why did it not come to her by quelling such rumours by advancing a crucial event that she was allegedly witness to? 


Last but not least how could Rasulullah (s) have intended to appoint Aboo Bakr when he had sent him out in the army of Usamah? The entire purpose behind an incumbent Head of State appointing his successor during his lifetime is to enable a smooth transition of power for his successor. The idea is that the transfer of power takes place in a seamless manner, meaning as soon as the existing Head of State passes away, his successor take up the reigns of power forthwith and thereby exercises the decision making powers associated with that position. Responsibilities for the running of the State thereby rest with the new leader. Now with this in mind, how can it be argued that the intention of the Prophet (saw) was to appoint Aboo Bakr as the Khalifah after him, when during his final days, whilst in his sick dying state, ordered that the said individual leave his side and partake in a military expedition in a far off land under the command of an eighteen year old Usamah ibn Zayd (r.a)? If the Prophet (saw) had indeed intended to appoint Aboo Bakr as his successor, then he would have kept him closely by his side, since he would have had to take up the mantle of leadership as soon as he (saw) had taken his last breath. You do not send out your successor to partake in a military campaign in a far off land, wherein there exists a real likelihood that he may be killed during the battle. 


What is the point in the Prophet (saw) having a successor in mind, and then sending him in to a risky environment? That in effect completely shuts him off from the very subjects he is due to immediately take charge over! Even if Aboo Bakr had not died during battle, his appointment would be completely nonsensical since he would have been stymied from issuing any form of directives of the running of the State on a day to day basis. Remember, we are talking about an area when there was no such thing as modern communications, wherein discussion could take place via Skype conferences or over a mobile phone. In those days, messages would be sent back and forth via a messenger. How on earth could the new Head of State administer the running of a state when it could take days for him to receive messages on issues, and further, even more days to send back a response?

The Head of State needs the ability to address challenges forthwith, particularly when we are already aware that (as per the Qur'aan) Madinah was full of hypocrites, and the nascent Ummah was surrounded by foes, most notably the Byzantine Empire, a threat that had resulted in the standoff at Tabuk. With these genuine threats encircling Madinah, what would be the precise logic behind the Prophet (saw) appointing Aboo Bakr as his successor, and thereafter sending him on a military campaign leaving Madinah, the capital of the Muslim empire without a leader? This surely would have made Madinah exposed to the threats of enemies who would take every opportunity of taking control of the centre of the Muslim empire, especially with no Head of State being present!

The very fact that Prophet (saw) in his gravely ill state, ordered that Aboo Bakr partake in a military campaign far aloof from Madinah (thus exposing him to all the risks associated with battle) proves beyond a shadow of a doubt, that he had no intention whatsoever to appoint him as his (saw) Khalifah. 

Has there even been the slightest inkling of the intention of the Prophet (saw) to appoint Aboo Bakr as his successor? Such an argument would have been presented by Aboo Bakr himself during the clandestine meeting at Saqifa Bani Sa'idah, evidently, this was not the case.

Umar Opposed Until Prophet (saw) Rejected It

What a truly absurd defense! When a sick dying Prophet (saw) is being insulted in a manner wherein his mental faculties are being questioned, and he thereafter opts to desist from revisiting the matter again, it is not because he concurs with the assessment that Umar and his cohorts had given. He had desisted because he had reached the end of his tether and was not prepared to be subjected to further insults and questions over his sanity. Let us not forget how offended Prophet (saw) had become by the comment in which he stated: "Leave me, for I am in a better state than what you are asking me." - Did he really want to invite further insults by repeating the instruction again? Prophet (saw) had given the Ummah a chance of eternal salvation which would have been enabled through this written instruction if they had chosen not to avail it. But, no, it was preferred to insult Prophet (saw) instead, only at a loss of their own. Hence, there was no compulsion on the Prophet (saw) to try again.

Having been so hurt by such a shameless attack on his mind, would he (saw) really want to try again and be abused any further? If Prophet (saw) chose to remain silent on the matter after all what had taken place, it was because he was acting in the same way any proud decent man would do, having been insulted once he would not want a repetition of such insults again.

Ibn Sa'd:

Narrated Yahya ibn Hammad from Aboo Awana from Sulayman i.e. A'mash from Abdullah ibn Abdullah from Sa'eed ibn Jubayr from ibn Abbas who said: The Prophet (saw) was ill, it was a Thursday, then ibn Abbas cried, and while he was crying he said: "Thursday and what a Thursday! The illness of the Prophet (saw) intensified and he said: 'Bring me a ink-pot and a tablet so that I may write for you a letter that you may never go astray after that.' Then some of the people who were present there said: 'Verily the Prophet (saw) is talking nonsense!' Then (i.e. when those who opposed left the house) it was said to the Prophet (saw): 'Should we not bring what was asked for? The Prophet (saw) said: 'After what they said?!' So he did not ask for it."

Source: Tabaqat ibn Sa'd. Vol. 2, Pg. # 213.




Why Did The Prophet (saw) Not Kill Umar?

One should take note that our Holy Prophet (saw) included a Munafiq (hypocrite) within the definition of a companion. He refused to have him killed in case it leveled any criticism against him. Therefore, he (saw) maintained silence. Had the Prophet (saw) ordered the capturing of Umar, a rise of resistance and bloodshed would most certainly have occurred. In essence, if the Prophet (saw) had Umar killed, he would have been opposing his own decorum. 


Al-Bukhari:

Narrated Jabir bin Abdullah: We were in a Ghazwa and a man from the emigrants kicked an Ansari (on the buttocks with his foot). The Ansari man said, "O the Ansari! (Help!)" The emigrant said, "O the emigrants! (Help)." When Allah's Apostle heard that, he said, "What is that?" They said, "A man from the emigrants kicked a man from the Ansar (on the buttocks his foot). On that the Ansar said, 'O the Ansar!' and the emigrant said, 'O the emigrants!" The Prophet said, "Leave it (that call) for it is a detestable thing." The number of Ansar was larger (than that of the emigrants) at the time when the Prophet (saw) came to Madinah, but later the number of emigrants increased. Abdullah bin Ubai said, "Have they, (the emigrants) done so? By Allah, if we return to Madinah, surely, the more honourable will expel therefrom the meaner," Umar bin Al-Khattab said, "O Allah's Apostle! Let me chop off the head of this hypocrite!" The Prophet said, "Leave him, lest the people say Muhammad kills his companions."


Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. # 1646, H. # 4907.



Deprivation Of Laylat Al-Qadr  

The idea that the Prophet (saw) did not write the document because of the bickering is similar to what happened when the Prophet (saw) was about to inform the people about the date of Laylat al-Qadr (the Night of Power).

Attempts to draw a parallel between the two are the height of absurdity! During the pen and paper episode, Prophet (saw) did not forget anything, he was PREVENTED from writing his will, and those that succeeded in doing so, raised questions on his sanity. Losing the opportunity due to forgetfulness does not even come into the equation. Prophet (saw) did not forget the instruction on account of it being wiped from his memory by Allah (swt), he wanted it to be implemented, and Umar and his supporters successfully prevented him from doing so. If Nawasib are to argue that memory loss relating to the night of power served a benefit in that the Ummah strove to partake in acts of ibadah on each of the odd nights, what was the precise benefit achieved during the pen and paper episode? The will that the Prophet (saw) intended on dictating was so significant that the contents that he sought to set out therein would have a beneficial impact. Not for a day, a week, or a year, and the fortunate recipients would not be a handful of people, they would be every individual from the Ummah of Muhammad (saw) ad infinitum. Allah (swt) did not remove the blessing that would be attained through the will, the Sahaba frustrated the ability of Prophet (saw) to implement it. So how on earth can it be argued that Allah (swt) withdrew this blessing? To try and offer a new argument, unbeknown to every previous generation from amongst the advocates of Umar is truly pathetic.

The Prophet Had Three Days To Write His Document 

Ibn Taymiyyah:

What happened in his sickness was from the easiest things and the clearest as well. And it is in the Saheeh books which A'isha said in his sickness, "Call me your father and brother so I write a book for Aboo Bakr so that people may not differ after me." So when it was Thursday he was going to write the book, then Umar said, "What is wrong with him? Is he delusional?" Because Umar doubted if he was delusional from fever or it was something he said in a natural state, and Umar was afraid that this delusion might have been from fever. So this is something that was hidden from Umar like the death of the Prophet (saw) was hidden to him, but actually he denied it! So some said, bring a book while others said don't bring a book. So the Prophet (saw), seeing that such a book now has no importance anymore because they doubted it already had he wrote it when he was sick or when he was not sick. Such a book would not have taken away the doubt, so he didn't write it.

Source: Minhaj Al-Sunnah. Vol. 4, Pg. # 215. 



When Umar and his cohorts had already offered a prognosis that Prophet (saw) was non compus mentus several days earlier, what was the likelihood of them accepting anything that he said thereafter? His condition was getting progressively worse, to the point that he relied on physical assistance to enable him to take charge of prayers whilst Aboo Bakr was leading. So what was the likelihood of implementing anything that he (saw) said? They would have simply dismissed anything he subsequently said and compared it to the rants of a man who had lost his mental faculties. If Prophet (saw) chose to remain silent, so as to avoid similar slurs being hurled at him, he was fully entitled to so. Moreover, it had now become clear that every effort was being made to disobey the Prophet (saw), since the very Sahaba that Prophet (saw) had ordered to partake in the army of Usamah had refused to go, they dragged their heels that prevented the expedition from heading out to its intended destination, and were infact lingering in Madinah when they should not have even been there. 

If such a document would have been dictated further on in his (saw) fatal illness, his mental health would had been further exaggerated and put into question. People would have persisted in their saying that the messenger of Allah (saw) was delirious. Something they conveniently did not accuse the Prophet (saw) of when apparently appointing Aboo Bakr to lead the prayers. 

If The Appointment Of A Khalifah Was Of Importance, Why Was It Not Declared In The Qur'aan?

If the Holy Qur'aan was sufficient, why did the Sheikhayn have the need to meet in Saqifah Banu Sa'idah and show their interest In Islamic leadership? If the matter of leadership was merely one that was innovated after the Prophet (saw), and something which was not significant, why did the Sheikhayn not share the same opinion as the present day Sunnis? Such a question makes one wonder under what epistemological assumptions one can even make. The bulk of Islam is found in Hadeeth and the ijma 'consensus' of the scholars, and not the Holy Qur'aan alone. For a Sunni to set such a standard on a Shi'ee, demands the Sunni to set himself up in a trap where only what is directly stated in the Holy Qur'aan alone should count as revelation. Unless the so-called Ahlul-Sunnah consider themselves Qur'anists, such a tactic is very unwise to employ. Allah (swt) did not mention all the names of 124, 000 Prophets (saw) in the Qur'aan, does this mean we should deny their existence or their authority? The word Tawheed has not be explicitly mentioned in the Holy Qur'aan, yet it is a fundamental pillar of every Muslim. Therefore, one needs to understand, that just like the concept of Tawheed, the principle of Imamah (divine leadership) has also been mentioned in the Holy Qur'aan. The sixth holy Imam Ja'far Sadiq (a.s) responded to such notions:

Al-Kulayni:

Alee ibn Ibraheem has narrated from Muhammad ibn Isa from Yunus and Alee ibn Muhammad from Sahl ibn Ziyad, Aboo Sa'id from Muhammad ibn Isa from Younis from ibn Muskan from Aboo Basir (r.a) who has said the following: “I asked Aboo Abd Allah (a.s) about the words of Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High: ‘Believers, obey Allah, His Messenger, and your leaders (who possess Divine Authority)...’ (Qur'aan 4:59). “The Imam (a.s) said, ‘This was sent from the heavens about Alee ibn Aboo Talib, Al-Hassan and Al-Hussain (peace be upon them all).’ I then said, ‘People say, “Why did He not specify Alee (a.s) and his family by their names in the Book of Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High?’ “The Imam said, ‘Say to them, “The command for prayer came to the Messenger of Allah but He has not specified (the number of the Rak‘ats) for them as being three or four. It in fact, was the Messenger of Allah (saw) who explained to them this matter. The command for Zakat (a form of income tax) came to the Messenger of Allah (saw) and there was no specific taxable number such as one Dirham on every forty Dirham. It was the Messenger of Allah (saw)who explained it for them. The command for Hajj came to the Messenger of Allah (saw). It did not say walk seven times around the Ka'ba. It was the Messenger of Allah who explained it for them. The verse about obedience came, 'Believers, obey Allah, His Messenger and your leaders (who possess Divine Authority)...' (Qur'aan 4:59) It came to declare that Alee, Al-Hassan and Al-Hussain (a.s), were the Leaders who possessed Divine Authority. The Messenger of Allah (saw) then said about Alee (a.s), ‘Over whomever I have Divine Authority, Alee (a.s), recipient of divine supreme covenant, also has Divine Authority over him.’ He also has said, ‘I enjoin you to follow the Book of Allah (swt) and my family. It is because I have prayed to Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, not to separate these two from each other until He will make them arrive at al-Kawthar (the pond of paradise) to join me. He has granted my prayer as such.’ “The Holy Prophet, recipient of divine supreme covenant, has said, ‘Do not try to teach them (A'immah); they are far more knowledgeable than you.’ The Holy Prophet (saw) has said, ‘‘A'immah, recipients of divine supreme covenant, will never take you out of the gate of guidance and they will never make you enter the gate of error.’ Had the Messenger of Allah (saw) remained silent and had not explained anything about his Ahlulbayt (the family) the family of  so and so i.e (Aboo Bakr and Umar) would have advanced their claim for Imamat. However, Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, has revealed it in His book to confirm the explanations of His Prophet (saw) about Ahlulbayt (a.s) (in the following verse): ‘People of the house, Allah (swt) wants to remove all kinds of uncleanness from you and to purify you thoroughly.’ (Qur'aan 33:33) Alee, Faatimah, Al-Hassan and Al-Hussan (peace be upon all of them), were there and the Holy Prophet made them to enter under Al-Kisa’ (The Cloak) in the house of Umm Salama and then said, ‘O Lord, every Prophet had a family and a heaviness and credence, and these are my family, my heaviness and credence.’ Umm Salama at this point said, ‘Am I not of your family?’ The Holy Prophet (saw) said, ‘You are in goodness but these are my family, my heaviness and credence.’ “When the Messenger of Allah (saw) passed away, Alee (a.s) had the utmost priority and guardianship of the people because of what the Messenger of Allah (saw) had preached about him. It was because of raising him up for the people and holding his hand in his hand. When Alee (a.s), recipient of divine supreme covenant (was about to) pass away, he could not (and would not) enter Muhammad ibn Alee or Al-Abbas ibn Alee or any one of his other sons in the position of Imamat (Leadership with Divine Authority). Otherwise, Al-Hassan (a.s) and Al-Hussain (a.s), would have said, ‘Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, has revealed about us just as He has done so about you, and He has commanded people to obey us just as He has commanded people to obey you. The Messenger of Allah (saw) has preached to people about us just as he has done so about you. Allah (swt) has removed Al-Rijs (uncleanness) from us just as He has done so to you.’ “When Alee (a.s), recipient of divine supreme covenant, left this world, Al-Hassan had the utmost priority for Imamat (Leadership with Divine Authority); he was the eldest. When he was about to die he could not, and would not, enter his sons in the position of Imamat. It is because Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, says, ‘. . . The relatives are closer to each other, according to the Book of Allah (swt), than the believers and the emigrants...’ (Qur'aan 33:6). Had he then placed Imamat in his sons, Al-Hussain (a.s) would have said, ‘Allah (swt) has commanded people to obey me just as He has commanded people to obey you and to obey your father. The Messenger of Allah (saw) has preached to people about me just as he has preached to people about you and your father. Allah (swt) has removed Al-Rijs (unleanliness) from me just as He has removed it from you and your father.’ “When Imamat was in full force with Al-Hussain (a.s), there was no one in his family who could claim against him as he could claim against his brother and father. He could do so in case they had (his father and brother) wanted to divert it from him but they did not and would not do so. After them it found its place with Al-Hussain (a.s), and the interpretation of this verse continued to remain valid...' The relatives are closer to each other according to the Book of Allah (swt), than the believers and the emigrants...’ (Qur'aan 33:6). “After Al-Hussain (a.s), Imamat found its place with Alee ibn Al-Hussain (a.s), recipient of divine supreme covenant. After Alee ibn Al-Hussain (a.s), recipient of divine supreme covenant, it found its place with Muhammad ibn Alee (a.s). The Imam said, 'Al-Rijs means doubts. I swear by Allah that we never doubt in our Lord.' 

Grading: Al-Majlisi: Saheeh (Authentic) in Mir'atul Uqool. Vol. 3, Pg. # 213.

Source: Usool Al-Kafi. Vol.1, Pg. #  172 - 173.




A noteworthy distinction between Shi'ee and Sunni theology is that the Sunnis are awfully silent on the destiny of man after the demise of the Prophet (saw) and hence after Prophethood. In Shi'ee theology no such silence exists. A complete map for man's destiny from the end of Prophethood up to to the end of human history altogether was so carefully pre-determined and arranged.

After Prophethood ceased, the eschatological Imamate began. As Shi'ism insists, not a moment in history is man left without a divine viceroy. This is the reason for our 12 Imams (peace be upon them) existence, in that they are solely there for our guidance. Presently, the 12th Imam (a.s) is in occultation. After he (a.s) returns and completes his task, each of the Imams (a.s) shall revive in opposite order of their ascension, ending with the reign of Alee (a.s), who shall be the Imam of Qayamah itself, thus concluding human history. 

It is due to this very reason that the recognition and acceptance of Wilayah, of not only Alee (a.s) but all the 12 Ai'mma (a.s) is so important and necessary to make one a true, obeying Muslim. 

The complete parcel of Islam must be perfect for it to be a complete religion, and a complete religion is one that covers all bases, and that is indeed what the Shi'a offer. The recognition of Wilayah in this regard incorporates an acceptance of Allah 's(swt) design for the history of mankind. 

For Sunnis to ask why we must accept the 12 Imams (a.s) is as fruitless as asking why we have to declare the acceptance of Muhammed (saw) as a messenger in our shahada. We accept them all because we "submit" to Allah's (swt) designs. Submission is what being a Muslim entails.

Did Prophet Muhammad Fail In Conveying His Message?

Al-Shatibi Mustafa Al-Adawi:

Ibn Abbas said; "When the Prophet (saw) was close to death, among the men present in the house was Umar ibn Al-Khattab. He [the Prophet (saw)] said: 'Come, so that I might write you a book that you would never astray after (writing) it.'' Then Umar said: "The Prophet (saw) is overtaken by pains and you have the Qur'aan, so the Book of Allah (swt) is sufficient for us." And the group at the house disagreed and quarrelled, some saying, ''Come close so that the Messenger of Allah (saw) can write a book for you that you may never go astray after it.'' And some said what Umar said. Therefore when the disagreement got louder the Prophet (saw) said, ''Get away from me!'' And ibn Abbas used to say: ''The true and real calamity was their disagreement and their quarrel that prevented Messenger of Allah (saw) and his writing of that Book."

And that was - and Allah (swt) knows best - inspiration sent by Allah (swt) to Him; That if he (saw) writes them that book they would never astray after it. Therefore the nation (ummah) would go from being under the status of: ''And they will remain disagreed...'' to become under the status of: ''But those whom your Lord had mercy with them.'' [Surah Hud: 119] Therefore Allah (swt) prevented it from taking place as it was already in His knowledge in terms of divergence (among the nation) as other (nations) did. We have accepted the judgment of Allah (swt) and His predestination, and we ask Him to adhere tightly to the Book and Sunnah and to die on that (belief) with His favour.

Source: Al I'tisam. Vol. 3, Pg. # 126.


On the same note, we would also like to ask the opponents the very same question. Why is it that your own scholars certified to this fact? The beauty of the Holy Qur'aan is that it predicts every single Sunni objection. Every objection the Sunnis argue can be answered back via the Holy Qur'aan. The Sunni's claim, that if the Prophet (saw) was not successful in writing a letter, then he must be denigrated as being a failure as a Prophet. Similar arguments are raised against Imam Alee's (a.s) Wilayah by claiming if his Wilayah was assured, then nothing could have stopped him from becoming Khalifah. The Prophet (saw) was merely reiterating a message that he (saw) had presented earlier to the Ummah. However, on this occasion he (saw) was going to name the twelve Khalifah's after him, and this fact has been attested by scholars of the opponents. 

It is unfortunate that some miscalculate the Prophet (saw). It is claimed that he (saw) became a failure due to others failing to follow the will of Allah (swt). Prophet Moosa (a.s) lead the children of Israel to Mount Sinai. Yet the community committed the terrible sin of the golden calf. Should we hold Moosa (a.s) as a failure because his people committed this sin? If not, then why claim the Prophet (saw) was a failure when the companions sinned by stopping him from writing his (saw) document? 

What is one to make of the Prophet (saw) seemingly "giving" up writing the said document ? A Shiee knows that the true reason the Prophet (saw) gave up the task was because the aim was already accomplished. The sahaba had now been exposed for the munafiqeen they were. All who would remember this incident would now know what took place. One may even say the entire scenario was divinely orchestrated for that very reason.

Was The Document Written?

Having been frustrated in reducing his will into writing, the Prophet (saw) made an oral Will. Al-Bukhari and Muslim narrate that just before his death, the Prophet (saw) made an oral Will about three matters, but the narrators remembered only two of the matters. The first was to expel the Jews from the Arabian Peninsula, and the second, to treat foreign delegations as the Prophet (saw) himself did. C
onveniently, the narrator suffered from amnesia and forgot the third. Of course, the third matter they forgot happened to be the express nomination of Imam Alee (a.s) as the immediate successor of the Prophet (saw). The political climate made it difficult for the narrators to relate the truth, and so therefore, they sought an easy way out from persecution, by pleading that they did not remember the third aspect willed by the Prophet (saw). However, according to the teachings of the Ahlulbayt (a.s) the document was later written and also fulfilled by Imam Alee (a.s).

Sulaym ibn Qays:

Aban ibn Abi Ayyash narrates from Sulaym who said: “I was with Abdullah ibn Abbas in his home and there were some Shi'a sitting with him. They mentioned the Prophet (saw) and his passing away. Ibn Abbas cried and said: “The Prophet (saw), on Monday, the day that he passed away had his Ahlulbayt (a.s) surrounding him, and there were 30 people from his companions. He (saw) said: “Bring me a paper that I write on for you so that after me you will never go astray after me and will never dispute.” The Pharoah of this Ummah stopped everyone and said: ‘The Prophet (saw) is delirious.” The Prophet (saw) became very angry at this and said: “I can see that during my lifetime you are disagreeing with me – what will happen after my death?” And he left the paper. Sulaym said: “After that ibn Abbas turned to me and said: “O Sulaym, if that man had not said what he said then the Prophet (saw) would have written for us by which no one would have gone astray and disputed.” One person from the community asked, “Who was that person?” Ibn Abbas replied: “It is not appropriate.” When everyone left I asked him in private. He said: “That was Umar.” I said: “You have said the truth. I have heard it from Alee (a.s) and also heard Salman, Aboo Dhar and Miqdad saying it was UMAR.” So he said: “O Sulaym, hide it from everyone except your brothers whom you trust, because the ears of this Ummah have been made to drink the love of these two men (i.e. Aboo Bakr and Umar) in a manner like the hearts of Bani Israel were made to drink the love of the calf and Samiry.” Sulaym narrates in a very long narration from Imam Alee (a.s) who was talking with the companions in the mosque during the Caliphate of Uthman. Imam Alee (a.s) said: "O Talha! Were you present when the Holy Prophet (saw) asked for a paper so that he could write that with which the Ummah does not deviate and oppose? At that time your companion said what he said - (i.e. Allah’s Messenger is delirious.) At that time the Holy Prophet (saw) became very angry and left it." Talha said: “Yes I was present at that time.”Alee (a.s) said: “When you people left, the Holy Prophet (saw) told me all this, and also told me what he wanted to write and he wanted people to be witness to it. At that time Archangel Jibra’eel informed him that Allah Azza Wa Jal knew what opposition and separation the Ummah will have. Then he asked for a paper and asked me to write what he wanted written and made three people witness it - Salman, Aboo Dhar and Miqdad, and he told the names of the Imams (a.s) who are guides, whose obedience Allah (swt) has commanded till the Day of JudgementIn these first is my name, and the second is this my son (pointing towards Hassan (a.s). After him, Hussain (a.s) and then nine from my this son Hussain (a.s). Is this what happened, O Aboo Dhar and Miqdad?” Aboo Dhar and Miqdad stood up and said: “We bear witness for the Messenger of Allah.” Talha said: “By God, I have heard the Holy Prophet (saw) say to Aboo Dhar, 'The sky did not shade and the earth did not carry anybody who is more truthful and better than Aboo Dhar in the eyes of Allah.' And I bear witness that what Aboo Dhar and Miqdad have said is the truth. And you in my eyes are more truthful and better than these two.” Then Imam (a.s) turned to Talha and said: “O Talha, Zubayr, Saad and ibn Awf, fear Allah (swt). Put His pleasure first and choose what He has and in matter of Allah (swt) do not fear evil of the evil-doers.”

Source: Sulaym ibn Al-Qays Al-Hilali. Pg. # 211 - 212 / 324.


Imam Alee (a.s) Never Cited The Will As Proof Of Leadership 

If those present were not prepared to accept any written document from the Prophet (saw) on account of his mental state, why would they accept a written instruction in favour of Alee (a.s) later? Imam Alee (a.s) mentioned this will, and did so on numerous occasions as he did with his nomination at Ghadeer which changed the life of the last remaining companion of the Prophet (saw), Aboo Tufayl (r.a), whom the scholars of Hadeeth accused of being an extreme Rafidi. 

For more information on Aboo Tufayl (r.a), please click on the following link:


As we have shown above from the book of the followers of the Ahlulbayt (a.s), the will was written later, and people were reminded about it after the death of Uthman ibn Affan. Sulaym narrates in a very long narration from Imam Alee (a.s) who was talking with the companions in the mosque during the Caliphate of Uthman. Imam Alee (a.s) said: "O Talha! Were you present when the Holy Prophet (saw) asked for a paper so that he could write that with which the Ummah does not deviate and oppose? At that time your companion said what he said - (i.e. Allah’s Messenger is delirious.) At that time the Holy Prophet (saw) became very angry and left it." Talha said: “Yes I was present at that time.” In fact, the companions themselves would discuss the will in favour of Imam Alee (a.s) but A'isha denied its very existence. This Hadeeth indicates that the companions would talk about the will of the Prophet (saw) to Alee (a.s). But A'isha completely denies this ever happened. 


Muslim ibn Hajjaj:

Aswad b. Yazid reported: It was mentioned before A'isha that will had been made (by the Holy Prophet (saw)) in favour of Alee (a.s) (as the Prophet’s first caliph), whereupon she said: "When did he make will in his favour? I had been providing support to him (to the Holy Prophet (saw)) with my chest (or with my lap). He asked for a tray, when he fell in my lap (relaxing his body), and I did not realise that he had breathed his last. When did he make any will in his (Alee's) favour?"

Source: Saheeh Muslim. Pg. 771, H. # 19.




The Prophet (saw) Wanted To Appoint Aboo Bakr

And last but not least, our opponents claim that the pen and paper instruction was an affirmation of an incident that occurred a few days earlier before A'isha, namely this one:

Narrated Al-Qasim bin Muhammad: A'isha, (complaining of headache) said, "Oh, my head!" Allah's Apostle (saw) said, "I wish that had happened while I was still living, for then I would ask Allah's (swt) Forgiveness for you and invoke Allah (swt) for you." A'isha said, "Wa thuklayah! By Allah (swt)! I think you want me to die; and if this should happen, you would spend the last part of the day sleeping with one of your wives!" The Prophet (saw) said, "Nay, I should say, 'Oh my head!' I felt like sending for Aboo Bakr and his son, and appoint him as my successor lest some people claimed something or some others wished something, but then I said (to myself), 'Allah (swt) would not allow it to be otherwise, and the Muslims would prevent it to be otherwise.'" 

Source: Saheeh Bukhari. Vol. 7, Book 70, H. # 570.

Our Questions:

1) What's is the evidence this occurred a few days before the pen and paper episode? There is no sign of any illness here on the part of the Prophet (saw). On the contrary, as per A'isha he (saw) was fit enough to sleep with his other wives. 

2) If this was indeed true why didn't A'isha confirm this to anyone other than her nephew who wasn't even alive at the time? This could have silenced all those debating in the bedroom chamber, and that would have done away with the need to go to Saqifah. yet Aisha didn't tell a soul about this at the time, not immediately afterwards, rather she told her nephew whose own father wasn't even born at the time. The fact is you silence your opponents whenever you have the opportune moment to do so, and then this was it, as recorded in Al-Bukhari.

Narrated Al-Aswad: In the presence of ‘Aisha some people mentioned that the Prophet had appointed ‘Alee by will as his successor [WASI]. ‘A'isha said, “When did he appoint him by will? Verily when he died he was resting against my chest (or said: in my lap) and he asked for a wash-basin and then collapsed while in that state, and I could not even perceive that he had died, so when did he appoint him by will?”

Source: Sahih Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 51, Number 4:

If the will in favour of Aboo Bakr was made a few days prior to the pen and paper event, why didn't she silence these people by pointing out that a will was in fact dictated in favour of her father just a few days before the death of the Prophet (saw) and she was in fact a direct eye witness to the momentous event? Why didn't she point that out then, to silence those seeking to suggest Imam Alee (a.s) had been appointed wasi?

3) If the A'isha tradition did indeed occur as per the timescale, how was this possible when the Prophet (saw) has ordered the same Aboo Bakr to leave the city and fight under the army of Usama? Why would you intend to appoint a man as successor that you then send out in an army delegation where he can't run the State and might die? This wasn't an era when you could communicate via Skype and mobile phones for updates, so how could he run a state when he was completely cut off from the provincial capital?

This therefore proves that the incident either never happened or if for arguments sake it did, it certainly didn't happen a few days before the pen and paper episode.

To conclude, we have reviewed how the Prophet (saw) requested for a pen and paper on his deathbed, and how his "apparent" companions, the companions, revered by the so called Ahlul-Sunnah, opposed him. The main perpetrator being none other than the very same power-hungry man named Umar ibn Al-Khattab. Are the Shi'ites justified in granting him such a loathsome station in their history? We leave you to decide!

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