Thursday, 14 February 2013

The Oppression Of Sayeda Faatima (s.a) Part III




Expedition of Usama ibn Zayd

In this section of the article, we endeavor to analyse the significant events that took place in the last days of Prophet Muhammad (saw) life which consequently lead to the split of the Islamic Ummah.

A group of hypocrites among the companions of the Prophet (saw) planned to hijack the Islamic state upon the absence of the Prophet (saw). This was aimed for when the Prophet (saw) lead the expedition of Tabuk of which the geographical location bordered Jordan and Hijaz. The hypocrites felt they would have enough time to seize power in Madinah and unite the disbelievers in the Arabian peninsula. The Prophet (saw) intentionally left Imam Alee (a.s) behind in Madinah before setting out for his journey, as he was aware of a possible plot. On this occasion, the Prophet (saw) is said to have narrated the well known Hadeeth, 'Al Manzilah' in which he (saw) said, "O Alee (a.s)! Your position to me is like the position of what Haroon was to Moosa, with the exception that there is no Prophet (saw) after me."

Due to the presence of Imam Alee (a.s) in Madinah, the hypocrites were unable to achieve their goal and therefore most of them joined the army of the Prophet (saw). When all else had failed, the hypocrites planned to assassinate the Prophet (saw). They attempted to scare the camel of the Prophet (saw) while passing through a narrow road over the mountain called 'Aqaba.'

A comprehensive article in regards to this incident has previously been published with inclusion of the names of these hypocrites who had planned to assassinate the Prophet (saw). For more information, click on the following link:-


http://www.revisitingthesalaf.org/2012/02/companions-attempt-to-kill-prophet.html

Allah (swt) revealed the intention of the hypocrites to His Messenger (saw) who obviously failed to assassinate the Prophet (saw). This incident happened in the month of Rajab in the year 9 A.H. The Prophet (saw) went out for 'Hajjatul Widaa' or the 'last Hajj' in the year 10 A.H, and in the presence of tens of thousands of Muslims, announced that he would soon depart from this world and also mentioned the famous Hadeeth 'Al-Thaqalayn.' The Prophet (saw) as per orders of Allah (swt) said that he leaves two weighty things among the Ummah (nation), and that if they refer to these two weighty things, mankind would never go astray. These two being, the Book of Allah (swt) and his (saw) progeny (a.s).

Al-Albani:

Narrated by Jabir ibn Abdullah: "I saw Allah's Messenger when performing the hajj seated on his she camel Al-Qaswa on the day of Arafah giving an address, and I heard him saying, "O people, I have left among you something of such a nature that if you adhere to it you will not go astray: Allah's Book and my close relatives, my Ahlulbayt (a.s)."


Al-Tirmidhi: This incident is narrated through Abi Zarr, Abi Sa'eed, Zayd ibn Arqam and Hudhaifa ibn Aseed. This is a Hasan Gharib hadeeth in this form.

Al-Albani: It is Saheeh (Authentic).  

Source: Saheeh Sunan Al-Tirmidhi. Vol. 3, Pg. # 542-544.

Narrated by Zayd ibn Arqam: Allah's Messenger said, "I am leaving among you something of such a nature that if you lay hold of it you will not go astray after I am gone, one part of it being more important than the other: Allah's Book, a rope stretched from Heaven to Earth, and my close relatives, my Ahlulbayt (a.s). These two will not separate from one another till they come down to the reservoir, so consider how you act regarding them after my departure."

Al-Albani: It is Saheeh (Authentic). 


Source: Saheeh Sunan Tirmidhi. Vol. 3, Pg. # 542 - 544, H # 3787 - 3788.


Ibn Kathir:

While returning from Hajjatul Widaa, the Messenger of Allah (saw) stopped in Ghadir -e- Khum and ordered the Muslims to stop there. The Messenger of Allah (saw) gave a sermon and again repeated that he is going to leave two heavy things among the Ummah. The Book of Allah (swt) and his Ahlulbayt (a.s), his Progeny. At the end of it, he appointed Imam Alee (a.s) as his successor and asked the Muslims: “Have I not more authority over you than you on your own?” The Muslims replied: ‘Yes! O Messenger of Allah.’ Then the Prophet (saw) said: “Whomever I am his Master, then Alee (saw) is his Master.”

Ibn Kathir: Our Sheikh Al-Dhahabi said this chain is Saheeh (Authentic).

Source: Al-Bidaya Wa'an-Nihaya. Vol. 7, Pg. # 668.



Ibn Hajar:

Narrated Alee (a.s): The Messenger of Allah (saw) stopped under a tree in Khum then took Alee's hand and said: "Are you witnessing that Allah the Almighty and High is your Lord?" The people said: 'Yes!' Then he said: "Are you witnessing that Allah (swt) and His Messenger (saw) have more authority over you than yourselves and they are your master?" They said: 'Yes!' Then he said: "So to everyone whose master is Allah (swt) and His Messenger (saw), then Alee (a.s) is the master. And I have left behind two things for you, if you hold to these two you will not go astray, they are the Book of Allah (swt) which has two sides, one is is in my hand and the other side is in your hands, and my Ahlulbayt (a.s)."

Ibn Hajar: This chain is Saheeh (Authentic).

Source: Al-Matalib Al-`Aliya bi Zawa'id Al-Masanid Al-Thamaniya. Vol. 14, Pg. # 142, H. # 3943. 



Other articles relating to this subject can be found by clicking on the following links:-

Alee (a.s) The Master Of Every Believer

http://www.revisitingthesalaf.org/2012/08/the-rawafid-companion-of-prophet-saw.html


The hypocrites who failed to assassinate the Prophet (saw) in Tabuk now faced an even greater task, since the Messenger of  Allah (saw) had now appointed Imam Alee (a.s) to succeed him (saw) after his death. They would go to great lengths so as to prevent the Islamic state being governed by one whom the Prophet (saw) had nominated.

When the Messenger of Allah (saw) arrived in Madinah, some days before his death he ordered to prepare an army of Muslims to fight against Rome at the borders of Jordan. The Roman King had insulted and killed Usama’s father Zayd, who was sent as an ambassador by the Prophet (saw). The Roman King failed to apologize, and he threatened to wipe out the Muslims. This gave cause for the Muslims to send an army, demand an apology from the Roman King, and to wage war if he would refuse to apologize. The Prophet (saw) appointed 18 year old Usama ibn Zayd as the commander of this army and ordered his companions to join the army lead by this young commander. Thus a group of companions (the hypocrites) criticized the decision of the Prophet (saw) and tried to escape from this order and keep themselves away from that army so that they could remain behind in Madinah. The Messenger of Allah (saw) had two goals of sending this army. The first was to send the hypocrites with the army to the battle far from Madinah so that the transition of power and successorship of Imam Alee (a.s) was completed smoothly and without any mishaps. The second goal was to destroy the army of Rome as they were preparing themselves for attack on the Islamic territory and hence were a threat to the Muslims.

Books of history are full of reports as to how Usama attempted to gather the companions for the expedition and how they blatantly refused to assemble under his leadership. Some go as far as denying the incident, such as the likes of ibn Taymiyyah in his famous works Minhaj Al-Sunnah he is recorded to have said the following:

Ibn Taymiyyah:

The Rafidi (i.e. Allama Al-Hilli) says: ‘The Messenger of Allah (saw) said in his last illness, time after time, repeatedly, the following: "Equip and send the army of Usama, may Allah (swt) curse those who disobey and do not join the army of Usama.” And the three (Aboo Bakr, Umar and Uthman) were among those people, but Aboo Bakr prevented Umar from that.’  I said ( ibn Taymiyyah:): 'This is a lie! and all scholars say that it is a lie before everyone who knows ‘the Sirah’ (the battles history), and no one of the scholars has said that the Prophet (saw) sent Aboo Bakr and Uthman with the army of Usama. This is only narrated about Umar. How can Aboo Bakr be in the army of Usama, while he (i.e. the Prophet) ordered Aboo Bakr to lead the prayers throughout his illness?! The beginning of his illness was from Thursday to Thursday until Monday, about 12 days. Then it is narrated through frequent narrations that in these days Aboo Bakr led the prayers. And Aboo Bakr did not lead the prayers for Muslims once or twice, not one or two days, so that one may not think what the Rafidhi says deceitfully is true, that A'isha told her father to lead the prayers because Aboo Bakr led the prayers throughout the Prophets (saw) illness. And people are in agreement that during the illness of the Prophet (saw) no one else except Aboo Bakr led the prayers, and he prayed a number of days. And the least to say is that he (i.e. the Prophet (saw) led 12 prayers and the last prayer was the evening prayer of Friday night and in the Friday he gave a sermon.

Source: Minhaj Al-Sunnah. Vol. 5, Pg. # 485 - 486.



The reality was different regarding Aboo Bakr leading the prayer. Insha'Allah Ta'ala we shall look at this in the next part of the article. But to expose the lies of ibn Taymiyyah allow us to present the words from his own predecessors.


Fact Or Fiction?

Al-Bukhari:

Narrated Abdullah Ibn Umar: The Prophet sent an army under the command of Usama ibn Zayd. When some people criticized his leadership, the Prophet said, "If you are criticizing Usama's leadership, you used to criticize his father's leadership before too. By Allah! He was worthy of leadership and was one of the dearest persons to me, and (now) this (i.e. Usama) is one of the dearest to me after his father.”

Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. # 917 - 918.


Explanation of Saheeh Al-Bukhari by ibn Hajar:

The title of the chapter, “Chapter of the Prophet (saw) sending Usama ibn Zayd in his illness in which he died.” The author (i.e. Bukhari) has chosen this title because it is narrated that the mobilizing of the army of Usama was on Saturday, two days before the death of the Prophet (saw), and the beginning of it was before the illness of the Prophet (saw) at the end of the month of Safar that the Prophet (saw) delegated the people to go to war with Rome at the end of Safar and called Usama and said: “Go to the place where your father was martyred, take the people because I have appointed you as the commander of this army, tomorrow morning leave and hurry and go fast before the news reaches them. If Allah (swt) gives you victory over them do not stay long among them." Then the illness of the Messenger of Allah (saw) began on the day of Tuesday and then he passed the flag to Usama. Usama took it and passed it to Buraida and his soldiers were in Jurf, and among those who were sent with Usama were the heads of Muhajireen and Ansaar, such as Aboo Bakr, Umar, Aboo Ubayda, Sa’d, Sa’eed, Qutada ibn Al-No’man and Salama ibn Aslam, then some of them talked such as Ayash Ibn Rabi’ah Al-Makh’zumi and Umar replied to him. Then the Prophet (saw) was informed about what they said, so he gave a sermon and that is this Hadeeth of Bukhari (as mentioned above). Then the illness of the Messenger of Allah (saw) became worse and said: "Send the army of Usama” (i.e. leave Madinah). Then Aboo Bakr sent the army after he became Caliph, so he went twenty nights in one direction as he had ordered him, and killed the killer of his father and came back with victory and with Ghanima.

The historians of the battles (Al-Maghazi) have mentioned a long story and this is a summary of it, and this was the last army that the Prophet (saw) equipped and was the first army that Aboo Bakr equipped. But ibn Taymiyyah has denied that Aboo Bakr and Umar were among the army (and must have left Madinah with the army) in his book which is a response to ibn Muta’har, and he has denied it according to what Al-Waqidi has narrated with his chains on his book, ‘Al-Maghazi’ and ibn Sa’d has related it in his book at the end of the biography of the Prophet (saw) without chains, and ibn Ishaq has mentioned it in his famous book Al-Sirah and says: ‘The illness of the Messenger of Allah (saw) began on Wednesday and on Thursday. He ordered Usama and said: “Go fight in the path of Allah (swt), and go to where your father was killed, I have made you the commander of this army." Then he mentions the story and says: 'There remained not a single person of the early Muhajirun unless he was in that army, such as Aboo Bakr and Umar, and when Aboo Bakr sent that army when he became Caliph, Aboo Bakr asked Usama to let Umar stay (in Madinah) so he did.’ And this is what ibn Al-Jawzi relates in his book ‘Al-Muntazam’ and fully supports it.

Source: Fath Al-Bari Sharh Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Vol. 9, Pg. # 622.


The same narration is narrated in many chapters of Saheeh Al-Bukhari. In another chapter, ibn Hajar explains and mentions again that Aboo Bakr and Umar were ordered to accompany the army of Usama. He interestingly extracts a rule from it, in that it is allowed to command an inferior person over the superior people, because in the army of Usama, the Messenger of Allah (saw) made Usama the commander over Aboo Bakr and Umar even though they were superior and better than Usama!

Explanation of Saheeh Al-Bukhari by ibn Hajar:

The statement in the hadeeth of Bukhari, “You used to criticize his father's leadership before too.” In this Hadeeth, it refers to the command of Zayd ibn Harith in the battle of Mu'tah, and Al-Nasa'i has narrated from A'isha who said: “The Messenger of Allah (saw) did not send any army unless he appointed Zayd ibn Haritha as its commander." In this Hadeeth there is a permission to appoint a slave as commander of an army, and to appoint the youngsters over the elders and to appoint the inferior over the superior, because in that army over which Usama was the commander, Aboo Bakr and Umar were soldiers.

Source: Fathul Bari Sharh Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Vol. 8, Pg. # 445.


Scholars and historians who lived before ibn Taymiyyah have also mentioned that Aboo Bakr and Umar were among those who were commanded to go with the army of Usama.


Ibn Sa'd:

Narrated Abdul-Wahab ibn Ata Al-Ijli from Al-Umari from Nafi' from ibn Umar who said: 'The Prophet (saw) equipped an army that Aboo Bakr and Umar were in and he appointed Usama ibn Zayd as their commander, then people criticized him about his age, this news reached the Messenger of Allah (saw), so he climbed the Mimbar and praised God and said: “People criticized the leadership of Usama and in the past they have criticized his father's leadership too. Even though they both are worthy of leadership, and he is the dearest of people to now, I recommend you to be good to him.”


Source: Tabaqat Al-Kubra. Vol. 2, Pg. # 219.




Ibn Al-Jawzi:

Ibn Sa'd: Narrated Abdul-Wahab ibn Ata Al-Ijli from Al-Umari from Nafi' from ibn Umar who said: 'The Prophet (saw) equipped an army that Aboo Bakr and Umar were in and he appointed Usama ibn Zayd as their commander, then people criticized him about his age, this news reached the Messenger of Allah (saw), so he climbed the Mimbar and praised God and said: “People criticized the leadership of Usama and in the past they have criticized his father's leadership too. Even though they both are worthy of leadership, and he is the dearest of people to now, I recommend you to be good to him.”

Source: Al-Muntazam Fi Tarikh Al-Muluk Wa Al-Umam. Vol. 5, Pg. # 306-307.


This chain is Saheeh 'Authentic' at least by the criteria of Muslim because Abdul-Wahab is the narrator of Muslim only and not a narrator of Bukhari. However, he is not the only narrator pertaining to this narration who reports from Ubaidallah ibn Umar Al-Umari from Nafi’ slave of Abdullah ibn Umar ibn Al-Khattab. It is interesting that this narration is narrated through another chain where all of its narrators are famous scholars and muhadditheen. It is also narrated by ibn Asakir in his 'Tarikh' and he lived before ibn Taymiyyah. This shows that this issue was famous in early history, because ibn Asakir narrates it through his Sheikhs and teachers up to Abdullah ibn Umar. 

Ibn Asakir:

Narrated Aboo Bakr Wajih ibn Tahir from Aboo Hamed Al-Az’hari from Aboo Muhammad Al-Mukhlidi from Al-Mo’ammal ibn Al-Hasan from Ahmad ibn Mansoor from Aboo Nadhr Hashim ibn Al-Qasim from A’seem ibn Muhammad from Ubaidallah ibn Umar from Nafi’ from ibn Umar who said: 'The Prophet (saw) appointed Usama ibn Zayd as the commander of an army that Aboo Bakr and Umar were in. Then people criticized him for this action, so the Prophet (saw) gave a sermon and said: "I was informed that you have criticized that I have appointed Usama over the army, as you criticized his father's leadership in the past. His father was worthy of leadership and he is also worthy for it, i.e. Usama, and he is of the dearest people to me, I recommend you to be good to him.”

Source: Tarikh Madinatul Damishq. Vol. 8, Pg. # 60.


Analysis Of The Chain Of Narrators

1 - Ibn Asakir
2 - Wajih ibn Tahir
3 - Aboo Ha’med Al-Az’hari
4 - Aboo Muhammad Al-Mukhlidi
5 - Al-Mo’ammal  ibn Al-Hassan
6 - Ahmad ibn Mansoor
7 - Aboo Nadh’r Hashim ibn Al-Qassim
8 - A’seem ibn Muhammad
9 - Ubaidallah ibn Umar Al-Umari
10 - Nafi’ the slave of Abdullah ibn Umar
11 - Abdullah ibn Umar 

The biographies of the above narrators who are famous scholars will now be presented from 'Siyar A'lam Al-Nu'bala' of Al-Dhahabi and also Ibn Al-Jawzi. We shall see what Al-Dhahabi  have to say about each one of them.

1 - Ibn Asakir

The Imam, the Allama, the great and generous Hafiz, Muhaddith of Al-Shaam, Thiqatudeen, Abul-Qasim Al-Dimash’qi Al-Shafi’i, the author of ‘Tarikh Al-Dimashq.’

Source: Siyar A'lam An-Nu'bala. Vol. 20, Pg. # 554.


2 - Wajih ibn Tahir

Ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad, the trusted and knowledgeable Sheikh, head of scholars in Khorasan, Aboo Bakr, brother of Zahir, Al-Shahami Al-Nishabouri, born in the house of Qur’aan and narrations. He used to travel to collect narrations. He has narrated from Abal-Qasim, and Aba Ha’med Al-Az’hari and Abal-Modaffar …

Source: Siyar A'lam An-Nu'bala. Vol. 20, Pg. # 109.


Wajih ibn Tahir Ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad, Aboo Bakar Al-Shahami, brother of Abi Qasim Zahir ibn Tahir, he was from Nisabour, from a family of narrators, he knew plenty of narrations, he was born in 455 and he has heard (narrations) from his father alot, he has traveled to Baghdad and Herat and heard alot of narrations, he was a devout Sheikh, truthful, pious, owner of good manners, with a shining face, he used to cry very easily and used to remember (Allah) alot, I have his permission to narrate what he has heard of narrations and his books.


he died in Jamadi Al-Akhira of this year, and was  burried in the graveyard of Al-Hussein next to his brother and father. 

Source:  Al-Muntazam Fi Tarikh Al-Muluk Wa Al-Umam. Vol. 18, Pg. # 53/54.



3 - Aboo Ha’med Al-Az’hari 

Al-Az’hari, the trusted, the head of scholars, the truthful, Abu Ha’med, Ahmad ibn Al-Hassan ibn Muhammad ibn Al-Hassan ibn Az’har Al-Az’hari, Al-Nisabouri, Al-Shorouti, descendant of muhadditheen. He has learned from Abi Muhammad Al-Mukhlidi, and Abi Sa’eed ibn Hamdoon and Abil-Hussain Al-Khaffaf, and he has trusted original books. Narrated from him, Zahir and Wajih ibn Tahir and Abdul-Ghafir Isma’eel and others. He died in Rajab of the year 463 A.H.

Source: Siyar A'lam An-Nu'bala. Vol. 18, Pg. # 254.


4 - Aboo Muhammad Al-Mukhlidi

Al-Mukhlidi, the truthful Imam, head of scholars, Aboo Muhammad, Al-Hassan ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Al-Hassan ibn Alee ibn Mukhlid ibn Shayban Al-Mukhlidi Al-Nisabouri trusted, Sheikh of Qur’aan and the descendant of the knowledge houses. He has heard narrations from Abal-Abbas Al-Sarraj, and Mo’mal ibn Al-Hassan, and Aba No’aim ibn Adi…Al-Hakim said: 'What he has heard and written is Saheeh ‘authentic’, he is truthful in narration, has taught in Dar Al-Sunna, he was Mohad’dith of his time, he died in Rajab of the year 389 A.H.

Source: Siyar A'lam An-Nu'bala. Vol. 16, Pg. # 539-540.


5 - Al-Mo'ammal ibn Al-Hassan

Al-Mo’ammal ibn Al-Hasan ibn Isa ibn Masarjis Al-Mawla, the chief of scholars, the Imam, the trusted muhaddith…

Source: Siyar A'lam An-Nu'bala. Vol. 15, Pg. # 21.


6 - Ahmad ibn Mansoor 

Al-Ramadi, the Imam, the Hafiz, the Dhabit (one who has good memory), Aboo Bakr, Ahmad ibn Mansoor ibn Sayyar ibn Mo’arik, Al-Ramadi Al-Baghdadi. He has narrated from Abdul-Razaq, and…And Hashim ibn Al-Qassim and…Al-Dar’qutni says: 'He is trustworthy.' And ibn Abi Hatim says: 'My father trusted him and authenticated him.'

Source: Siyar A'lam An-Nu'bala. Vol. 12, Pg.  # 389-390.


7 - Aboo Nadh'r Hashim ibn Al-Qassim

Aboo Al-Nadh'r (Bukhari, Muslim and the four Sunan have narrated his narrations). He is a Hafiz, the Imam, Sheikh of muhadditheen, Aboo Al-Nadh'r, Hashim ibn Al-Qassim Al-Laithi Al-Khorasani, and then Al-Baghdadi, titled Qaysar. He was of the Bani Laith tribe,…

Source: Siyar A'lam An-Nu'bala. Vol. 9, Pg. # 545.


8 - A’seem ibn Muhammad

A’seem ibn Muhammad (Bukhari, Muslim and the four Sunan have narrated his narrations). ibn Zayd ibn Abdullah ibn Umar ibn Al-Khattab, Al-Qurashi, Al-Adawi, Al-Umari, Al-Madani, the Faqih, one the best scholars. He has narrated from his father and from Muhammad ibn Ka’b Al-Quradhi and from his brother Waqid. Narrated from him, Aboo No’aim, Abul-Walid, Alee ibn Al-Ja’d, Ahmad ibn Yunus, Isma’eel ibn Abi Uwais and others. Aboo Hatam and others have authenticated and trusted him. The authors of Saheeh (i.e. the six most authentic books) have trusted him and took his narrations, so the statement of someone who has said that ‘Whoever whose name is A’seem, there is weakness in him’, creates no problem. He died around the year 190 A.H.

Source: Siyar A'lam An-Nu'bala. Vol. 7, Pg. # 180-181.


9 - Ubaidallah ibn Umar Al-Umari

Ubaidallah ibn Umar (Bukhari, Muslim and the four Sunan have narrated his narrations). Ibn Hafs ibn A’seem Ibn Amirul mominin Abi Hafs Umar ibn Al-Khattab. The generous Imam, the Hafiz, Aboo Uthman Al-Qurashi, Al-Adawi then Al-Umari Al-Madani. He was born around the year 70 A.H or alike, and joined Umm Khalid Bint Khalid Al-Sahabiyya, and he has heard narrations from her, and he is of the late Tab'ee. He has heard from Salim ibn Abdullah, Al-Qasim ibn Muhammad and Nafi’ and Aboo Hatam says: 'I asked Ahmad ibn Hanbal about Malik, Ayoob and Ubaidallah ibn Umar: which one them is more trusted in his narrations from Nafi’?' He said: 'Ubaidallah is the most authentic and the most correct memorizer of them, and he has the most narrations from Nafi.’ And Yahya ibn Mo’een said: 'Ubaidallah is of the trustworthy narrators.' Uthman ibn Sa’eed said: 'I said to ibn Mo’een the narrations of Malik from Nafi’ is dearer to you or Ubaidallah from Nafi?' He said: 'Both of them, and he did not make one superior over the other.'

Source: Siyar A'lam An-Nu'bala. Vol. 6, Pg. # 304-305.



10 - Nafi' the slave of Abdullah ibn Umar

Nafi’ (Bukhari, Muslim and the four Sunan have narrated his narrations). The Imam, the trusted Mufti, scholar of Madinah, Aboo Abdullah Al-Qurashi, then Al-Adawi Al-Umari, slave of ibn Umar. He has narrated from ibn Umar, A'isha, Abi Huraira, Rafi’ ibn Khudaij, Abi Sa’eed Al-Khudri, Umm Salama, Abi Lubabat ibn Abdul-Munzir…Narrated from him, Al-Zuhri, Ayoob Al-Sukhtiyani, Ubaidallah ibn Umar...

Source: Siyar A'lam An-Nu'bala. Vol. 5, Pg. # 95.


11 - Abdullah ibn Umar

The first narrator 'Abdullah ibn Umar' who really does not need an introduction. He was the companion of the Prophet (saw) and son of Umar ibn Al-Khattab.

The narration recorded by ibn Asakir is impeccable, yet despite this, ibn Taymiyyah has the audacity to claim it to be a lie and to make matters worse, he rejects any scholar ever mentioning it. Scholars who came before and after ibn Taymiyyah have recorded the incident. ibn Taymiyyah has based his refutation on Al-Waqidi, whose narration is without any chain of narrators. It is rather ironic that ibn Taymiyyah deems this very 'Al-Waqidi' weak in Hadeeth, a fabricator, Matrook, and so on and so forth, but when he quotes something else from Al-Waqidi, even if it be without a chain, it is accepted as if it is the Holy Qur’aan. Do we not see double standards at play here?

In conclusion, we can deduce that either ibn Taymiyyah was ignorant in Hadeeth literature, or that he intentionally turned a blind eye to the authentic narration recorded by ibn Sa'd and ibn Asakir. Ibn Sa'd was the writer and student of Al-Waqidi and he acquired the exact story mentioned by Al-Waqidi. This sends the status of ibn Taymiyyah in the dumpsters. Al-Waqidi was the first and only scholar who mentioned the name of Umar among those who left Madinah with the army of Usama, and due to his low status among scholars of Hadeeth and Sirah, it is not completely trusted. To the contrary, ibn Sa'd takes the same story from his teacher Al-Waqidi and includes the name of Aboo Bakr. Let us see in two different prints of Tabaqat Al-Kubra of ibn Sa'd to put an end to this dispute forever.

Ibn Sa'd:

… it remained not a single person of the heads of Muhajireen and Ansaar unless he was to go in that battle, such as Aboo Bakr and Umar, Aboo Ubayda ibn Al-Jarrah, Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas, Sa'eed ibn Zayd, Qutada ibn Al-No'man and Salama ibn Aslam ibn Harish…

Source: Tabaqat Al-Kubra (Printed in Egypt, Maktaba Al-Khanji Qahira). Vol. 2, Pg. # 170.


Ibn Sa'd:

…it remained not a single person of the heads of Muhajireen and Ansaar unless he was to go in that battle, such as Aboo Bakr and Umar, Aboo Ubayda ibn Al-Jarrah, Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas, Sa'eed ibn Zayd, Qutada ibn Al-No'man and Salama ibn Aslam ibn Harish…

Source: Tabaqat Al-Kubra (Printed in Beirut, Lebanon, Dar Kutub Al-Ilmiyya). Vol. 2, Pg. # 146.




We shall continue to present the scholars who recorded this incident who lived prior to ibn Taymiyyah.

Ibn Jawzi:

The Messenger of Allah (saw) sent an army and appointed Usama as its commander, then the people criticized his leadership. You should know that most of the people look at the outer side of things. The Prophet (saw) thinks about the other side, the people looked at the young age of Usama, and that he was son of a servant, and the Prophet (saw) saw that he was good in leadership specially for that battle that he was going to send him to where his father was killed. And he did such with Amr ibn Al-Aas too, he appointed him as a leader over an army in which Aboo Bakr and Umar were (his soldiers), not because he was superior over them, but because he was more intelligent and skilful in battles. And this army that Usama was the commander of, it was to fight with the people of Abna, so he said to him: “Go to where your father was killed and surround them, leave tomorrow, and be fast.” Then he sent with him the heads of Muhajirun and Ansaar, among them were Aboo Bakr, Umar, Sa’d, Sa’eed and Aboo Ubayda. Then some people criticized this and said: ‘He (i.e. the Prophet (saw)) has appointed this boy as leader over the early Muhajirun.’ The Messenger of Allah (saw) became very angry, an intense anger and that was the beginning of his illness. Then he went out without covering his head and climbed the Mimbar (pulpit) and said: “If you criticize his leadership (it is not something new), you were criticizing the leadership of his father too, by Allah (swt) he was worthy of leadership i.e. Zayd, and he was among the dearest people to me and this son of him is the dearest to me after his father.” When Usama ordered his soldiers to leave, the messenger of his mother Umm Ayman came and said: "The Messenger of Allah (saw) died." So he came back to Madinah when the Prophet (saw) died and people paid allegiance to Aboo Bakr. He let him to go, and Aboo Bakr talked with him about Umar to let him stay in Madinah and he did. When he went to the people of Abna he fought with them and took captives and killed the killer of his father. And the Messenger of Allah (saw) used to encourage him to be brave and the love of Jihad and taking the blood of his father. When he came back, Aboo Bakr together with Muhajirun and Ansaar met them and became happy about their health."


Source: Kashf Al-Mush'kil Min Hadeeth Al-Sahihain. Vol. 2, Pg. # 560 - 561.




Ibn Al-Athir:

What happened in the year 11 after Hijra:

In the Month of Muharram of this year, the Prophet (saw) equipped an army towards Al-Shaam (Syria) and appointed his servant Usama ibn Zayd as its commander and told him to take the army through Al-Balqa and Al-Daroom in the land of Palestine. Then the Munafiqeen (hypocrites) criticized the leadership of him and said: ‘He (i.e. The Prophet (saw)) has appointed a boy over the heads of Muhajireen and Ansaar!’ The Prophet (saw) said: “If you are criticizing Usama's leadership, you used to criticize his father's leadership before too. By Allah! He is worthy of leadership like his father who was worthy of it.” And He (i.e. the Prophet (saw)) sent the early Muhajiroon with Usama; among them were Aboo Bakr and Umar, and the people were in this situation (i.e. they were hesitating) until the illness of the Messenger of Allah (saw) began.


Source: Al-Kamil Fi Tarikh. Vol. 2, Pg. # 182.


Al-Balazari:

Narrated Abbas ibn Hisham from his father from his grandfather from Abi Saleh from Ibn Abbas who said: the Messenger of Allah(saw) came out with his head uncovered, till he sat on his Minbar, and people were critisizing their expedition towards Mu'ta, and the most severe person in speech about it was Ayyash ibn Abo Rabi'a, then the Prophet(saw) said: O People, equip the army of Usama, verily you have critisized his leadership as you critisized the leadership of his father before. and indeed his father was capable of leadership and indeed he is capable too. and in the army of Usama were: Aboo Bakar, Umar, and the heads of Al-Muhajirin and Al-Ansaar. and he came out and went with his army to Al-Jurf. When the Messenger of Allah(saw) died and Aboo Bakar became Caliph, Usama came and said: you know my position according to the Prophet(saw), and I need the presence of Umar and his flag in the army, Aboo Bakar said: I ask you to leave him here. so he let him, and Usama went and came back victorius with Ghanaem, and people became happy for that.

Source: Ansaab Al-Ashraaf. Vol. 1, Pg. # 474.


This chain through Ibn Abbas is however weak, but it can be used as another witness for the authentic narration of Ibn Umar, and refutes Ibn Taimiyya who claimed that not a single scholar has mentioned that Aboo Bakar and Umar were in that army. 

Al-Safadi:

The Messenger of Allah (saw) sent Usama in an army in which Aboo Bakr and Umar were sent, then the people criticized this because he was son of a servant and was less than twenty years old. When this news reached the Prophet (saw) it was when he was ill, so he went over the Mimbar (pulpit) and said that famous Hadeeth.

Source: Al-Wafi Bil Wafayat. Vol. 8, Pg.  # 242.



Now we shall present a scholar who also recorded this incident and lived in the same era as Ibn Taymiyyah.

Al-Ya’muri:

…it remained not a single person of the heads of Muhajiroon and Ansaar unless he was to go in that battle, such as Aboo Bakr and Umar, Aboo Ubayda ibn Al-Jarrah, Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas, Sa’eed ibn Zayd, Qutada Al-No’man and Salama ibn Aslam ibn Haris…

Source: Uyoon Al-Athar. Vol. 2, Pg. # 369.


Al-Mizzi:

Usama ibn Zayd ibn Haritha ibn Sharahil Al-Kalbi, Aboo Muhammad called Aboo Zayd or Aboo Yazeed and also Aboo Haritha Al-Madani, Hib ibn Al-Hib, slave of the Messenger of Allah (saw). His mother is Umm Ayman, the servant of the Messenger of Allah (saw). The Messenger of Allah (saw) appointed him as the leader of an army in which Aboo Bakr and Umar were soldiers, the army did not leave until the Prophet (saw) died.


Source: Tahdeeb Al-Kamal. Vol. 2, Pg.  # 339 - 340.


Al-Dhahabi:

And in Al-Maghazi: the Prophet (saw) made Usama commander over an army, among which was Aboo Bakar, he (i.e. Usama) was 18 years old at that time.

Source: Tarikh Al-Islam. Vol. 4, Pg. # 176.


Al-Sakhawi:

The Prophet (saw) appointed him (Usama) when he was about eighteen years old as the commander of an army in which Aboo Bakr and Umar were soldiers. Then Aboo Bakr (when he became Caliph) sent him and requested him to let Umar stay(in Madinah) beside him to help him, so Usama let Umar stay. Therefore it is narrated that Umar did not meet him unless he said: "Peace be unto you O commander, and Allah’s Mercy and Blessings upon you, you are a leader that the Messenger of Allah (saw) appointed and died and you are still leader over me.”


Source: Taufhhfatul Latifa. Vol. 1, Pg. # 286.


Al-Salihi Al-Shaami:

Usama ibn Zayd ibn Haritha ibn Sharahil Al-Ka’b ibn Abdul-Iza Al-Kalbi. Aboo Zayd or Aboo Muhammad. Aboo Haritha was Hib of the Messenger of Allah (saw) and son of his Hib and his slave and the son of his servant Umm Ayman. The Messenger of Allah (saw) appointed him as the leader of a huge army in which Aboo Bakr and Umar were soldiers. In that time his age was about twenty years old, it is also said, eighteen years old or seventeen years old, the army did not leave until the Prophet (saw) died.

Source: Subul Al-Huda Wa Al-Rashad. Vol. 12, Pg. # 330.


Al-Suyuti:

Usama ibn Zayd ibn Haritha ibn Sharahil Al-Kalbi, the lover of the Messenger of Allah (saw) and his slave, and the son of his lover and his mother was Umm Ayman servant of the Prophet (saw). He has narrated from the Prophet (saw) and his father and Bilal (r.a) and Umm Salama (r.a), and narrated from him Urwam Aboo Uthman Al-Nahadi and Aboo Wahil and others. The Prophet (saw) appointed him as the leader over an army in it were Aboo Bakr and Umar, and the Prophet (saw) has said about him, 'By Allah (swt)! He is worthy of leadership.’

Source: Es’haf Al-Mobattah Fi Rijal Al-Muwatta. Vol. 2, Pg.  # 299 - 300.


Mubarakfouri:

In this Hadeeth there is a permission to appoint a slave as commander of an army, and to appoint the youngsters over the elders and to appoint the inferior over the superior, because in that army over which Usama was the commander, Aboo Bakr and Umar were (His soldiers).

Source: Tauhfatul Al-Ahwazi. Vol. 10, Pg. # 321.


Dr. Dhia Al-Umari:

The preparation of the army of Usama ibn Zayd:

When the Messenger of Allah (saw) came back from his last Hajj, and the months Dhul Hijjah, Al-Muharram and Safar of the year ten passed. He started to prepare an army to go to Al-Shaam and he appointed Usama ibn Zayd ibn Haritha as its commander, and ordered him to go towards Al-Balqa and Palestine. He ordered the people to join the army, among them the Muhajireen and Ansaar and among them Aboo Bakr and Umar. Usama was about eighteen years old at that time, so people criticized that the Prophet (saw) made him their leader over the heads of Muhajiroon and Ansaar, because he was young and was a slave. The Prophet (saw) did not embrace their critics about the leadership of Usama and told them to be good to him. But this was delayed because of the illness of the Prophet (saw) two days after he ordered the army to leave. Al-Waqidi is the only person who has mentioned the number of the army of Usama and that is three thousand.

Source: Al-Sira Al-Nabawiyya Al-Sahiha. Vol. 2, Pg. # 552.


Mahmood Shakir:

The army of Usama:

The Messenger of Allah (saw) started to equip an army under the leadership of Usama ibn Zayd after the months of Dhul Hijjah. Al-Muharram had passed and it was on the fourth of Safar of the year eleven and ordered him to go towards Al-Balqa in Jordan and in this army there were the heads of Sahaba like: Abi Bakr, Umar, Abi Ubayda, Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas, that was despite the fact that Usama wasn’t anything older than eighteen, this army did not leave until the Messenger of Allah (saw) died.

Source: Tarikh Al-Islami. Vol. 2, Pg. # 339.


Dr. Aboo Shahbata:

Expedition of Usama Ibn Zayd
At the end of the month of Safar in this year (i.e. year 10th), the Prophet (saw) delegated people to go to Rome, and sent three thousand of the chosen Muslims, among them were the heads of Muhajireen and Al-Ansaar such as: Aboo Bakr, Umar, Abu Ubayda, Sa'd, Sa'eed and Salama Ibn Aslam.

Source: Al-Sira Al-Nabawiyya Fi Dhaw Qur'an Wa Al-Sunnah. Vol. 2, Pg. # 585.




The Prophet (saw) Cursed Those Who Did Not Join The Army Of Usama


Al-Shahristani:

The Prophet (saw) in his illness said: “Make the army of Usama leave, may Allah (saw) curse be upon whoever refuses to join it.” And then a group of people said: ‘We must comply his order.’ And Usama left Madinah (and waited in Al-Jarf for people to join him). Some people said: ‘The illness of the Prophet (saw) has got worse, our hearts can’t bear to leave him in this situation, we wait to see what will happen.’


Source: Al-Mihal Wa Al-Nihal. Vol. 1, Pg. # 30.


These firm orders and insistence of the Prophet (saw) at his last hours of life did not move the people’s determination. They slackened in joining the army and justified their doing with different excuses, though the Prophet (saw) did not accept their excuses. Rather, he showed them his anger and discontent.

2 comments:

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