Sunday, 13 January 2013

Hadeeth Al-Thaqalayn



The Two Precious Things




The narration known as 'Al-Thaqalayn' (lit. Two Weighty Things) counts as one of the most widely and successively transmitted narrations reported from the last and final messenger of Allah (swt), Prophet Muhammad (saw), and one of the most authenticated sayings with respect to its chain of transmission. Hence, it enjoys special importance in the lives of Muslims who have adhered to the last Prophetic message. The messenger of Allah (saw) narrated it at several points and on diverse occasions. However, there has been much divergence between the Muslims and those of other sects regarding the authenticity of the hadeeth. In this article we shall delve more deeply at the root of this matter, Insha'Allah Ta'ala. 

Due to ignorance, many Hadeeth are being narrated by Muslims without verifying the hadeeths authenticity. If one is aware of the seriousness of attributing a lie to the Prophet (saw), he/she would most certainly refrain from employing weak narrations. It is often the case that a narration is automatically accepted when either heard from a religious scholar or from reading books or websites. Unfortunately, at times religious scholars themselves do not provide evidences or even investigate the validity of such reports prior to narrating them, resulting in the listeners or readers supporting and defending something without having any evidence of validity to the narration. When such individuals are challenged on such issues, the initial response is usually rejection, silence or refusal to alter their stance due to sheer ignorance. From among these fabricated narrations which have been attributed to the Prophet (saw) is the following narration: The Prophet Muhammad (saw) said, “I am leaving you with the Book of Allah and my Sunnah.” Indeed, attempts have been made to try and strengthen this narration thus creating a false sense of hope for those who claim to cling on to the Sunnah of the Prophet (saw). When in reality, due to such falsifications, abandonment of the true Sunnah of the Prophet (saw) has taken place.


Hadeeth Authenticity Of Following 'Qur'aan And Sunnah'


Dar Al-Hijra Malik ibn Anas: 

وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ "‏ تَرَكْتُ فِيكُمْ أَمْرَيْنِ لَنْ تَضِلُّوا مَا تَمَسَّكْتُمْ بِهِمَا كِتَابَ اللَّهِ وَسُنَّةَ نَبِيِّهِ ‏‏

Narrated Malik that he heard that the Messenger of Allah, (saw) said, "I have left two matters with you. As long as you hold to them, you will not go the wrong way. They are the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Prophet."

Note: The commentator says, ibn 'Abd al Barr said; ''And this is recorded, well known and famous for people of knowledge to a degree that you can do without its reference and it has been narrated about this issue many 'single narrator' hadeeths, and among these are hadeeths of Aboo Hurairah and 'Amr b. 'Awf. There are three different chains to this Hadeeth, the first chain through Aboo Hurayra and in it is Salih ibn Moosa Al-Talhi who is matruk (i.e abandoned, contains fabrications) this makes the Hadeeth Mawdoo (fabricated). Likewise the hadeeth of 'Amr b. 'Awf through the route of his grandson Kathir b. 'Abdullah b. Awf, he is also matruk (abandoned), also this chain is weak. And finally Ismail ibn Abi Aws through Nour ibn Zaid Al-Dayli from Ikrimah (the slave of ibn Abbas), this chain is weak because of Ismail ibn Abi Uways is weak in narrating Hadeeth. I said ('Abd al Barr ) This hadeeth content is not questionable because it is found in the book of Allah the Almighty that invalid content can never reach it neither from its face nor from its back and it is revelation from The Wise and The Praiseworthy, and Allah the Far above and Almighty have coupled submission to Him with submission to His Prophet in many noble verses not mentioning the content of many verses that stimulate obedience to Him [the Prophet] and following His norms [Sunnah].

Source: Al-Muwatta. Vol. 2, Pg. # 480, H # 2618.




Aboo Ahmad ibn 'Adi Al-Jirjani:

Narrated Aboo Hurairah, he said; 'The Messenger of Allah said; 'I have left two [things] [amongst you after me] that you shall never astray after [holding these two]; The book of Allah (swt) and my Sunnah and They shall never separate till they come back to me at lake-fount [Kawthar].''

By same reference, the Messenger of Allah (saw) said "...Whatever reached you and [it was] consistent with the Book of Allah (swt) and my Sunnah then it is from Me and whatever reached you and [it was not] consistent with the book of Allah and my Sunnah then it is not from Me."

Footnote: Alee ibn 'Umar Al-Darqutni mentioned it in 'Sunan 4/208' said; 'Saleh ibn Moosa is weak and his narrations cannot be used as an argument.' Al-Sheikh (Ibn Adi) said; "And these narrations from Abdul Aziz are not memorised (through other narrators i.e. they are not known from him) but Saleh ibn Moosa narrates them with reference to him.

Source: Al-Kamil fi Dhufa Al-Rijal. Vol. 5, Pg. # 105 - 107.

 


Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya:

Saleh ibn Moosa said, from Abdullah ibn Rafi, from Abi Saleh, from Aboo Hurairah that he said: The Prophet (saw) said, "I left upon you two things you will not go misguided after them, the Qur'aan and my Sunnah and they will not separate till they reach lake-fount."

This chain is very weak. Saleh ibn Moosa Al-Talhi was said by Ibn Mo'een, "He is nothing and his hadeeth should not be written" and Bukhari said, "his hadeeth is Munkar (not accepted)" and Nasa'i said, "his hadeeth is not to be taken" and Aboo Hatim said, "his Hadeeth are strongly rejected even if he narrated them from Thiqh (trustworthy people) and Ibn Udai said, "The vast majority of his hadeeth has no extensions from other scholars."

Source: I'elam Al-Mo'aqaeen an Rabb Al-Alameen. Vol. 4, Pg. # 83.



Al-Hakim Nishapuri:

Saleh ibn Moosa Al-Talhi Al-Kufi and he is Saleh ibn Moosa ibn Ubaydullah ibn Isaac ibn Talha Ibn Ubaydullah

Al-Abbas narrated from Yahya that He said; 'The hadeeth of Saleh Al-Talhi  is worthless!' Ibn Hammad added at another occasion, he said; 'Saleh ibn Moosa and Ishaq ibn Yahya ibn Talha both are worthless and their hadeeth should not be written (taken into consideration)." Al-Junaydi told us, Al-Bukhari told us, he said; "The hadeeth of Saleh Ibn Moosa whom is from the progeny of Talha ibn Ubaydullah is denied. I heard Ibn Hamad saying; 'Al-Bukhari narrating Suhail ibn Abi Saleh said; 'The hadeeth of Saleh ibn Moosa whom is from the progeny of Talha ibn Ubaydullah is denied." I heard ibn Hammad saying; Al-Sa'dy said; 'The hadeeth of Saleh ibn Moosa are weak.' And Al-Nasa'i said: Muhammad ibn Al-Abbas told me [about him]; 'The hadeeth of Saleh ibn Al Moosa Al-Talhi  is denied.'

Aboo Bakr Ahmad ibn Ishaq Al-Faqih told Abbas ibn Al-Fadhl Al-Asfati, Ismail ibn Abi Uwais said: Ismail ibn Muhammad ibn Al-Fadhl Al-Sha'arani said my grandfather told me that Ibn Abi Uwais said, "my father told me from Thowr ibn Zaid Al-Deeli I heard Ikrimah say that Ibn Abbas said that the Prophet (saw) lectured people in Hijjat Al-Wada'a: "The devil is desperate for you to worship him on this land but he accepts to be obeyed in anything else from your work, so beware people for I have left among you what if you hold upon you will not go astray, the book of Allah and Sunnah of his Prophet (saw). Every Muslim is the brother of a Muslim, the Muslims are brothers and it is not halal for a man to steal the money of another Muslim....except what he has given convincingly from a good heart. And do not oppress and do not become kuffar after me, killing each other."

Bukhari has argued with the Hadeeth of Ikrimah and Muslim with the hadeeth of Abi Uwais and the rest of his narrators are agreed upon. And this narration of the sermon of the Prophet (saw) is agreed upon in the saheeh: "O people! I have left you which you shall not go astray after. If you hold it the Qur'aan and you are responsible of me so what are you sayings?" And the remembrance of holding the Sunnah in this sermon is strange and it is needed. And I found a witness for it from the hadeeth of Aboo Hurairah Aboo Bakr ibn Ishaq Al-Faqih heard Muhammad ibn Isa Al-Sakan Al-Wasiti heard Dawood ibn Amr Al-Dhabi heard Saleh ibn Moosa Al-Talehi from Abdul Aziz Ibn Rafi from Abi Saleh from Aboo Hurairah said: 'The Prophet (saw) said "I left among you two things you will not go astray after them, the book of Allah and my sunnah and they shall not separate until they return to me to the pool." It is a weak Hadeeth because it is from the way of Ismael ibn Abi Uwais from his father and scholars talked against them and its witness is from Saleh ibn Moosa Al-Talehi and he is not accepted matruk (i.e abandoned, contains fabrications).

Source: Al-Mustadrak Alaa Al-Sahihain. Vol. 1, Pg. # 160 - 161, H. # 318.



The Prophet (saw) manifests the spirit of the Holy Qur'aan through his ethics, action and his speech. This unison between the Prophet (saw) and the Holy Qur’aan is the reason for why we adhere to the idiom of 'The Sunnah.' Of course, the main pillar of religion and the first in rank being the Book of Allah (swt), and then following suit, the practical Sunnah.

The narrations regarding the Hadeeth of Qur'aan and Sunnah are weak, and yet one is trapped in the conundrum of how crucial the Sunnah is. Nonetheless, our the called Ahl ul Sunnah compatriots insist the scholars have accepted the Sunnah as the standing criterion, and therefore, we shall endeavour to explain the true essence of the Sunnah i.e. the Ahlulbayt (a.s) who are the mirrors of the Prophet (saw) himself.

Ibn Taymiyyah:

However, as for the term 'Al-Itrah', we find in Saheeh of Muslim narrated Zayd ibn Arqam that he said; The Messenger of Allah spoke to us at a Ghadeer Khum located between Mecca and Medina and He said; "I am leaving among you the two weight things one of them is greater than the other, the Book of Allah (swt)" and incited us to adhere to it and He said; ''My progeny whom they are my Household, I remind you the pledge towards Allah by respecting my household,  I remind you the pledge towards Allah by respecting my household,  I remind you the pledge towards Allah by respecting my household'' and in here lies the order to follow the Qur'aan and that He recommended the nation to respect and follow His Household and as for His saying; ''If you adhere to it than you would never astray after, the Book of Allah (swt) and my Itra (Family)'', it was narrated by Al-Tirmidhi and Ahmad ibn Hanbal said it is weak.

And said so for other hadeeth and His saying ''The Book of Allah and my Sunnah'' has been narrated in a weak hadeeth. 

Footnote: And I did not find where Ahmad said that it is weak in the references I have.

Source: Bayan Talbis Al-Jahmiyyah. Vol. 8. Pg. # 230 - 231.



Who Are The Ahlulbayt (a.s)?


The Verse Of Purification


إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنكُمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَيُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيرًا

'Allah only desires to keep away any uncleanliness from you, O people of the household (Ahlulbayt), and purify you, a thorough purification.' 

Holy Qur'aan {33:33}


When the verse of purification was revealed, it constituted five personalities. Prophet Muhammad (saw), Bibi Faatima (s.a), Imam Alee (a.s), Al‑Hassan (a.s) and Al‑Hussain (a.s). No daughter of Imam Alee (a.s) was permitted to enter under the cloak and nor were any of the wives of the Prophet (saw) (i.e. Umm Salama, A'isha, Hafsah etc.) granted permission. The verse indicates that Allah (swt) Himself specifically honored Ahlulbayt (a.s) and He promised to keep them 'pure, spotless, and sanctified. Allah (swt) had taken it upon Himself to safeguard Ahlulbayt (a.s), to keep them unblemished, untainted, upright, virtuous and chaste. This is the source and basis of Ismah, in that Allah (swt) safeguarded them (a.s) from: a) sin b) religious error and c) forgetfulness. It is of utmost importance to recognise that any narration which conflicts with the verses of the Holy Qur'aan, it is automatically rejected without question.

A Closer Look At The Musnad Of Ahmad Ibn Hanbal

Ahmad ibn Hanbal:

Ibn Taymiyyah while admitting the weakens on the Hadeeth of 'Quran and Sunnah' attempts casts doubts to the Hadeeth of 'Qur'aan and Ahlulbayt (a.s)'. Ahmad ibn Hanbal is famously recorded to have said about his book: "The content of this book has been gathered and chosen by me from more than seven hundred and fifty thousand narrations. So whatever narrations from the Messenger of Allah (saw) that people have disagreement with, refer it to my book so you may find it. And if you did not find it then the narration has no strong value." This saying that has been attested by numerous scholars.

Tahir Al-Dimashqi:

"Musnad Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal although he committed himself to record Saheeh (Authentic) in his book."

Source: Tawjeeh Al-Nazar. Pg. # 154.


 Muhammad ibn Umar Al-Madini:

"He (Ahmad ibn Hanbal), was careful with the chain and the content, hence he only recorded what is authentic according to him."
  
Source: Khasa'is Musnad Ahmad. Pg. # 34 - 35.


Al-Albani:

Hanbal ibn Ishaq said: 'Our uncle (Ahmad) gathered us, me, Saleh and Abdullah. He taught us "Al-Musnad" and nobody else heard it in its complete form except us. And he (i.e. Ahmad Ibn Hanbal) said: "This book is what I compiled and picked from more that seven hundred and fifty thousand Hadeeths, whenever the Muslims argue about a Hadeeth of the Messenger of Allah (saw) you should turn to this book, if you find it in this book then it is true, and if not then it is not true."

(Al-Albani says): 'This is what Al-Hafiz Al-Madini in "Al-Khasa'is" and Ibn Al-Jawzi in "Manaqib Imam Ahmad" have narrated through two chains from Hanbal, so it is firm and Saheeh (Authentic).

Source: Al-Zaab Al-Ahmad. Pg. # 12. 


 

We shall rely on the edition that has been published recently with the supervision and auspices of the scholar and doctor Ahmed Ma'bad Abdul Karim. It is the most popular edition in terms of textual adjustment, and those who were in charge of it, made up many hadeeths found in different editions [and missing in others] by gathering the narrations from all editions including the edition ‘Al-Risala’ with the verification of Shu'ayb Al-Arna'ut.

Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal:

Introduction: Allah (the Exalted) has given us success in collecting this great amount of written copies, and He had mercy upon us so that we fulfilled the text of the Musnad, and correcting the narrations that were lost from all the printed copies, including the edition of Mu'assasat Al-Risala, authorized by Sheikh Shu'ayb Al-Arna'ut and his companions, and under the sponsorship of Dr. Abdullah ibn Abdul-Mohsin Al-Turki, which is the best editions of the Musnad that has come before this edition of ours. And the amount of lost narrations from those editions in one place have come to over one hundred narrations. They are the narrations from 24396 until 24505 from this edition of ours, and its place is on the tenth page of the sixth volume of the Maymaniya edition. Ten narration have also been lost at two other places: The first place in Musnad Abi-Sa'eed Al-Khudri, the narrations from 11245 until 11254, which are on the twelfth page of the third volume of the Maymaniya edition; The second place is in Musnad ibn Abbas, the narrations from 3038 until 3047, which are on the 324th page of the first volume of the Maymaniya edition. These narrations on this last place are among the additions of Al-Qatee'i, and there are other divided and dispersed narrations within the Musnad. Some of them are additional to what are in the previous editions, and some of them are additional in their places although they may exist in other places of the Musnad. This edition of ours have - by the success given from Allah (the Exalted) - become the most complete editions of the Musnad, and we praise Allah (the Exalted) for His success.

Source: Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Introduction Of The Book.



Narrations In regards to 'Qur'aan and Ahlulbayt'


The Messenger of Allah (saw) said; "I am leaving among you the two weighty things and one is the book of Allah (swt), which is an extended rope between the skies and the land or from the skies to the land and my family whom they are my household and they shall never separate until they come back to me at lake-fount (Kawthar)."

Source: Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Pg, # 2307.



The Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "I (my soul) am about to be called for then I would answer and I am leaving among you the two weighty things, the book of Allah (swt) and my family, the book of Allah which is an extended rope from the skies to the land (Earth) and my family whom they are my household and the Most Kind and the Most Knowing informed me that they shall never separate until they return to me at the Basin (Kawthar). So consider (carefully) how you will succeed me in (respecting) both of them (and their rights)."

Source: Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Pg, # 2317.


The Messenger of Allah (saw) said; "I am leaving among you the two weighty things and one is greater than the other, the Book of Allah the Great and Almighty, which is an extended rope from the skies to the land and my family whom they are my household and They shall never separate until they come back to me at lake-fount (Kawthar)." 

Source: Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Pg, # 2339.


The Messenger of Allah (saw) said; "I have left among you something that if you adhere to, you shall never astray, the two weighty things, and one is greater than the other, the Book of Allah (swt) the Great and Almighty, which is an extended rope from the skies to the land, and my family whom they are my household and they shall never separate until they come back to me at lake-fount (Kawthar)."

Source: Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Pg, # 2421/2.


The Messenger of Allah (saw) said; 'I am leaving amongst you two Khalifa's, the Book of Allah (swt), which is an extended rope between the skies and the land (or from the skies to the land) and my Ahlulbayt (a.s) my progeny whom shall shall never separate until they come back to me at the lake-fount (Kawthar).

Source: Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Pg, # 5048.



The Messenger of Allah (saw) said; 'I am leaving amongst you two Khalifah's, the book of Allah (swt) and my household and they shall never separate until they come back to me together at the lake-fount (Kawthar).

Source: Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Pg, # 5065.



In conclusion, we find that the Hadeeth of Al-Thaqalayn is recorded in Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal repeatedly on six separate accounts, whereas the Hadeeth containing, 'The book of Allah (swt) and my Sunnah' is not mentioned even once! Not only does this expose the claim of ibn Taymiyyah  but also it emphasise that the Hadeeth of 'Qur'aan and Sunnah' has no basis whatsoever.

Members Of The Ahlulbayt (a.s)

Muslim ibn Hajjaj:

Narrated Aboo Bakr ibn Abi Shaybah and Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Nomair who said: narrated Muhammad ibn Bishr from Zakaria from Mos'hab ibn Shayba from Safia Bint Shayba that A'isha said: "Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) went out one morning wearing a striped cloak of the black camel's hair that there came Hassan ibn Alee (a.s). He wrapped him under it, then came Al-Hussain (a.s) and he wrapped him under it along with the other one Al-Hassan. Then came Bibi Faatima (s.a) and he took her under it, then came Alee (a.s) and he took him under it too and then said: "Allah only desires to keep away any uncleanliness from you, O people of the household (Ahlulbayt), and purify you, a thorough purification."

Source: Saheeh Muslim. Vol. 2, Pg. # 1136. H. # 61.


Ibn Kathir Al-Dimashqi:

First narration: Narrated ibn Abi Hatam from his father from Soraij ibn Younus Aboo Al-Harith from Muhammad ibn Yazid from Al-Awam (ibn Aushab) from his uncle who said: 'Me and my father went to A'isha and asked her about Imam Alee (a.s), she said: 'You ask me about a man who was the most loved one to the Messenger of Allah (saw)? Imam Alee (a.s) was the husband of his daughter and his daughter was the most loved one to him. I saw the Messenger of Allah (saw) who called Imam Alee (a.s) and Bibi Faatima (s.a) and Al-Hassan (a.s) and Al-Hussain (a.s) and covered them with a clothing and said: "O my Lord, these are my Ahlulbayt (a.s), so keep away any uncleanliness from them, and purify them a thorough purification." A'isha said: I took a corner of that clothing and said: 'O Messenger of Allah (saw)! Am I one of your Ahlulbayt (a.s) too? He said: "Get away! But you are towards goodness."

Second narration: Narrated ibn Jarir from Al-Mothanna from Bikr ibn Yahya ibn Zabban Al-Anazi from Mendal from Al-Ahmash from Atiyya from Abi Sa'eed (Al-Khudri) who said: 'The Messenger of Allah (saw) said, "This verse has been revealed about five people: About me, Imam Alee (a.s), Imam Hassan (a.s), Imam Hussain (a.s) and Bibi Faatima (s.a), "{Allah only desires to keep away any uncleanliness from you, O people of the household (Ahlulbayt), and purify you, a thorough purification}."

And also Fadhil ibn Marzooq has narrated the same from Atiyya from Abi Sa'eed from Umm Al-Salama. And ibn Abi Hatam has narrated through Har'oon ibn Sa'd Al-Ejli from Atiyya from Abi Sa'eed, Allah knows best. 

Third narration: ibn Jarir said: Narrated Ibn Al-Mothanna from Aboo Bakr Al-Hanafi from Bokair ibn Mesmar who said I heard Amer ibn Sa’d saying: Sa’d said: 'When the revelation has been passed to the Messenger of Allah (saw), he took Imam Alee (a.s) and his two sons and Bibi Faatima (s.a) and entered them under a clothing and then said: "O my Lord! These are my Ahlulbayt (a.s)."

Source: Tafsir ibn Kathir. Vol. 6, Pg. # 414.


Ishaq ibn Rahwayh:

Narrated Yahya ibn Adam from Ibn Abi Zahida from his father from Mos'hab ibn Shaybah from Safia Bint Shayba from A'isha who said: "Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) went out one morning wearing a striped cloak of the black camel's hair that there came Al-Hassan Ibn Alee (a.s). He wrapped him under it, then came Al-Hussain (a.s) and he wrapped him under it along with the other one (Hassan). Then came Bibi Faatima (s.a) and he took her under it, then came Imam Alee (a.s) and he took him under it too and then said: "Allah only desires to keep away any uncleanliness from you, O people of the household (Ahlulbayt), and purify you a thorough purification."

Source: Musnad Ishaq ibn Rahwayh. Vol. 3, Pg. # 678. H. # 1271-728.



Al-Tirmidhi:

Narrated Qutayba ibn Sa’eed from Muhammad ibn Sulaiman ibn Al-Asbahani from Yahya ibn Ubayd from Ata ibn Abi Riyah from Umar ibn Abi Salama stepson of the Prophet (saw) reported about this verse: {Allah only desires to keep away any uncleanliness from you, O people of the household (Ahlulbayt), and purify you, a thorough purification}. It was revealed to the Prophet (saw) in the house of Umm Salamah (r.a). So the Prophet (saw) called Bibi Faatimah (s.a), Al-Hassan (a.s) and Al-Hussain (a.s) and covered them with a sheet of cloth, while Imam Alee (a.s) was behind him. So he put the sheet of cloth over him and said, “O Allah, these are my Ahlulbayt (a.s). Remove from them abomination and purify them a complete purifying.” Umm Salamah (r.a) said, "And I am with them, O Messenger of Allah?" He said, "You are in your place and you are on the good."

Al-Albani: It is Saheeh (Authentic).

Source: Saheeh Sunan Al-Tirmidhi. Vol. 3, Pg. # 543, H. # 3787.



Al-Nasa'i:

Narrated Qutayba ibn Sa'eed and Hisham ibn Ammar who said: Narrated to us Hatam from Bokair ibn Mesmar from Amer ibn Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas (from his father) who said: Mu'awiyah ordered Sa'd to himself and said: "What prevents you from abusing Aboo Turab?" (Alee), whereupon he said: "It is because of three things which I remember Allah's Messenger (saw) having said about him that I would not abuse him and even if I find one of those three things for me, it would be more dear to me than the red camels. I heard Allah's Messenger (saw) say about Imam Alee (a.s) as he left behind him in one of his campaigns (Tabuk). Alee (a.s) said to him: 'O Messenger of Allah (saw), you leave me behind along with women and children?' Thereupon Allah's Messenger (saw) said to him (Alee): "Aren't you satisfied with being unto me what Aaroon was unto Moosa but with this exception that there is no Prophet after me?" I (also) heard him say on the Day of Khaibar: "I would certainly give this standard to a person who loves Allah and his Messenger and Allah and his Messenger love him too." He (the narrator) said: We have been anxiously waiting for it, when the Prophet (saw) said: 'Call Alee (a.s) for me.' He was called and his eyes were inflamed. The Messenger of Allah (saw) applied saliva to his eyes and handed over the standard to him, and Allah (swt) gave him victory. And when the (following) verse was revealed, "{Allah only desires to keep away any uncleanliness from you, O people of the household (Ahlulbayt), and purify you, a thorough purification}" Allah's Messenger (saw) called Imam Alee (a.s), Bibi Faatima (s.a), Al-Hassan (a.s) and Al-Hussain (a.s) and said: "O Allah, they are my family."

This narration has been recorded Saheeh (Authentic) by Imam Nasa'i by the condition of Muslim.

Source: Al-Khasa'is. Vol. 9, Pg. # 30 & 37.


Ibn Taymiyyah:

Al-Hassan and Al-Hussain are of the greatest of his Ahlulbayt (a.s) in particular to him, as it is clear in Al-Saheeh that the Messenger of Allah (saw) put his cloak over Imam Alee (a.s), Bibi Faatima (s.a), Al-Hassan (a.s) and Al-Hussain (a.s) and then said:"O Allah, these are my Ahlulbayt (a.s), remove from them abomination and purify them a complete purifying".

Source: Minhaj Al-Sunnah Al-Nabawiyah. Vol. 4, Pg. # 561.


Ahmad ibn Hanbal:

Narrated Muhammad ibn Mos'ab from Al-Auzahi from Shaddad Abi Ammar who said: 'I went to Wathila ibn Al-Asqa and there were some people around him, they talked about Imam Alee (a.s), when they departed he said to me: "Don’t you want me to tell you what I saw from the Messenger of Allah (saw)?" I said: Yes! He said: "I went to Bibi Faatima (s.a) and asked her about Imam Alee (a.s), she said: 'He went to the Messenger of Allah (saw). So I sat down and waited till the Messenger of Allah (saw) came and with him were Imam Alee (a.s) and Al-Hassan and Al-Hussain (a.s), everyone of them holding his hand (saw), he brought Imam Alee (a.s) and Bibi Faatima (s.a) and seated them in front of himself, and seated Al-Hassan and Al-Hussain on his thigh and then covered them with his cloak or clothing and then recited this verse: {Allah only desires to take away any uncleanliness from you, O people of the household (Ahlulbayt), and purify you, a thorough purification} {33:33} O Allah these are my Ahlulbayt and my Ahlulbayt are more deserving.

Footnote: Shu'ayb Al-Arna'ut "The narration is Saheeh (Authentic)"

Source: Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Vol. 28, Pg. # 195. H. # 16988.


Al-Hakim Nishapuri:

Narrated Aboo Bakr Ahmad ibn Salman Al-Faqih and Abul Abbas Muhammad ibn Yaqoob who both said: Narrated Al-Hassan ibn Mokrem Al-Bazzar from Uthman ibn Umar from Abdul Rahman ibn Abdullah ibn Dinar from Shareek ibn Abi Nomair from Ata ibn Yasar from Umm Al-Salama who said: "In my house was revealed {Allah only desires to take away any uncleanliness from you, O people of the household (Ahlulbayt), and purify you a thorough purification} she said: Then the Messenger of Allah (saw) called Alee (a.s) and Faatimah (s.a) and Al-Hassan and Al-Hussain and said: 'These are my Ahl (progeny).'

Al-Hakim: 'This Hadeeth is Saheeh (Authentic) according to the criteria of Al-Bukhari and they have not narrated it. Al-Dhahabi in Al-Talkhees: According to the criteria of Al-Bukhari.

Narrated Abul-Abbas Muhammad ibn Ya’qoob from Al-Rabih ibn Sulaiman Al-Moradi and Bahr ibn Nasr Al-Khawlani both said: narrated to us Bushr ibn Bakr and Al-Auzahi from Aboo Ammar from Wathila ibn Al-Asqa who said: 'I came seeking Imam Alee (a.s) but never found him so Bibi Faatima (s.a) said: "He has gone with the Prophet (saw), sit until they come back". Then he came with the Prophet (saw) and they both entered and I entered with them, then the Prophet (saw) called for Al-Hassan (a.s) and Al-Hussain (a.s) and he made each one sit on a side of his lap and he brought Bibi Faatima (s.a) from her room and her husband and then he surrounded them with a cloak and said: {Allah only desires to keep away any uncleanliness from you, O people of the household (Ahlulbayt), and purify you, a thorough purification} O Allah these are my Ahlulbayt and my Ahlulbayt are more deserving.

Al-Hakim: This hadeeth is Saheeh (Authentic) by the condition of Bukhari and Muslim and they have not narrated it.  Al-Dhahabi: Authentic according to the criteria of Muslim.

Narrated Abul-Abbas Muhammad ibn Ya'qoob from Al-Rabih ibn Sulaiman Al-Moradi and Bahr ibn Nasr Al-Khawlani both said: Narrated Boshr ibn Ahmad Al-Mahbubi in Marw from Sa’eed ibn Masoud from Ubaydullah ibn Moosa from Zakaria ibn Abi Zahida from Mos’ab ibn Shaiba from Safia bint Shaybah who said: Narrated to me A'isha said: "Allah's Apostle (saw) went out one morning wearing a striped cloak of the black camel's hair that there came Al-Hassan (a.s) and Al-Hussain (a.s) and he wrapped them under his cloak. Then came Bibi Faatima (s.a) and she entered  with them, then came Imam Alee (a.s) and he also entered him with them and then said {Allah only desires to take away any uncleanliness from you, O people of the household (Ahlulbayt), and purify you, a thorough purification}.

Al-Hakim: This hadeeth is Saheeh (Authentic) by the condition of Bukhari and Muslim and they have not narrated it.  Al-DhahabiSaheeh (Authentic) according to the criteria of Al-Bukhari and Muslim.

Source: Al-Mustadrak Alaa Al-Sahihain. Vol. 3, Pg. # 158-159. H. # 303 - 305.


Al-Tirmidhi:

Narrated Mahmood ibn Ghailan from Aboo Ahmad Al-Zobairi from Sufyan from Zobaid from Shahr ibn Hawshab from Umm Al-Salamah who narrated: 'The Messenger of Allah (saw) covered Al-Hassan (a.s), Al-Hussain (a.s), Bibi Faatimah (s.a) and Imam Alee (a.s) with his cloak and then said: “O Lord! These are my Ahlulbayt (a.s) and my chosen ones. Keep away any uncleanliness from them, and purify them, a thorough purification”. Umm Al-Salamah (s.a) said: “I asked the Prophet (saw), ‘O Messenger of Allah! Am I among them?’ He replied, ‘You are into goodness (but not among them)."

Footnote: Al-Tirmidhi "This is the best thing narrated in this section. Aboo Isa Al-Tirmidhi said: This hadeeth is Hasan Saheeh (Authentic)". Al-Albani: Saheeh (Authentic).

Source: Saheeh Sunan Al-Tirmidhi. Vol. 3, Pg. # 570. H. # 3871.


Ahmad ibn Hanbal:

Narrated Abdullah ibn Nomair from Abdul Malik ibn Abi Sulaiman from Ata ibn Abi Ribah from those who heard Umm Al-Salama that the Messenger of Allah (saw) was in her house and Faatimah (s.a) came to her with food in a pot of stone which she had prepared. She entered upon the Prophet (saw) with it. The Messenger of Allah (saw) told her: "Call your husband and your two sons", Umm Salamah (r.a) said: 'Then Imam Alee (a.s) and Al-Hussain (a.s) and Al-Hassan (a.s) entered upon him, they sat down and ate from that food (made of flour, dates and meat). The Prophet (saw) was in his pyjamas covered with his cloak of Khaibar and I was praying in the other room. Then Allah (swt) revealed this verse:  {Allah only desires to keep away any uncleanliness from you, O people of the household (Ahlulbayt), and purify you a thorough purification}.

Then he surrounded them with his cloak and brought out his hand towards the sky and said: “O Lord! These are my Ahlulbayt (a.s) and my chosen ones. Keep away any uncleanliness from them, and purify them a thorough purification. O Lord! These are my Ahlulbayt (a.s) and my chosen ones. Keep away any uncleanliness from them, and purify them, a thorough purification”. Umm Al-Salama (r.a) said: then I entered my head into the room and asked: "O Messenger of Allah (saw) am I also with you?" He replied: “ You are toward a good ending, you are toward a good ending.”

Abdul Malik said: narrated to me Aboo Laili from Umm Al-Salama another narration like the narration of Ata. Abdulmalik also said: narrated to me Dawood ibn Abi Auf Abi Al-Jihaf from Hawshab from Umm Al-Salamah like this in another narration.

Footnote: Shu'ayb Al-Arna'ut "The Hadeeth is Saheeh (Authentic)".

Source: Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Vol. 44, Pg. # 118-119.  H. # 26508.



Ibn Hajar Al-Haythami:

Narrated Abi Jamilah: When Imam Alee (a.s) was killed, Hassan ibn Alee (a.s) succeeded him, (as he 'Alee' was leading people on prayers, a man bounced unto him and stabbed him on the thigh with a dagger). Over that he was ill for months, then he gave a sermon and said: "O people of Iraq! Fear Allah (swt) about us, because we are your leaders and your guests, and we are that Household (Ahlulbayt) who Allah Almighty said about them: {Allah only desires to take away any uncleanliness from you, O people of the household (Ahlulbayt), and purify you, a thorough purification} [33:33], his speech on that day affected the people so much that you couldn’t find anyone unless that he was crying.  

Footnote: Al-Haythami Narrated by Al-Tabarani, and it’s narrators are 'Thiqah' (Trustworthy).

Source: 
Majma Al-Zawa'id. Vol. 9, Pg. # 195. H. # 15010.



Shi'ee Hadeeth On Following Qur'aan And Ahlulbayt (a.s)


Sheikh Ahmed Al-Mahoozi:

Sheikh Sadooq (r.a) said Ahmed ibn Ziyad ibn Ja'far Al-Hamdani narrated from Alee ibn Ibraheem narrated from his father from Muhammad ibn Abi Umayr from Qayath ibn Ibraheem from Al-Sadiq Ja'far ibn Muhammad (a.s) from his father Muhammad ibn Alee from his father Alee ibn Al-Hussain (a.s) from his father Al-Hussain (a.s) said: Amir al-Momineen Alee (a.s) was asked about the saying of the Prophet (saw): "I am leaving among you the two weighty things, the book of Allah and my family." He was asked who are the family? He replied: "Me, Al-Hassan, Al-Hussain and the nine imams from the progeny of Imam Hussain (a.s) the ninth one is the Mahdi and the Qa'im they do not separate the book of Allah neither is it separate from them until they meet the Prophet (saw) at lake-fount (Kawthar)."

Footnote: Ma'ani Al-Akhbar and its chain is Saheeh (Authentic) and its narrators are trustworthy and the trusted faqih Al-Fadhl b. Shathan narrated it in Kitab Al-Raja'a from Abi Umayr (r.a) and Al-Hurr Al-Aamili in Ithbat Al-Hudah as well as Sheikh Al-Sadooq with a chain from Ja'far ibn Muhammad Umara from Al-Saddiq (a.s) from his fathers (a.s).

Source: Hadeeth Al-Thaqalain Wa' Maqamat Ahlulbayt. Pg. # 120.


Sheikh Al-Sadooq:

Ahmad ibn Zayd ibn Ja'far al Hamdani narrated from, Alee ibn Ibraheem ibn Hashim narrated from his father, from Muhammad ibn Abi Umayr, narrated from Ghayath ibn Ibraheem, from Ja'far ibn Muhammad (a.s) from his father Muhammad ibn Alee (a.s) from his father Alee ibn Al-Hussain (a.s) from his father Al-Hussain (a.s) said: Amir al-Momineen (a.s) was asked of the saying of the Prophet (saw): "I am leaving among you the book of Allah and my family." So he (a.s) said, "Me and Hassan and Hussain and the nine Imams from Hussain their ninth is their Qa'im and Mahdi (ajf) they do not separate from the book of Allah nor does it separate from them until they go back to the Prophet (saw) to the Pool."

Note: The chain is the same Saheeh (Authentic) chain as the previous one.

Source: Uyun Akhbar Ar-Ridha. Vol. 1, Pg. # 60, H. # 25.


Sheikh Al-Kulayni:

Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Isa from Al-Hassan ibn Mahbub from Ishaq ibn Ghalib who has said the following: “Aboo 'Abd Allah (a.s) describing the condition of A'immah, and their attributes in one of his sermons has said, ‘Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, has explained His religion through A’immah of (true) guidance from the family of our Prophet, recipient of divine supreme covenant, the Ahlulbayt (a.s) and has cleared through them the path of His system and plan. He has opened through them the inside of the springs of His knowledge. Whoever of the followers of Muhammad (saw) has recognised his obligation toward the rights of his Imam he has realised the taste of the sweetness of his belief and the superior beauty of his Islam. It is because Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, has appointed the Imam as a torchbearer for His creatures and authority over those who receive His blessings in His world. He has crowned him with dignity and has encompassed him in the light of His Omnipotence that extends for him a means to the heavens. He does not discontinue His blessings for him. None of the things with Allah is achieved except through its right means. Allah does not accept the good deeds of His servants without their recognition of the Imam.

The Imam, knows how to sort out the dark confusing matters and things that may obscure the Sunnah and the confounding matters in mischievous conditions. Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, has always chosen A’immah from the descendants of Al-Hussain, one after the other Imam. He would select and choose them for the leadership of His creatures delightfully and well satisfied with them. Whenever one Imam would leave this world He would appoint for His creatures his successor as a clear beacon and a shining guide, a guarding leader, and a knowledgeable one with Divine Authority. 

A’immah from Allah guide people with the truth and with the truth they judge. They are Allah’s authority calling people to Him, and shepherds of His creatures. With their guidance people follow the religion and from them the land receive light. Through their holiness the bounties increase. Allah has made them life for the people and the torches in the darkness, the keys to communication and the strongholds for Islam. Thus, have the measures of Allah continued in them toward His final decision.

“The Imam, is the outstanding amicable one; the most trusted guide and the guardian who can make hopes come true. Allah has chosen him with such distinctions. He selected him as such (well protected) in the realm when all things were in the form of particles in the instant that He made him. He chose him as such (well-protected) in the realm in which all things were designed as He had designed him as a shadow, before He made the organisms, on the right side of His throne, gifted him with wisdom in the unseen knowledge with Him. He chose him in His knowledge and granted him outstanding nobility for his purity.

“He (i.e. the Imam) is a heir of Adam, the best one among the descendents of Noah, the chosen one of the family of Ibraheem, a descendant of Isma'eel and of the most preferred ones in the family of Prophet Muhammad, recipient of divine supreme covenant. He has always been looked after by the watchful eyes of Allah Who provides him security and guards him with His shield, well protected against the evil nets of Satan and his armies. He is well defended against the approaching dark nights and the false accusations of the evil-doers. All wickedness is kept away from him and he is kept safe against all forms of defects and flaws. He is veiled against all scourges. “He is infallible in matters of sins. He is kept safe and sound against all indecencies. He is well known for his forbearance and virtuousness in the early days of his life. Chastity, great knowledge and excellence are ascribed to him toward the end of his life. The task of Imamat (Leadership with Divine Authority) of his father rests with him while in the lifetime of his father he remains silent. 

“When the time of the Imamat of his father ends it is the time when the measure of Allah ends up with him due to His wish. The will of Allah brings him to His love, thus, the end of the Imamat of his father comes and he passes away. The Authority from Allah shifts to him after his father. He then is made the person in charge of His religion, the Divine Authority over His servants, the guardian over His lands, he is supported with His spirit and is given of His knowledge. He raises him as a beacon for His creatures, makes him to have His Authority over the people of his world and as the light for the people of His religion and a guardian for His servants. Allah agrees to have him as Imam of the people, entrusts him with His secret, makes him a safe keeper of His knowledge and hides His wisdom in him. He protects him for His religion, calls upon him to serve His great task, and revives through him the phases of His system (of religion) and the obligations in His laws.

“The Imam then enforces justice - when the people of ignorance are confused and the disputing and quarrelling people are frustrated with shining light, the beneficial cure and radiant truth. He does so with clear explanations of all aspects and exactly in the manner and practise his truthful father and forefathers would do before him. No one ignores the rights of such a scholar except the wicked ones. No one refuses and denies him except those who have strayed away from the right path. No one keeps away from him except those who are aggressive against Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High.”

Grading: Al-Majlisi II said this hadeeth is Saheeh (Authentic) IN Mir’aat Al-`Uqool, Vol. 2, Pg. # 400.

Source: Al-Kafi. Vol. 1, H. 1. Pg. # 120 - 121. H. # 2.


Sheikh Al-Kulayni:

Narrated Alee ibn Ibraheem from his father from Himad ibn Isa from Ibraheem ibn Umar Al-Yamani from Sulaym ibn Qays Al-Hilali from Imam Alee (a.s) who said: “Verily Allah (swt) has purified us and (made) us infallible, and made us witnesses upon his creations, and his proof on his earth, and made us with the Qur’aan, and made the Qur’aan with us. We shall not separate from it (The Qur’aan) nor shall it (the Qur’aan) separate from us.”

Grading: Al-Majlisi II said hadeeth is Hasan (Good). Mir’aat Al-`Uqool. Vol. 2, Pg. # 343.

Source: Al-Kafi. Vol. 1, Pg. # 112. H. # 2.


Sheikh Kulayni:

Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Al-Barqi from Aboo Talib from Sadir who has said the following: “Once I asked Aboo ‘Abd Allah, recipient of divine supreme covenant, ‘A certain group of people believes that you (A'immah) are Gods. They read to us from the the Holy Qur'aan about it such as, “And it is He Who in heaven is the Lord and on Earth is the Lord.” (43:84) The Imam (a.s) said, ‘O Sadir, my hearing, my sight, my skin, my flesh, my blood and my hair all disdain such people, and Allah also disdains them. They do not follow my religion and the religion of my ancestors. I swear by Allah, Allah will not place me with them on the Day of Resurrection. The only thing from Allah to them will be His anger.’ I (the narrator) then said, ‘Among us there is a group of people who believe that you are messengers and they read to us from the Holy Qur'aan: “O messengers, eat of the good things and do righteousness; surely I know the things you do.”’ (23:51) “The Imam (a.s) said, ‘O Sadir, my hearing, my sight, my skin, my flesh, my blood and my hair all disdain such people, and Allah and His Messenger also disdain them. They do not follow my religion and the religion of my ancestors. By Allah, Allah will not place me with them on the Day of Judgment. The only thing from Allah toward them will be His anger.’ “I (the narrator) then asked, ‘What are you then?’ The Imam said, ‘We are the treasures of the knowledge of Allah. We are the translators of the commands of Allah. We are infallible people. Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, has commanded people to obey us and prohibited them from disobeying us. We are well advocated Divine Authority over all that is below the heavens and above the earth.’”

Grading: Al-Majlisi said hadeeth is Hasan (Good). Mir’aat Al-`Uqool, Vol. 3, Pg. # 159.

Source: Al-Kafi. Vol. 1, Pg. #  269 – 270.



Are The Wives Of The Prophet (saw) Included In The Ahlulbayt (a.s)?


The Arabic term 'Ahlulbayt' is multi-faceted. The question we aim to decipher is whether the wives are part of it. There are reports that sought to suggest wives are included in the Ahlulbayt, but when tracing the source of the reports one can find numerous inconsistencies between them. 

Some of these reports have been narrated on the authority of Ikrimah ibn Aboo Jahl the Kharji. In one narration he said, "The verse of purification was revealed about the Prophet (saw) alone!" While on another occasion, he includes the wives of the Prophet (saw)?! Ata ibn Yassar has narrated similar narrations to Ikrimah where he sought to include the wives as part of the Ahlulbayt, but this chain has defects due to the narrator Abdur Rahman ibn Abdullah ibn Dinaar who has been severely criticized by scholars of Hadeeth. Sa'eed ibn Jubair has also narrated a Hadeeth which has several defects to the chain of narration. 

Lastly, Wathila b. Al-Asqa has narrated a rather more interesting narration in which he supposedly entered under the cloak himself! Not only does this contradict other authentic narrations that state only five entered the cloak, but is it not rather ironic that on one hand there are those who attempt to justify why the wives did not enter the cloak by saying it was because of Imam Alee (a.s) being non-Mahram (although Ikrimah included the wives) and on the other, we have a companion shamelessley wanting to enter in the presence of Sayeda Faatima (s.a)! 

Indeed, as with Wathila b. Al-Asqa, we already see early attempts by various factions to incorporate themselves in with the Ahlulbayt (a.s). As with such cases, would it be so difficult to believe that the wives would not do the same?

Given the unique honour the Ahlulbayt (a.s) are bestowed with, it is understandable why charlatans of all stripes would desire to be incorporated with them. This is precisely why it is so crucial to for us to undo all such innovations and return to the original definition of who the Ahlulbayt (a.s) actually are.


Abd Rahman Darimi:

Ja'far ibn Awn narrated from Aboo Hayyan narrated from Yazid ibn Hayyan narrated Zayd ibn Arqam, he said ; ''The Messenger of Allah rose between us to give a speech at a certain day then He magnified the Grace of Allah and praised Him then He said; ''Oh people, I am a human being and the Messenger of my Lord [the angel responsible of taking the soul back to His Lord] is about to come to me and I would answer him [His soul will answer the call of Her lord to go back to Him] and I am leaving among you the two weighty things, the first of Them is the Book of Allah (swt) which has guidance and enlightenment therefore adhere firmly to the Book of Allah (swt) and take it as your leader'' therefore he urged us to stick to it and incited our desires to adhere to it then he said; '' And my household, I remind you to obey Allah by obeying my household [he said it three times]''

Footnote: Narration is Saheeh 'Authentic'


Source: Sunan Al Darimi. Vol.4, Pg. 2090 - 2091. H. # 3359. 



Abd ibn Humayd:

Ja'far ibn Awn informed us, me Aboo Hayyan At-Tamimi, from Yazid ibn Hayyan, he said, I heard Zaid b. Arqam saying: The messenger of Allah (saw) stood up and glorified Allah (swt) and then he said, 'O Mankind, I am a mortal, it could be that a messenger of death may visit me soon and I will have to submit, and I have left behind two weighty things. The first one is the Book of Allah (swt), in it there is guidance and light and so hold fast to the Book of Allah (swt) and follow it." He continued to insist on holding firm with the Book of Allah (swt) and persuaded people to do so, and then he said, "And (hold fast) with my family members, I remind you Allah in my family members, I remind you Allah in my family members." He said this three times!" Then Imran ibn Hussain said, 'O Zaid, who are his family members? Is not his wives his family members?' He said, 'Yes! Surely his wives are among his family members, but those family members whom he mentioned are those on whom sadaqah was made haram (forbidden) to!' He said, 'And then who are they?' He said, 'Family of Alee, family of Ja'far, family of Aqeel and family of Abbas.' He said, all these, are Sadaqa haram for them?' He said, 'Yes!'

Footnote: It is also mentioned by Imam Muslim in his Saheeh, Chapter: The merits of Sahabas, the merits of Alee; Pg. # 1874 and Imam Ahmad in his Musnad, Vol. 4, Pg. # 368.

Note:
 Zaid ibn Arqam has included Aqeel, Ja'far and Abbas into the Ahlulbayt (a.s). While this verse of purification was only revealed about five blessed individuals. This is mere conjecture from Zaid ibn Arqam which has no value. It is in conflict with eye witnesses who testified this verse was only revealed for Muhammad (saw), Faatima (s.a), Hassan (a.s) and Hussain (a.s). But more importantly, Zaid ibn Arqam highlights Sadaqah (charity) was haram upon the Ahlulbayt (a.s). This fact is also agreed upon in numerous other sources and would therefore automatically exclude any wives of the Prophet (saw) and even their slaves who were not permitted to receive any.

Source: Musnad Abd ibn Humayd. Vol. 1, Pg. # 225, H. # 265.



Muslim ibn Hajjaj:

Yazid b. Hayyan reported: I went along with Hussain b. Sabra and 'Umar b. Muslim to Zaid b. Arqam and, as we sat by his side, Hussain said to him: 'Zaid, you have been able to acquire a great virtue that you saw Allah's Messenger (saw) listened to his talk, fought by his side in (different) battles and offered prayer behind him. Zaid, you have in fact earned a great virtue. Zaid, narrate to us what you heard from Allah's Messenger.' He said: "I have grown old and have almost spent my age and I have forgotten some of the things which I remembered in connection with Allah's Messenger, so accept whatever I narrate to you, and which I do not narrate do not compel me to do that." He then said: "One day Allah's Messenger stood up to deliver a sermon at a watering place known as Khum situated between Makkah and Madinah. He praised Allah, extolled Him and delivered the sermon and exhorted (us) and said: 'Now to our purpose. O people! I am a human being. I am about to receive a messenger (the angel of death) from my Lord and I, in response to Allah's call, (would bid good-bye to you), but I am leaving among you two weighty things (Thaqalayn): The one being the Book of Allah in which there is right guidance and light, so hold fast to the Book of Allah and adhere to it. He exhorted (us) (to hold fast) to the Book of Allah' and then said: 'The second is my Ahlulbayt. I remind you (of your duties) to my Ahlulbayt.' He (Hussain) said to Zaid: 'Who are his Ahlulbayt? Aren't his wives his Ahlulbayt?' Thereupon he said: 'His wives are the members of his family (but here) the Ahlulbayt are those for whom acceptance of Zakat is forbidden.' And he said: 'Who are they?' Thereupon he said: 'Alee and the offspring of Alee, Aqil and the offspring of Aqil and the offspring of Ja'far and the offspring of Abbas.' Hussain said: 'These are those for whom the acceptance of Zakat is forbidden?' Zaid said: Yes!"

Yazid b. Hayyan reported: We went to him (Zaid b. Arqam) and said to him. "You have found goodness (for you had the honour) to live in the company of Allah's Messenger (saw) and offered prayer behind him, and the rest of the hadeeth is the same but with this variation of wording that he said: 'Behold, for I am leaving amongst you two weighty things, one of which is the Book of Allah, the Exalted and Glorious, and that is the rope of Allah. He who holds it fast would be on right guidance and he who abandons it would be in error, and in this (hadeeth) these words are also found: We said: 'Who are his Ahlulbayt? Aren't the wives (of the Holy Prophet) included amongst his Ahlulbayt? 'Thereupon he said: "No, by Allah, a woman lives with a man (as his wife) for a certain period, he then divorces her and she goes back to her parents and to her people. Ahlulbayt include his own self and his kith and kin (who are related to him by blood) and for him the acceptance of Zakat is prohibited."

Note: Muslim Ibn al-Hajjaj comments Hadeeth is Saheeh (Authentic).

Source: Saheeh Muslim. Pg. # 980 - 981. H. # 36.


Mahmud Al-Alusi:

Prophet of Allah (saw) said: 'The book of Allah (swt) is an extended rope and my progeny Itrat Ahlulbayt (a.s) and they will not separate until they return to me at the Pond (of Kawthar in paradise)."

Note: Mahdmud Al-Alusi comments: "It is indeed known that the pure ladies (wives of the Prophet) are not included in this Ahlulbayt (a.s)."

Source: Ruh Al-Ma'ani fi Tafsir Al-Qur'aan. Vol. 22, Pg. # 16. 


Ibn Hajar:

This word house 'Albayt' has a different meaning to it because the 'Ahlulbayt' of the progeny of the Holy Prophet (saw) came from Bibi Khadijah (s.a) which proves the explanation of the verse, 'And stay in your houses and do not display your finery like the displaying of the ignorance of yore; and keep up prayer, and pay the poor-rate, and obey Allah and His Apostle. Allah only desires to keep away the uncleanness from you, O people of the House! And to purify you a (thorough) purifying' (33.33) Umm Salama narrates this verse and it was revealed about the Prophet (saw), Alee (a.s), Faatimah (a.s), Hassan (a.s) and Hussain (a.s), and he (saw) placed them under the cloak and said, "O Allah (swt)! These are my Ahlulbayt (a.s)." This has been recorded in the Saheeh Collection. These four members of Ahlulbayt are from Bibi Khadijah (s.a). As for Alee (a.s) he grew up in the house of Khadijah (s.a) and later on he married her (s.a) daughter, Fatimah (s.a) thus it is made evident The Prophet's (saw) household are the progeny from Khadijah (s.a) and not from any of the others."

Note: As previously mentioned in the above narrations the 'Ahlulbayt' included Imam Alee (a.s), Abbas (r.a), Aqeel (r.a)  and thus the off spring of Ja'far (r.a). However, these are not from the household of Khadijah (s.a), neither did they grow up in her (s.a) house. Thus ibn Hajar contradicted himself by making such a statement to try to explain the meaning of Ahlulbayt. However, he accepts the fact that this verse was only revealed about 5 individuals (peace be upon them all) and from Bibi Khadijah (s.a) came the Progeny of the Prophet (saw).

Source: Fath Al Bari. Vol. 7, Pg. # 169.



Perfection Of Islam


The day of Arafat holds great significance to Muslims, since this is the day when Allah (swt) completed his revelation to the last and final messenger (saw). It is reported in the two Saheeh's (i.e. Bukhari and Muslim):

Muhammad ibn Ismail:

Narrated Tariq ibn Shihab: A Jew said to Umar, "O Chief of the Believers, if this verse: 'This day I have perfected your religion for you, completed My favour upon you, and have chosen for you, Islam as your religion.' {5.3} had been revealed upon us, we would have taken that day as an `Id (festival) day." Umar said, "I know definitely on what day this verse was revealed; it was revealed on the day of Arafat, on a Friday."

Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. # 1792, H. # 7268.



This is the day on which Allah (swt) completed His Religion and perfected His Favour. It was on this very day that the Prophet (saw) performed his last pilgrimage, and while he (saw) was standing on Mount Arafat, Allah (swt) revealed the following verse:

الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الإِسْلاَمَ دِينًا


“This day I have perfected your religion for you, completed my favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion!”

Holy Qur'aan {5:3}

Proclamation On Arafat

Al Albani:

Narrated by Jabir ibn Abdullah: "I saw Allah's Messenger when performing the hajj seated on his she camel Al-Qaswa on the day of Arafah giving an address, and I heard him saying, "O people, I have left among you something of such a nature that if you adhere to it you will not go astray: Allah's Book and my close relatives, my Ahlulbayt (a.s)."

Narrated by Zaid b. Arqam: Allah's Messenger said, "I am leaving among you something of such a nature that if you lay hold of it you will not go astray after I am gone, one part of it being more important than the other: Allah's Book, a rope stretched from Heaven to Earth, and my close relatives, my Ahlulbayt (a.s). These two will not separate from one another till they come down to the reservoir, so consider how you act regarding them after my departure."

Note: Al-Albani comments about both Hadeeth as being Saheeh (Authentic). 

Source: Saheeh Sunan Al-Tirmidhi. Vol. 3, Pg. # 543 - 544, H. # 3786 - 3788. 





Al -Tirmidhi:

Jabir ibn Abdullah said, "I saw the Prophet (saw) during his pilgrimage as was on his camel speaking, so I heard him say, "I left you that you must abide by that you will never go astray, the book of Allah (swt) and my Ahlulbayt (a.s)."

Footnote: Narration is Saheeh (Authentic) according to other narrations, the chain of this narration however is weak, because of Zayd Ibn Al-Hasan he is Qurashi and Al-Anmati.

(Shoaib Al-Arnaut continues to add in the commentary of this narration.)

Al-Sindi in the explanation of, 'My Ahlulbayt:' It was as if the Prophet (saw) made them equal in importance to his position. Just as in his (pbuh) life, it was him and the Qu'raan after his death. It was his family and the Qu'raan. But it means that we must abide by their love and position, not abiding to their orders and actions.

Al-Sindi, while admitting the Ahlulbayt (a.s) hold the very same association as the Holy Qur'aan does to the Prophet (saw) shockingly adds, "It means that we must abide by their love and position, not abiding to their orders and actions." Huh? Can any impartial party reading what he says here consider his exegesis anything other than preposterous? 

How can anything be on equal footing with the Prophet (saw) and the Qur’aan and then not be followed in action? What is the point of the Holy Qur’aan if one is not to follow it? What is the point of the Prophet (saw) if one is not to follow him? Do we adhere to the Qur’aan and the Sunnah of the Prophet (saw) on any abstraction other than that of obedience?  

More is the problem of inconsistency. If such is indeed the case, then why did the companions come to A'isha (who is considered Ahlulbayt in the Sunni faith) and enquire how to perform the ghusl of Junub to the extent that she actually physically illustrated it? Indeed, A'isha is considered a paramount source of knowledge and emulation, given by how her traditions dominate the 'Saheeh Sitah.' 

These inconsistencies demonstrate something rather frightening and that is as to what great lengths the Sunni Ulema will go to justify their exegesis against the Ahlulbayt (a.s). Let this be a stern reminder of why the Shi'ee perpetually harp on why the “love of the Ahlulbayt” within the Sunnis lacks any genuine spirit.

Source: Jamia Tirmidhi Sunan Al -Tirmidhi. Vol. 6, Pg. # 335.



Worthy of mentioning at this point is that this narration through Ja'far ibn Muhammad from his father from Jabir Ibn Abdullah it has also been narrated by narrators other than Zayd ibn Al-Hassan Al-Anmati from Ja'far ibn Muhammad from his father from Jabir iIbn Abdullah, just in case if someone may weaken this narration because of Al-Anmati, an extra witness for that chain is the following chain for this narration. 

Al-Rafi'i Al-Qazweeni:

narrated his grandson Abul Hussain Ahmad ibn Muhammad Ahmad ibn Maymoon from him (i.e. Ahmad Muhammad iMaymoon) and from Muhammad ibn Al-Hajjaj both of them said: narrated Muhammad ibn Mihran from Hatam ibn Ismaeel from Ja'far ibn Muhammad from his father from Jabir that the Allah's Messenger when performing the hajj seated on his she camel Al-Qaswa on the day of Arafah, saying, "O people, I have left among you something of such a nature that if you adhere to it you will not go astray: Allah's Book and my close relatives, my Ahlulbayt (a.s)."

Source: Al-Tadween Fi Akhbar Al-Qazween. Vol.2, Pg. # 266.



Muhammad ibn Ahmad Azhari:


"Narrated Shariq ibn Rukayn from al-Qassim Ibn Hassan from Zayd Ibn Thabit who said; the Prophet said "One day, surely, I have left behind among you two weighty things; the Book of Allah and my progeny, they both will never depart from each other until they return to me at the pond [of Kawthar]"
 
Footnote: Muhammad Ibn Ishaq said, this Hadeeth is reliable and Saheeh 'authentic' and he also attributed it to Zayd Ibn al-Arqam and Aboo Sa'eed al-Khudri in which the statement "Surely, I have left two weighty things, the Book of Allah and my Progeny which are my Ahlulbayt".

Source: Tahdhib Al Lughah. Vol.2, Pg. # 264.


Al-Tabarani:
  
Narrated Zaid b. Arqam said The Messenger of Allah (saw) said: ''I am leaving amongst you the two onuses; The book of Allah (swt) and my Family whom they are my Household (a.s), and they shall never separate until they come to me at lake-font.''

Footnote: Narration is Saheeh (Authentic) according to criteria of Bukhari and Muslim.

Narrated Zaid b. Arqam the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: ''I am leaving amongst you the two onuses, the book of Allah (swt) and my Family (Peace be upon them) whom they are my Household, and they shall never separate till they reach me at lake-font (Kawthar).'

Source:  Al-Mu'jam Al-Kabir. Vol. 5, Pg. # 169 - 170, H # 4980 - 4981.


Ahmad ibn Hanbal:

Zaid ibn Thabit he said: The Prophet (saw) said, "I am leaving you two things to follow, the book of Allah (swt) which is a rope which extends between the skies and the earth, and my progeny  Ahlulbayt (a.s) and they will not separate until they return to me at the Pond of Kawthar in paradise." 

Footnote: Ahmad Shakir "This Hadeeth is Hasan (Reliable)".

Source: Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Vol. 16, Pg. # 28, H # 21470.     

                                  
Ahmad ibn Hanbal:

Zaid ibn Thabit he said: The Prophet (saw) said, "I am leaving you two things to follow the book of Allah (swt) which is a rope which extend between the skies and the earth, and my progeny Ahlulbayt (a.s) and they will not separate until they return to me at the Pond (of Kawthar in paradise)." 

Footnote: This Hadeeth is Hasan (Reliable).

Source: Fada'il Al-Sahaba. Vol. 2, Pg. # 603, H # 1032 - 1403.


Muttaqi Al-Hindi:

Narrated Alee ibn Abi Talib that the Prophet (saw) said: "I have left among you something that if you abide by it you would never astray, the book of Allah, one side of it in the hand of Allah and another side in your hands and my Ahlulbayt (Progeny).

Muttaqi: it is narrated by ibn Jarir and he has authenticated it.

Source: Kanz-ul-Ummal. Vol. 1, Pg. # 379 - 380.


Ibn Sa'ad:

Narrated Aboo Sa'id Al-Khudri, the Prophet (saw) said: "I am about to be called for (by the angel of death) and I would answer and I am leaving amongst you the two onuses, the book of Allah (swt) and my progeny (peace and blessing be upon them). The book of Allah (swt) which is a rope extended from the skies to Earth (land) and my family whom they are my household, and the Most Kind and the Most Knowing (Allah) informed me they shall never separate until they return to me at lake-fount (of Kawthar), so consider (carefully) how you will succeed me in (respecting) both of Them (and Their rights)."

Source: Kitab Al-Kabir. Vol. 2, Pg. # 174.



The Requirement for Allah (swt) Khalifah On Earth


إِنِّي جَاعِلٌ فِي الأَرْضِ خَلِيفَةً 

 "Indeed, I will make upon the Earth a successive authority." 

 Holy Qur'aan {2:30}


The universe is in need of personalities who are able to administer the affairs of Allah (swt). A position that can only be designated by Allah (swt) as He was the first to establish this rule. We learn from history of previous Prophets such as Moosa (a.s) whom selected seventy men and took them with him to Mount Sinai. But all of them, on examination, proved worthless because their faith was not firm. If those selected by Moosa (a.s) proved to be unbelievers at heart, it is obvious that common people would be less competent to choose able rulers for themselves. It is quite possible that those selected for their apparent piety may eventually turn out to be unbelievers. The obedience to such rulers would weaken religion and contradict the Prophetic teachings. Thus a vizier of Allah (swt) must be perfect in terms of knowledge, wisdom and understanding. Allah (swt) had appointed his vizier Adam (a.s) to teach His angels and the rest of creation.



وَعَلَّمَ آدَمَ الأَسْمَاء كُلَّهَا ثُمَّ عَرَضَهُمْ عَلَى الْمَلاَئِكَةِ فَقَالَ أَنبِئُونِي بِأَسْمَاء هَؤُلاء إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ قَالُواْ سُبْحَانَكَ لاَ عِلْمَ لَنَا إِلاَّ مَا عَلَّمْتَنَا إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْعَلِيمُ الْحَكِيمُ قَالَ يَا آدَمُ أَنبِئْهُم بِأَسْمَآئِهِمْ فَلَمَّا أَنبَأَهُمْ بِأَسْمَآئِهِمْ قَالَ أَلَمْ أَقُل لَّكُمْ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ غَيْبَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ وَأَعْلَمُ مَا تُبْدُونَ وَمَا كُنتُمْ تَكْتُمُونَ

And He taught Adam all the names and then presented them to the angels; then He said: Tell me the names of those if you are right. They said: Glory be to thee! We have no knowledge but that which thou has taught us; surely Thou art the Knowing, the Wise. He said: O Adam! Inform them of their names. Then, when he had informed them of their names, He said: Did I say to you that I surely know what is ghayb (unseen) in the Heavens and the Earth and (that) I Know what you manifest and what you hide. 

Holy Qur'aan {2:31-33}

Prophet Muhammad (saw) referred to the Qu'raan and Ahlulbayt (a.s) as the 'Two Khalifah's' who would take his place after his (saw) demise and thus restricted his Khilafah to them alone. This established Khilafah, placed side by side, would continue unbroken until the day of Judgement. 

Al-Haythami:

Zaid ibn Thabit from the Prophet of Allah (saw) he said: "I left you two things to follow, what is most important to me is the Khalifatayn. The book of Allah (swt) and my progeny Ahlulbayt (a.s) and they will not separate until they return to me at the pond (of Kawthar in paradise)."

Footnote: The Narrators are Jayyid (Good).

Source: Majma Al-Zawa'id. Vol. 9, Pg. # 256, H # 14957.


Al-Suyuti:

Prophet of Allah (swt) he said: "I left you two things to follow. What is most important to me is the Khalifatayn. The book of Allah (swt) and my Ahlulbayt (a.s) and they will not separate until they return to me at the Pond (of Kawthar in paradise)."

Footnote: Al-Albani comments both Hadeeth as being Saheeh (Authentic). 

Source: Jamia Al-Sageer. Vol. 1, Pg. # 482, H # 2457 - 2456.


Ibn Abi Hasim:

Narrated Zaid ibn Thabit: Allah’s Apostle (saw) said: “I will leave among you THE two Khalifahs after me: The Book of Allah and my Itrah (Ahlulbayt). Both shall never separate until they meet me at the 'lake-fount.”
 
Source: Zilal Al-Jannah. Vol. 2, Pg. # 643. H. # 1049.   


Ahmad ibn Hanbal:

Zayd ibn Thabit said: "The Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "I am leaving among you two successors, the book of Allah (swt) and my Ahlulbayt (a.s), and they will not separate from each other until they enter upon me together on the fount-lake".

Footnote: Shu'ayb Al-Arna'ut says: This narration is Saheeh 'Authectic' with its witnesses (i.e. other narrations that support it), with the exception of the last part: "And they will not separate from each other until they enter upon me together on the fount-lake".

Source: Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal 
(Published in 1995) Vol. 35, Pg. 512. H. # 21654.


Shu'ayb Al-Arna'ut authenticates the complete narration including the last sentence later in his works.

Al Tirmidhi:

Alee ibn Munzir al Kufi narrated from Muhammad ibn Fudayl narrated from, Al­' A`mash narrated from `Atiyyah from Aboo Sa`id and Al­'A`mash  narrated Habib ibn Abi Thabit narrated Zayd ibn Arqam, they both said; the Messenger of Allah said; '' I am leaving among you [two things] that if you adhere to it then you should never astray after [my death], and one is greater than the other, the Book of Allah, which is an extended rope from the Sky to the Land and my Family whom they are my Household and both of Them will never separate till they come back to me at lake-font, therefore be careful about how you would succeed about them".

Al-Tirmidhi: this is Hasan 'Reliable' in this form

Footnote: the narration through Zayd Ibn Arqam it is Saheeh 'authentic' and was also recorded by Muslim  (2408), al Nasa'i in 'al Kubra' (8148)& (8175) & (8464), also found in 'al Musnad' (19265) &(19313) and 'Saheeh ibn Hibban' (123). As for the hadeeth through Aboo Sa'eed it is Saheeh 'authentic' according to its other witnesses, (even though)its chain is weak and it is found in al Musnad (11104).

Source: Jamia Tirmidhi Sunan Al -Tirmidhi(Published 2009) Vol. 6. Pg. 337. H. # 4122.





يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَأُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنْكُمْ فَإِنْ تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ
وَالرَّسُولِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآَخِرِ ذَلِكَ خَيْرٌ وَأَحْسَنُ تَأْوِيلًا 

O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger, and those of you who are in authority. If you differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger, if you believe in Allah and in the Last Day. That is better and more suitable for final determination 

Holy Qur'aan {4:59}     

                            
The obedience that has been ordered in the Holy Qur’aan,"Obey Allah and obey the Messenger" is without any condition or restriction, in other words it is total unconditional surrender. It proves that the Messenger (saw) himself cannot issue any order or prohibition contrary to Allah's (swt) actual order or prohibition. Otherwise, making his obedience compulsory would be a contradiction in terms on the part of Allah (swt) in which He revealed in another verse of the Holy Qur’aan, "Do not obey a sinner" (76.24). The verse (4.59) does not give any condition on what the Prophet (saw) should be obeyed on. Such connotations would have lead every individual to question every action of the Prophet (saw) on whether it be from Allah (swt) or himself (saw). Thus, it is necessary that the Messenger (saw) be ma'soom (infallible) in order to be obeyed in everything that he does. 


Al-Bukhari:

Chapter: The courtiers and advisers of the Imam

Narrated Aboo Sa’id Al-Khudri: The Prophet said, “Allah never sends a prophet or gives the Caliphate to a Caliph but that he (the prophet or the Caliph) has two groups of advisors: A group advising him to do good and exhorts him to do it, and the other group advising him to do evil and exhorts him to do it. But the protected person (against such evil advisors) is the one protected by Allah.’ “

Source: Saheeh Bukhari. Pg. 1779 - 1780. H. # 7198.



Ibn Hajar:

“And what is meant by it, is to prove that Allah (swt)  is the controller over all things, so He makes infallible whom He wants from them”. So the Infallible is the one who is made infallible by Allah (swt) and not by himself, because there isn’t anyone whose self (nafs) makes him Infallible, except if Allah has made him infallible.”

Source: Fatah al Bari. Vol. 17 Pg. # 32.




Allamah Badruddin al-Aini:

“The difference between the infallibility of believers (Mominin) and the infallibility of prophets is that the Prophet’s infallibility is by the way of necessity and of other’s is by the way of possibility”.

Source: Umada tul Qari Sharah Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 23 Pg. # 239.




Likewise, Allah (swt) has joined the Messenger (saw) and 'those vested with authority' in this very order and mentions both under one injunction; "Obey the Messenger and those vested with authority from among you." If it were possible for those in authority to be incorrect in an order or a judgment, it would have been essential to put suitable conditions on this order as far as the Ul 'il Amar were concerned. The only way out is to interpret this verse in its general sense without any condition or restriction. This in turn, proves that the Ul 'il Amar were ma'soom (sinless) in the same way as the Messenger (saw), without any dissimilarity. This is also supported from numerous authentic narrations that have reached us today from the Ahlulbayt (a.s).

The followers of the Ahlulbayt (a.s) believe the Ul 'il Amar are those very personalities whom the Prophet (saw) ordered us to follow. They are the twelve rightful successors of the Prophet (saw), the 12 Imams (a.s). The Prophet (saw) said: "The Islamic religion will continue until the Hour (day of resurrection), having twelve Khalifahs for you, all of them will be from Quraish.'

Muslim ibn Hajjaj:

Narrated Jabir bin Samurah: I heard the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him saying: “The affairs of the people will continue to be conducted as long as twelve men are their rulers”. Then the Prophet, peace be upon him, said words which were obscure to me. I asked my father: “What did the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him say?” He said: “All of them (the twelve men) will be from the Quraysh”.

Narrated Amir bin Sa'd b. AbI Waqqas: I wrote (a letter) to Jabir bin Samurah and sent it to him through my servant Nafi', asking him to inform me of something he had heard from the Messenger of AllAh, peace be upon him. He wrote to me (in reply): I heard the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, saying on a Friday evening, the day on which al-AslamI was stoned to death (for committing adultery): “The religion will continue to stand until the Hour has been established, or there have been over you twelve Khalifahs, all of them being from the Quraysh”.

Source: Saheeh Muslim. Pg. 882. H. # 5 - 6.






Ahmad ibn Hanbal:

Narrated Masruq: We were sitting with ‘Abd Allah bin Mas’ud and he was reciting the Qur’aan to us. Then a man said to him: “O Aboo ‘Abd al-Rahman! Did you (Sahabah) ask Apostle (saw), the number of Khaifahs that will rule this Ummah?” ‘Abd Allah bin Mas’ood replied: “None before you has ever asked me concerning this since I arrived in Iraq. Verily, we asked Allah’s Apostle, peace be upon him, and he said: ‘Twelve, like the captains of Banu Israil.”

Footnote: Shuaib Al-Arnaut has said: Its chain is weak because of Mujalid, and Ibn Hajar has weakened him in Al-Taqreeb, despite that the chain is Hasan 'Good' chain, and its other narrators are trustworthy of the narrators of Bukhari and Muslim.

Source: Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Vol. 4. Pg. 321. H. 3781.


However, the opponents disagree with the teachings of the Prophet (saw) in regards to who the 'Ul 'il Amar' are, and thus have placed them in the following two groups:

1) Political Leaders i.e. The Head of State.

2) The Scholars of the religion.


Following The Rightly Guided Khalifah's

Al-Albani:

Yahya ibn Aboo Muta' said: I heard 'Irbad ibn Sariyah say: 'One day, the Messenger of Allah (saw) stood up among us and delivered a deeply moving speech to us that melted our hearts and caused our eyes to overflow with tears. It was said to him: 'O Messenger of Allah, you have delivered a speech of farewell, so enjoin something upon us.' He said: 'I urge you to fear Allah, and to listen and obey, even if (your leader) is an Abyssinian slave. After I am gone, you will see great conflict. I urge you to adhere to my Sunnah and the path of the Al-Rashideen Al-Mahdiyeen  and cling stubbornly to it. And beware of newly-invented matters 'Bidahs', for every innovation is a going astray.'"

Footnote: Narration is Saheeh (Authentic) according to the criteria of Al-Albani.

Source: Saheeh Sunan ibn Majah. Vol. 1, Pg. # 31 - 32, H. # 40.



Ibn Rajab Baghdadi:

"In this, the Prophet (saw) ordered that in case of disputes, to adhere to his Sunnah and the Sunnah of the rightly guided Khalifahs after him. The Sunnah is the path (traditions) followed and it includes his rightly guided Khalfiahs beliefs and acts and sayings. And this is the complete Sunnah. And with his order to follow his Sunnah and the Sunnah of the Khalifahs after him, and to obey those vested in authority proves that the Sunnah of the rightly guided Khalfiahs and to follow them would be like following the Sunnah of the Prophet (saw)."

Source: Jamia Al-Uloom Wal Hikmah. Vol. 2, Pg. # 120 - 121.


Therefore, by following the rightly guided Khalifah, one is in fact following the Prophet (saw). In regards to the actions of the Prophet (saw), Allah (swt) says the following: 


 مَا ضَلَّ صَـحِبُكُمْ وَمَا غَوَى


Your companion has neither gone astray nor has he erred

Holy Qur'aan {53:2}


Ibn Qayyim:

(Commentary to the above verse): “Which prevents the following of the right path and deception which prevents correct guidance. And within this prevention (from misguidance), is a witness to his following the straight path and being rightly guided. As following the straight path is proven by his knowledge, and being rightly guided is proven by his correct actions. And these two sources of divine guidance are the goal of perfection for the believers and his true happiness and success. And by them has the Prophet (saw) described his Khalifahs’ names.

Source: Al-Tibyan Fi Emaan Al-Qur'aan. Pg. # 364.


Now, exactly the same applies with the companions of Prophet (saw). They were blessed with the benefit of the greatest of teachers. However, this does not automatically indicate that the knowledge which they possessed of the Qur'aan and Sunnah was on an equal level. Similar to the above mentioned examples, there existed those of low intellect, average intellect and those that excelled above others. Let us cite the example of the usurpers who benefited for years of sitting in the company of Prophet (saw). Did these years automatically render them as intellectual geniuses on account of this exposure? Clearly not, for we read of his utter ignorance on many issues.



Ibn Qayyim:


Chapter: Aboo Bakr Did Not Take Heed:

This is Sadiq (Aboo Bakr) the most knowledgeable of this Ummah, yet he had no knowledge about inheritance of a grandmother until Muhammad ibn Salamah and Mughira ibn Shu'ba told him. Also he (Aboo Bakr) didn't know that martyrs didn't get any compensation.


Source: Ilam Al-Muwaqin an Rabb Al-Alamin. Vol. 4, Pg. # 19.








  
Chapter: Umar Did not Take Heed:

Umar had no knowledge of Tayammum. He would not pray for a month until he had a bath. He also had no knowledge of Diyyat Al-Asabi (Compensation for cutting ones finger), he believed it to be 25 camels until Amru ibn Hazim told him the Prophet (saw) said it was 10 camels. So Umar abandoned his idea and followed what was said to him. Also he had no knowledge about that he had to ask permission (to enter a house despite it being in the Qur'aan 24.28) until Aboo Musa and Aboo Sa'eed Al-Khudri told him. And he had no knowledge that a women inherits a share of her husband's inheritance until Al-Dahahak ibn Sufyan Al-Qalbi told him and he was a bedouin living in the wild. Dahahak ibn Sufyan informed him (Umar) that the wife of Ashim Al-Dababi should get a share of her husbands wealth. And he (Umar) had no knowledge about Imlas ( (i.e., a woman who has an abortion because of having been beaten on her abdomen) until he was asked about it and Mughira ibn Shu'ba informed him concerning that. He (Umar) had no knowledge about the rulings on the Zoroastrians being in the Islamic state until Abdur Rahman bin Awf informed him that the Prophet (saw) took Jizya (tax levied on a section of an Islamic state's non-Muslim citizens) from the Zoroastrians of Hajar. And he (Umar) didn't know that menstruating women didn't have to do Tawaf Al-Wida (Farewell Tawaf) for he used to send them back until they were clean and then they would proceed (continue in Hajj) until he was told that the Prophet (saw) was not against that (woman performing Tawaf Al Wida), so he followed the information given to him. He also had no knowledge of Diyyat Al-Asabi  [equal ransom for any finger cut and no favoring of any finger to another] ---and he used to favor some finger's ransom over other fingers' ransom, until they [companions] told him about the sunnah which was Taswiyah [equality in ransom for any finger]--- so he returned back to it.  Also he (Umar) didn't know about Mutah Al-Hajj, and he forbid it until he was told by the people the Prophet (saw) ordered it, so he left what he said and ordered to do it also. And he had no knowledge about calling Prophets names (to children) so he forbid it until they told him about it. The Prophet (saw) title was Aba Muhammad yet Umar didn't allow people (to name their children after Prophets) while the most known companions had names like Aboo Musa, Muhammad ibn Masalamah and Aboo Ayyub. But it didn't come to his mind that it was already happening (people had names of previous Prophets) so he forbid it. He also didn't know that Allah (swt) said in the Qur'aan, "Indeed, you are to die and indeed they are to die {39.30} and his saying "Muhammad is not but a messenger, and others messengers have passed on before him. So if he was to die or be killed, would you turn back on your heels? {3.144}. He (Umar) said, "By Allah (swt) it seems like I have never heard of these verse until today!" He (Umar) had no knowledge that a individual could have a higher dowry then the Prophet (saw) or his daughters until a lady told him about Allah (swt) saying in the Qur'aan, "But if you want to replace one wife with another and you have given one of them a great amount (Dowry), do not take (back) from it anything" {4.20}. So it was said, "Everybody has more knowledge than Umar even women!" Just like he didn't know the case of grandparents and Al-Kilala and some points about taking interest, so he wished that the Prophet (saw) showed an evidence about it. Also he had no knowledge at the treaty of Hudaybiyyah. That Allah (swt) had promised his Prophet (saw) and his companions entering Makkah, he had no knowledge of this until the Prophet (saw) pointed this out to him. Also he (Umar) he didn't know that it is allowed for the Muhrim [the one in hajj who did Ihraam] to keep the perfume and putting perfume after the Nahr [slaughtering the lambs which is one Hajj ritual] and before the Tawaf [turning around Kaa'ba] of Ifada [moving away from Kaaba to perform other rituals] and the sunnah was so.  Also he (Umar) didn't know what to do when plague occurred and he ordered to run away (from places that had the plague), until he was told the Prophet (saw) said, "If you hear it being in a land, do not enter it, and if it occurs in a land where you are then do not leave it" (to avoid the plague for that spreads elsewhere). Without doubt, this is the most knowledgeable person after Al-Sadiq (Aboo Bakr). Just like ibn Masud said, "If the knowledge of Umar was put on a scale and that of all the people of the world on the the other side of that scale, Umar's side would win." Al-Amash said, "I told this statement to Ibraheem Al-Naghi, so he said, "By Allah (swt)! I find Umar a gold of 19 (ounces of knowledge)."


Source: Ilam Al-Muwaqin an Rabb Al-Alamin. Vol. 4, Pg. # 21 - 26.



 
 

Chapter: Uthman ibn Affan Didn't Take Heed


And Uthman ibn Affan didn't know the minimum time of 'Al Haml' (pregnancy) until ibn Abbas mentioned the saying of Allah (swt), "And We have enjoined upon man, to his parents, good treatment. His mother carried him with hardship and gave birth to him with hardship, and his gestation and weaning [period] is thirty months" {46.15} and "Mothers may breastfeed their children two complete years for whoever wishes to complete the nursing [period]" { 2.223}. So he went back to this (injunction)

Source: Ilam Al-Muwaqin an Rabb Al-Alamin. Vol. 4, Pg. # 27.



Muhammad Al-Munawi:

Narrated Umar: "Had Alee (a.s) not been there, I (Umar) would have perished. I seek refuge of Allah (swt) if I live with people and Aboo Al-Hassan (Imam Alee) is not amongst them."

Footnote: Narration is Saheeh (Authentic) according to Al-Hakim and Al-Dhahabi approved it.

Source: Fayd Al-Qadir Sharh Al-Jami Al-Saghir. Vol. 4, Pg. # 358.


Al-Hakim Nishapuri:

The Prophet (saw) said to Alee (a.s): "You explain to my Ummah after me what they differ about."

Footnote: Narration is Saheeh (Authentic) according to the rules of the Sheikhayn (Bukhari and Muslim) but they didn't record it.

Source: Al-Mustadrak ala As-Sahihain. Vol. 3, Pg. # 132, H. # 218 / 4621.




Al-Hakim Nishapuri:

I heard the Prophet (saw) saying: "Alee is with the Qur'aan and the Qur'aan is with Alee (a.s) they will not separate till they come back to me at lake font."

Footnote: Hadeeth is Saheeh (Authentic) and Aboo Sa'idi Al-Tamimi is reliable and trustworthy but the Sheikhayn (Bukhari and Muslim) did not record it.


Source: Al-Mustadrak alaa As-Sahihain. Vol. 3, Pg. # 134, H. #  226 / 4628.



Imam Alee (a.s) on the other hand was the most intellectually gifted companion of the Prophet (saw). He reaped maximum benefit from Prophet (saw) company thus acquiring comprehensive knowledge of the Qur'aan and Sunnah. He understood the full depths of all subject areas such as the inner and outer meanings of the Qur'aan. Imam Alee (a.s) did not just limit his understanding on matters spoken publicly, he was also pro-active in that he (a.s) approached the Prophet (saw) to go further into depth on subject matters. We are not at all saying this was secret knowledge, this was knowledge which was taught to all, but expounded to Alee (a.s) as it was commensurate to his intellect. That is why it was Imam Alee (a.s) who was the pansophy of knowledge that he says “Ask me Ask me…..” 

It is clear from the Holy Qur'aan that Allah (swt) does not hold everyone on the same ranking. It is only from knowledge, virtue, piety and many other good traits that Allah (swt) rates people to certain degrees, and it is without a shadow of doubt that Imam Alee (a.s) possessed all of these to the highest degree.




Were The 'Rightly Guided Khalifah's' Obeyed?

Ibn Qayyim:

'The violations of Umar against Aboo Bakr are widely known, and don’t require mention. As he went against him on the matters of captures of apostates whom Aboo Bakr captured, but Umar did not. And the violation went so far that he freed the apostates to their families.'

Source: A'lam Ul-Muwaqqi'een 'an Rabb il A'lameen. Vol. 3, Pg. # 530.



Aboo Bakr treated the captives as slaves and apostates, yet Umar disagreed. Now the Muslim's must obey those in authority and adhere to the Sunnah of the rightly guided Khalifah's who do not innovate. These rightly guided Khalifahs disagreed with each other and Umar evidently did not agree to follow the orders of Aboo Bakr. Indeed, if Aboo Bakr had been acknowledged as a Khalifah of his era, then Umar was required to obey him unless he was sinning. From this, we can only conclude that Umar himself did not believe Aboo Bakr was rightly guided. 



Leaders Of Innovation And Hell Fire



Muhmmad ibn Ismail:

Narrated Hudhaifa ibn Al-Yaman: The people used to ask Allah's Messenger (saw) about the good but I used to ask him about the evil lest I should be overtaken by them. So I said, "O Allah's Messenger (saw) We were living in ignorance and in an (extremely) worst atmosphere, then Allah brought to us this good (i.e. Islam); will there be any evil after this good?" He said, "Yes." I said, 'Will there be any good after that evil?" He replied, "Yes, but it will be tainted (not pure).'' I asked, "What will be its taint?" He (saw) replied, "(There will be) some people who will guide others not according to my tradition. You will approve of some of their deeds and disapprove of some others." I asked, "Will there be any evil after that good?" He replied, "Yes, (there will be) some people calling at the gates of the (Hell) Fire, and whoever will respond to their call, will be thrown by them into the (Hell) Fire." I said, "O Allah s Apostle! Will you describe them to us?" He said, "They will be from our own people and will speak our language." I said, "What do you order me to do if such a state should take place in my life?" He said, "Stick to the group of Muslims and their Imam (ruler)." I said, "If there is neither a group of Muslims nor an Imam (ruler)?" He said, "Then turn away from all those sects even if you were to bite (eat) the roots of a tree till death overtakes you while you are in that state."

Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. # 1753 , H. # 7081.




Muslim ibn Hajjaj:

It his been narrated through a different chain of transmitters, on the authority of Hudhaifa b. Al-Yaman who said: "Messenger of Allah, no doubt, we had an evil time (i. e. the days of Jahiliyya or ignorance) and God brought us a good time (i. e. Islamic period) through which we are now living. Will there be a bad time after this good time?" He (the Holy Prophet) said: "Yes." I said: "Will there be a good time after this bad time?" He said: "Yes." I said: "Will there be a bad time after good time?" He said: "Yes." I said: "How?" Whereupon he said: "There will be leaders who will not lead by my guidance and who will not adopt my ways. There will be among them men who will have the hearts of devils in the bodies of human beings." I said: "What should I do Messenger of Allah, if I (happen) to live in that time?" He replied: "You will listen to the Amir and carry out his orders; even if your back is flogged and your wealth is snatched, you should listen and obey."

Source: Saheeh Muslim. Pg. # 772, H. # 1847.



The Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) warned the Ummah against Amir's (leaders) who would rule after him. These leaders would attract others towards them while their hearts would be of the devil. In these narrations, the Muslims are reinstated to adhere to the Jama’ah.' But the question arises as to whether the 'Jama'ah' has any connection with having the majority of followers? Is it in actual fact that this bears no significance, for even if a single person on the Earth follows the pure teachings of Islam, then he/she can be called an Ummah (nation).


إِنَّ إِبْرَاهِيمَ كَانَ أُمَّةً قَانِتًا لِلَّهِ حَنِيفًا وَلَمْ يَكُ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ 

Surely Ibraheem was an Ummah, obedient to Allah, upright, and he was not of the polytheists.

Holy Qur'aan {16.120}

Prophet Ibraheem (a.s) was a single person, yet he alone, due to his outstanding obedience, was referred to as an 'Ummah.' Hence, the 'Jama’ah' can also include any number of individuals even if it be as little as one, this depending on whether the individual(s) is/are from amongst those who follow nothing but the truth. The majority is never the proof of truth, but the proof of truth is truth itself, and the claim is dependent upon proofs. There exists not a single verse in the Holy Qur'aan which favours the majority.




كَيْفَ وَإِن يَظْهَرُوا عَلَيْكُمْ لاَ يَرْقُبُواْ فِيكُمْ إِلاًّ وَلاَ ذِمَّةً يُرْضُونَكُم بِأَفْوَهِهِمْ وَتَأْبَى قُلُوبُهُمْ وَأَكْثَرُهُمْ فَـسِقُونَ 

How (can it be)! while if they prevail against you, they would not pay regard in your case to ties of relationship, nor those of covenant; they please you with their mouths while their hearts do not consent; and most of them are transgressors

Holy Qur'aan {9.8}


 

أَلا إِنَّ للَّهِ مَا فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ أَلاَ إِنَّ وَعْدَ اللَّهِ حَقٌّ وَلَـكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ

Now surely Allah's is what is in the heavens and the earth; now surely Allah's promise is true, but most of them do not know

Holy Qur'aan {10.55}


وَلَئِن سَأَلْتَهُمْ مَّن نَّزَّلَ مِنَ السَّمَآءِ مَآءً فَأَحْيَا بِهِ الاٌّرْضَ مِن بَعْدِ مَوْتِهَا لَيَقُولُنَّ اللَّهُ قُلِ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ بَلْ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لاَ يَعْقِلُونَ

 And if you were to ask them: "Who sends down water from the sky, and gives life therewith to the earth after its death'' They will surely reply: "Allah.'' Say: "All the praises and thanks be to Allah!'' Nay, most of them have no sense.

Holy Qur'aan {29:63}


يَعْمَلُونَ لَهُ مَا يَشَآءُ مِن مَّحَـرِيبَ وَتَمَـثِيلَ وَجِفَانٍ كَالْجَوَابِ وَقُدُورٍ رَسِيَـتٍ اعْمَلُواْ ءَالَ دَاوُودَ شُكْراً وَقَلِيلٌ مِّنْ عِبَادِىَ الشَّكُورُ

 They made for him what he pleased of fortresses and images, and
bowls (large) as watering-troughs and cooking-pots that will not move from their
place; give thanks, O family of Dawood! And very few of My servants are
grateful.

Holy Qur'aan {34:13}

It is clearly not enough for one to have complete conviction and satisfaction in following the truth by merely adhering to the majority of followers. The believers will always be few in number, and basing ones belief on a person’s claim is insufficient to prove it to be correct. Therefore, every claim needs proof and every proof is subject to a measure of evaluation.

It is only but the Holy Qur'aan and the Ahlulbayt (a.s) who are the scale of distinguishing between truth and falsehood. It is rather interesting to read what Al-Albani had to say about the 'Jama'ah.'

Al-Albani:

Footnote: This meaning was taken from the statement of ibn Mas’ud: "The Jama’ah is whatever agrees with the truth even if it is only you that follow it." ibn Asakir recorded it in Tarikh Dimashq (13/322/2) with a Saheeh (Authentic) chain from him. 

Source: Mishkat Ul-Masabih. Vol. 1, Pg. # 61. 




Are The Majority Following The Truth?

Al-Hakim Nishapuri: 

Narrated ‘Awf ibn Malik reported Allah’s Apostle (saw): “My Ummah will divide into a little above 70 sects. Its majority will be a group that do Qiyas (guess work) in the (religious) matters with their personal opinions, and therefore make haram what is halal, and make halal what is haram.

Footnote: This hadeeth is Saheeh (Authentic) on the conditions of the two Sheikhs although they did not narrate it. 

Source: Al-Mustadrak Alaa Al-Sahihain. Vol. 4, Pg. # 134, H. # 222.


Al-Haythami:

Narrated ‘Awf ibn Malik: The Prophet (saw) said: “My Ummah will divide into a little above 70, and its majority will be a fitnah (calamity) over my Ummah. There will be a group doing qiyas (guess work) in the (religious) matters with their personal opinions, and thereby making halal what is haram and making haram what is halal.”

Footnote: Al-Tabarani recorded it in Al-Kabir. Al-Bazaar too recorded it. Its narrators are narrators of the Saheeh (Authentic).

Source: Majma Al-Zawa'id. Vol. 1, Pg. # 243, H. # 841.



Qiyas (conjecture) is one of the sources of Ijtihad according to the so-called 'Ahl ul-Sunnah Wa Al-Jama’ah.' The Khalifah's who are divinely guided (Al-Mahdiyin) and are rightly guided (Al-Rashidin) would lead others to Islam and would never contradict the Sunnah of the Prophet (saw). Hence, their Sunnah is also the Prophets (saw) Sunnah. Since the Ahlulbayt (a.s) have been equated with the Prophet’s Sunnah, meaning that all their actions, omissions, thoughts and sayings are the Sunnah, it makes perfect logical sense to conclude that they understand the Sunnah better then anyone else.

Mankind had been warned against leaders who would introduce new innovations in to religion. These individuals were those who hijacked the Islamic leadership, invented and followed bid’ahs and were obviously neither divinely nor rightly guided. 


وَمَن يَعْصِ اللّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَيَتَعَدَّ حُدُودَهُ يُدْخِلْهُ نَارًا خَالِدًا فِيهَا وَلَهُ عَذَابٌ مُّهِينٌ 

And whosoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger (Muhammad SAW), and transgresses His limits, He will cast him into the Fire, to abide therein; and he shall have a disgraceful torment.

Holy Qur'aan {4:14}



Introduction Of Bid'ahs



BID'AH ONE: DISTRIBUTION OF KHUMS

Innovation of Aboo Bakr

Jubayr ibn Mut’im narrated that he and Uthman ibn Affan went to the Messenger of Allah to complain about his method of distributing Khums, only between Banu Hashim and Banu Abdul Mutalib. I (Jubayr) said: “O Messenger of Allah, why do you give from the Khums to Banu Hashim and Banu Abdul Mutalib and you give us nothing while we are equal with them in being related to you?” The Messenger of Allah replied “Only the Banu Hashim and Banu Abdul Mutalib are equal in relationship with me!” Jubayr said: He never gave any share of the Khums to Banu Abd Shams and Banu Nawfil as he did to Banu Hashim and Banu Abdul Mutalib. Aboo bakr used to distribute Khums in this manner too, except that he did not give the close relatives of the Messenger of Allah what the Messenger of Allah used to give to them. Umar and Uthman used to give him some of it however.

Footnote: Al-Albani has attested the narration as Saheeh (Authentic).

Source: Saheeh Sunan Aboo Dawood. Vol. 2, Pg. # 576.




BID’AH TWO: TARAWIH 

Innovation of Umar ibn Al-Khattab

Muslim ibn Hajjaj:

Zaid b. Thabit reported: The Messenger of Allah (saw) made an apartment with the help of the leaves of date trees or of mats. The Messenger of Allah (saw) went out to pray in it. People followed him and came to pray with him. Then they again came one night and waited (for him), but the Messenger of Allah (saw) delayed in coming out to them. And when he did not come out, they cried aloud and threw pebbles at the door. The Messenger of Allah (saw) came out in anger and said to them: "By what you have been constantly doing, I was inclined to think that it (prayer) might not become obligatory for you. So you must observe prayer (optional) in your houses, for the prayer observed by a man in the house is better except an obligatory prayer!" Zaid b. Thabit reported that the Apostle of Allah (saw) made an apartment in the mosque of mats, and he observed in it prayers for many nights till people began to gather around him, and the rest of the hadeeth is the same but with this addition: " Had this (Nafl) prayer become obligatory for you, you would not be able to observe it."

Source: Saheeh Muslim. Pg. # 353, H. 213 - 214. 




The above hadith clearly displays how Prophet (saw) came out in a state of anger and stopped those who desired to attend optional prayers in congregation. Prophet (saw) stated that optional prayer must be prayed at home and not in congregation whilst it was highly recommended to do so with obligatory prayer. Prophet (saw) did not want any hardship for his ummah and thus was afraid people would make it obligatory and hence stopped it there and then. The sad thing to note is what then happened after his (saw) demise? Umar ibn Khattab voices his opinion and introduces the congregational prayer although the Prophet (saw) forbade it. The question to ask is, are we supposed to be following Prophet (saw) instructions, or others who directly oppose a matter which the Prophet (saw) dealt with during his lifetime?

Muhammad ibn Ismail:

Abdur Rahman ibn'Abdul Qari said, "I went out in the company of Umar ibn Khattab one night in Ramadan to the mosque and found the people praying in different groups (performing night prayers), a man praying alone or a man praying with a little group behind him. So Umar said, 'In my opinion I would better collect these (people) under the leadership of one Qari (Reciter) (i.e. let them pray in congregation!)' So he made up his mind to congregate them behind Ubai ibn Ka'b. Then on another night I went again in his company and the people were praying behind their reciter. On that, Umar remarked, 'What an excellent Bid'ah (i.e. innovation in religion) this is, but the prayer which they do not perform, but sleep at its time is better than the one they are offering.' He meant the prayer in the last part of the night. (In those days) people used to pray in the early part of the night."

Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. # 482, H. # 2010.



Abdul Razzaq:

‘Mujahid reported that a man came to Abdullah ibn Umar and asked: 'Shall I pray during Ramadhan behind an Imam?' He said: 'Can you recite the Qur'aan?' He answered: ‘Yes.’ Upon this he said: 'Then why do you want to stand quietly like a donkey, go and pray at your home.'


Source: Musannaf  Abdul Razzaq. Vol. 4, Pg. # 264, H. # 7742.


BID’AH THREE: PROHIBITION OF TAMATTU

Innovation of Umar ibn Al-Khattab

Al-Albani:

It was narrated that ibn Abbas said: "I heard Umar say, "By Allah, I forbid you to perform Tamattu, even though Allah (swt) has revealed it in his book and the Messenger of Allah (saw) have performed it!" i.e. forbid from performing the Umrah with Hajj.

Footnote: Al-Albani: its chain is Saheeh (Authentic).

Source: Saheeh Sunan Al-Nasa'i. Vol. 2, Pg. # 268. H. # 2735.




Al-Albani:

Salim ibn Abdullah narrated that he had heard a man from Ash-Sham asking Abdullah Ibn Umar about Tamattu after Umrah until Hajj, so Abdullah ibn Umar (son of Umar ibn Khattab) said: "It is lawful." The man from Ash-Sham said: "But your father prohibited it." So Abdullah ibn Umar said: "Is the order to follow my father or is the order (to follow) the Messenger of Allah?" The man said: "Rather it is for the Messenger of Allah." So he said: "Indeed the Messenger of Allah did it."

Footnote: Al-Albani: Narration is Saheeh (Authentic).

Source: Saheeh Al-Tirmidhi. Pg. # 201, H. # 824.



BID’AH FOUR: PROHIBITION TO PERFORM TAYAMMUM FOR JANABAH

Innovation of Abdullah ibn Mas'ud and Umar ibn Khattab

Umar ibn Al-Khattab issued a fatwa forbidding the men in a state of Janabah from performing prayers. Janabah could be the result of sexual intercourse, wet dream or some other involuntary seminal discharge. When the notable companion, Ammar ibn Yassir (r.a) reminded Umar of the Prophet’s (saw) instruction, Umar warned him to fear Allah (swt). This bid'ah of Umar caused controversy among the companions with some of them following it whilst others rejecting. Umar was either ignorant of the Prophetic teachings or he purposely opposed the divine words of Allah (swt)!



وَإِن كُنتُم مَّرْضَى أَوْ عَلَى سَفَرٍ أَوْ جَاء أَحَدٌ مِّنكُم مِّن الْغَآئِطِ أَوْ لاَمَسْتُمُ النِّسَاء فَلَمْ تَجِدُواْ مَاء فَتَيَمَّمُواْ صَعِيدًا طَيِّبًا فَامْسَحُواْ بِوُجُوهِكُمْ وَأَيْدِيكُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَفُوًّا غَفُورًا



And if you are ill, or on a journey, or one of you comes after answering the call of nature, or you have been in sexual intercourse with women (i.e. in Janabah) and you find no water, perform tayammum with clean earth and rub therewith your faces and hands. Truly, Allah is Ever Oft-Pardoning, Oft-Forgiving.

Holy Qu'raan (4.43)


Muslim ibn Hajjaj:

Shaqiq reported: I was sitting in the company of Abdullah and Aboo Moosa when Aboo Moosa said: 'Abd Al-Rahman (kunya of 'Abdullah b. Mas'ud), what would you like a man to do about the prayer if he experiences a seminal emission or has sexual intercourse but does not find water for a month? Abdullah said: He should not perform tayammum even if he does not find water for a month. 'Abdullah said: Then what about the verse in Surah Ma'ida:" If you do not find water, betake yourself to clean dust"? 'Abdullah said: If they were granted concession on the basis of this verse, there is a possibility that they would perform tayammum with dust on finding water very cold for themselves. Aboo Moosa said to Abdullah: You have not heard the words of 'Ammar: The Messenger of Allah (saw) sent me on an errand and I had a seminal emission, but could find no water, and rolled myself in dust just as a beast rolls itself. I came to the Messenger of Allah (saw) then and made a mention of that to him and he (the Holy Prophet) said: It would have been enough for you to do this. Then he struck the ground with his hands once and wiped his right hand with the help of his left hand and the exterior of his palms and his face. 'Abdullah said: Didn't you see that Umar was not fully satisfied with the words of 'Ammar statement?

Narrated ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Abza from his father: A man came to 'Umar and said: “I am in a state of Janabah but find no water.” He ('Umar) said, “Do not perform Salah.” 'Ammar then said, “Do you remember, Commander of the faithful, when I and you were in a military detachment and we were in a state of Janabah and did not find water and you did not perform Salah. But as for myself I rolled in dust and performed Salāh, and the Prophet (saw), said, ‘It was enough for you to strike the ground with your hands and then blow and then wipe your face and palms.’” ‘Umar said: “O Ammar, fear Allah!” He (‘Ammar) said: “If you so like, I would not narrate it."

Source: Saheeh Muslim. Pg. # 173, H. 110 - 112.



BID’AH FIVE: DIVORCE WITH NO WAITING PERIOD

Innovation of Umar ibn Al-Khattab

Divorce is subject to certain conditions, specific rules and ethical principles. Giving divorce is only possible whilst the woman in not on her menstrual cycle. According to numerous Prophetic traditions, in case a man divorces his wife while she is menstruating, the divorce will be invalidated until the consummation of her waiting period.


وَإِذَا طَلَّقْتُمُ النِّسَاءَ فَبَلَغْنَ أَجَلَهُنَّ فَأَمْسِكُوهُنَّ بِمَعْرُوفٍ أَوْ سَرِّحُوهُنَّ بِمَعْرُوفٍ ۚ

And when you have divorced women AND THEY HAVE FULFILLED THE TERM OF THEIR PRESCRIBED PERIOD, either take them back on reasonable basis or set them free on reasonable basis.

Holy Qur'aan { 2.231}


The man may still re-divorce her, but obviously the same rule applies. She must observe another waiting period before they can re-marry, but there is a limit:



الطَّلَاقُ مَرَّتَانِ ۖ فَإِمْسَاكٌ بِمَعْرُوفٍ أَوْ تَسْرِيحٌ بِإِحْسَانٍ ۗ وَلَا يَحِلُّ لَكُمْ أَن تَأْخُذُوا مِمَّا آتَيْتُمُوهُنَّ شَيْئًا إِلَّا أَن يَخَافَا أَلَّا يُقِيمَا حُدُودَ اللَّهِ ۖ فَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ أَلَّا يُقِيمَا حُدُودَ اللَّهِ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْهِمَا فِيمَا افْتَدَتْ بِهِ ۗ تِلْكَ حُدُودُ اللَّهِ فَلَا تَعْتَدُوهَا ۚ وَمَن يَتَعَدَّ حُدُودَ اللَّهِ فَأُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ  فَإِن طَلَّقَهَا فَلَا تَحِلُّ لَهُ مِن بَعْدُ حَتَّىٰ تَنكِحَ زَوْجًا غَيْرَهُ ۗ فَإِن طَلَّقَهَا فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْهِمَا أَن يَتَرَاجَعَا إِن ظَنَّا أَن يُقِيمَا حُدُودَ اللَّهِ ۗ وَتِلْكَ حُدُودُ اللَّهِ يُبَيِّنُهَا لِقَوْمٍ يَعْلَمُونَ


The divorce is twice, after that, either you retain her on reasonable terms or release her with kindness. And it is not lawful for you (men) to take back (from your wives) any of your mahr which you have given them, except when both parties fear that they would be unable to keep the limits ordained by Allah. Then if you fear that they would not be able to keep the limits ordained by Allah, then there is no sin on either of them in what she gives back. These are the limits ordained by Allah, so do not transgress them. And whoever transgresses the limits ordained by Allah, then such are the Zalimun. And if he has divorced her (the third time), then she is not lawful unto him thereafter until she has married another husband. Then, if the other husband divorces her, it is no sin on both of them that they reunite, provided they feel that they can keep the limits ordained by Allah. These are the limits of Allah, which He makes plain for the people who have knowledge”

Holy Qur'aan { 2.229}


If a man divorces his wife a third time, he can no longer re-marry her until after she has married and divorced another man. If she decides never to re-marry, or her new husband never divorces her, then she remains permanently forbidden to her ex-husband. During the lifetime of the Messenger of Allah (saw), some of his companions wanted to divorce without completing the prescribed waiting period. In rage against their wives, they would say, “I divorce you” three times at once, and then treat that as three separate divorces and also dumped the waiting period requirements whilst the Messenger of Allah (saw) rejected this and enforced the Law of Allah (swt). Aboo Bakr did the same until once again, Umar ibn Al-Khattab came along and changed the rules.

Muslim ibn Hajjaj:

Ibn Umar reported that he divorced his wife while she was menstruating during the lifetime of Allah’s Messenger (saw). ‘Umar b. Khattab asked Allah’s Messenger (saw) about it, whereupon Allah’s Messenger (saw) said: Command him (‘Abdullah b. ‘Umar) to take her back (and keep her) and pronounce divorce when she is purified and she again enters the period of menstruation and she is again purified (after passing the period of menses), and then if he so desires he may keep her and if he desires divorce her (finally) before touching her (without having an intercourse with her), for that is the period of waiting (‘ldda) which God, the Exalted and Glorious, has commanded for the divorce of women.


Source: Saheeh Muslim. Pg. # 674, H. # 1.




Muslim ibn Hajjaj:

Narrated ibn Abbas: The pronouncement of three divorces at once during the lifetime of Allah's Messenger (saw), and that of Aboo Bakr and two years of the leadership of Umar was treated as only one divorce. But ‘Umar ibn Al-Khattab said: “Verily the people have begun to hasten in the matter in which they are required to observe respite. So, perhaps, we should impose this upon them.” Therefore, he imposed it upon them.

Narrated ibn Tawus from his father: Aboo Sahba said to ibn 'Abbas: “Did you know that three divorces pronounced at once were treated as one during the lifetime of Allah's Apostle, peace be upon him, and that of Aboo Bakr, and during (the first) three years of the leadership of ‘Umar?” ibn ‘Abbas said: Yes

Source: Saheeh Muslim. Pg. # 677, H. # 15 - 16.


BID’AH SIX: INNOVATION IN JOURNEY PRAYER


Innovation of Uthman ibn Affan

Al-Albani:

Narrated 'Abd al-Rahman b. Zaid: 'Uthman prayed four rak'ahs at Mina. 'Abd Allah (b. Mas'ud) said: I prayed two rak'ahs along with the Prophet (saw) and two rak'ahs along with 'Umar. The version of Hafs added: And along with 'Uthman during the early period of his caliphate. He ('Uthman) began to offer complete prayer (i.e. four rak'ahs) later on. The version of Aboo Mu'awiyah added: Then your modes of action varied. I would like to pray two rak'ahs acceptable to Allah instead of four rak'ahs. Al-A'mash said: Mu'awiyah b. Qurrah reported to me from his teachers: 'Abd Allah (b. Mas'ud) once prayed four rak'ahs. He was told: You criticized 'Uthman but you yourself prayed four? He replied: Dissension is evil.


Source: Saheeh Sunan Abi Dawood. Vol. , Pg. # 550, H. 1960.



Muhammad ibn Ismail:

Narrated ‘Abdur Rahman Ibn Yazid: We offered a four Rakat prayer at Mina behind ibn ‘Affan. ‘Abdullah ibn Mas'ud was informed about it. He said sadly, “Truly to Allah we belong and truly to Him we shall return.” And added, “I prayed two Rakat with Allah’s Apostle at Mina and similarly with Aboo Bakr and with ‘Umar (during their caliphates).” He further said, “May I be lucky enough to have two of the four Rakat accepted (by Allah).”

Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Vol. 2, Pg. # 264, H. 1084.


Muhammad ibn Ismail:

Narrated A'isha: “When the prayers were first enjoined they were of two Rakat each. Later the prayer in a journey was kept as it was but the prayers for non-travellers were completed.” Az-Zuhri said, “I asked ‘Urwa what made A'isha pray the full prayers (in journey).” He replied, "She did the same as ‘Uthman did."

Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. # 266, H. # 1090. 


Muslim ibn Hajjaj:

A’isha reported: The prayer was prescribed as consisting of two rak’ahs, the prayer in travelling remained the same, but the prayer at the place of residence was completed. (Zuhri said he asked ‘Urwa why A’isha said prayer in the complete form during journey, and he replied that she interpreted the matter herself as ‘Uthman did.

Source: Saheeh Muslim. Pg. # 310, H. # 3.


Ibn Taymiyyah:

When Uthman got ill at Mina, Alee was asked to do the Imamate (i.e lead the Prayers) which he replied: ‘If you people deem it appropriate then shall I lead two Rak'at prayer as per Holy Prophet (saw)?’ To which people replied: ‘No, rather offer four Rak'at prayer just like commander of the faithful (Uthman).’ Thus Alee refused. 

Source: Majmu' Al-Fataawa. Vol. 22, Pg. # 56.


Jassas Al-Razi:

Abdullah ibn Mas'ud said: ‘I prayed two Rak'at with Allah’s Apostle at Mina and similarly with Aboo Bakr and with Umar (during their caliphates).’ Ibn Umar was asked as to how prayers during travel shall be offered to which he replied: ‘Two Rak'ats each and whoever opposed Sunnah (of Prophet) has committed Kufr. And this is Mutawaatir.

Source: Ahkam Al-Qur'aan. Vol. 3, Pg. # 233.


Within a few decades after the departure of the messenger of Allah (saw), the Islam that had been followed during his life, vanished. The usurpers had introduced numerous innovations into the religion in order to destroy the Sunnah of the Prophet (saw). Even the companions themselves knew these new practises were contrary to the teachings of the Prophet (saw).

Muhammad ibn Ismail:

Narrated Al-Zuhri: I entered upon Anas ibn Malik in Damascus and found him weeping. So, I said, “Why are you weeping?” He replied, “I do not recognise anything from what I used to know except this Salah, and even the Salah has been changed!"

Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. # 139, H. # 530.


Muhammad ibn Ismail:

Narrated Umm Al-Darda: I entered upon Aboo Al-Darda and found him angry. I said, “Why made you angry?” He replied, “By Allah, I do not recognise anything from the Ummah of Muhammad (saw) except that they pray Salah in Jammah.

Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. # 163, H. # 650.


Ahmad ibn Hanbal:

Narrated Umm Al-Darda: I entered upon Aboo Al-Darda and found him angry. I said, “Why made you angry?” He replied, “By Allah, I do not recognise anything among them from the affairs of Muhammad (saw), except that they pray Salah in Jamaah.”

Source: Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Vol.45,  Pg. # 491. H. # 27500.



Ibn Khalaf:

Narrated Umm Al-Darda: I entered upon Aboo Al-Darda and found him angry. I said, “Why made you angry?” He replied, "By Allah, I do not recognise anything from the Ummah of Muhammad (saw), except that they pray Salah in Jammah."

Footnote: The commentator Alee ibn Khalaf Ibn Battal, says: (I do not recognise) means I do not recognise anything from the Shari’ah that was not changed from what he (i.e. the Prophet) was upon

Source: Sharh ibn Battal of Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Vol. 2, Pg. # 279.


Muhammad ibn Ismail:

Narrated Matraf ibn ‘Abd Allah: I offered Salah behind Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s), together with ‘Imran ibn Hassan. Whenever he prostrated, he did takbir. Whenever he raised his head, he did takbir. Whenever he rose from ruku’, he did takbir. When he finished the Salah, ‘Imran ibn Hassan held my hand and said, “This man reminded me of the Salah of Muhammad (saw). He has led us in the Salah of Muhammad (saw).”

Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. # 193, H. # 786.


Muslim ibn Hajjaj:

Narrated Matraf Ibn ‘Abd Allah: I offered Salah behind Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s), together with ‘Imran Ibn Hassan. Whenever he prostrated, he did takbir. Whenever he raised his head, he did takbir. Whenever he rose from ruku’, he did takbir. When he finished the Salah, ‘Imran ibn Hassan held my hand and said, “This man reminded me of the Salah of Muhammad (saw). He has led us in the Salah of Muhammad (saw).”

Source: Saheeh Muslim. Pg. # 184, H. # 33.


Ahmad ibn Hanbal:

It is narrated that Aboo Moosa said: "Alee (a.s) reminded us the prayer we used to pray with the Prophet (saw), which we either forgot or abandoned deliberately, as he used to say the Takbeer whenever he did the Ruku' and the Sujood."

Footnote: Shu'ayb Al-Arna'ut Narration is Saheeh (Authentic).

Source: Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Vol. 32, Pg. # 244, H. 19494.




 إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يُبَايِعُونَكَ إِنَّمَا يُبَايِعُونَ اللَّهَ يَدُ اللَّهِ فَوْقَ أَيْدِيهِمْ فَمَن نَّكَثَ فَإِنَّمَا يَنكُثُ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ وَمَنْ أَوْفَى بِمَا عَـهَدَ عَلَيْهِ اللَّهَ فَسَيُؤْتِيهِ أَجْراً عَظِيماً

Verily, those who give pledge to you, they are giving 

pledge to Allah. The Hand of Allah is over their hands. Then whosoever breaks his pledge, breaks it only to his own harm; and whosoever fulfills what the covenants he makes with Allah, He will bestow on him a great reward.
Holy Qur'aan (48.10)


Muhammad ibn Ismail:

Narrated Al-Musaiyab: I met Al-Bara ibn Azib and said (to him): "May you live prosperously! You enjoyed the company of the Prophet and gave him the Pledge of allegiance (of Al-Hudaibiya) under the tree." On that, Al-Bara said, "O my nephew! You do not know what we have done after him (i.e. his death)...

Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. # 1025, H # 4170.


Muhammad ibn Ismail:

Ibn 'Abbas narrated that the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "The people will be gathered on the Day of Resurrection bare-foot, naked and uncircumcised as they were created." Then he recited: "As we begin the first creation, we shall repeat it: A promise binding upon Us. Truly We shall do it. And the first of people to be clothed will be Ibraheem. Among my companions will be some men who are taken to the right and to the left. I will say: 'O my Lord! My companions!' It will be said: 'You do not know what they innovated after you, they continued to be apostates since you parted from them.' So I will say as the righteous worshipper said: If you punish them, they are your slaves, and if You forgive them, indeed You, only You are the Almighty, the All-Wise." 

Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. # 865, H. # 3349.


The Laws of Allah (swt) and His Prophet (saw) had been distorted by personal judgements, and are now being excused by labelling them as 'good innovations.'Al-Bara' b. 'Azib, and he is amongst the foremost who pledged fealty to the Prophet (saw) under the tree, by saying to his nephew in the present tense: "Do not take pride in my companionship or my pledge under the tree, for you do not know what I did after him" highlights the change in attitude and level of obeisance adopted by the companions after the Prophet (saw) demise.


Proclamation At Ghadeer Khum

After completion of the Prophet's (saw) last pilgrimage, 'Hajjatul-Wida,' he (saw) was returning with a caravan of pilgrims towards Madinah. When the crowd reached a place called 'Ghadir Khum' he (saw) delivered the very message that was announced nine days earlier at Arafat (and later in Madinah during his fatal illness). However, on this occasion, Allah (swt) instructed the messenger of Allah to announce Imam Alee (a.s) as his vizier. Some suggest this sermon had nothing to with nomination of Imam Alee (a.s), rather it was the Prophet (saw) merely declaring his friendship with Alee (a.s). If indeed this was the case, it would be totally incomprehensible to even think for a moment that the Prophet (saw) on a boiling hot day, would stop the pilgrims whom wanting to return home due to exhaustion would have to witness a sermon to simply tell them the status of Imam Alee (a.s), especially when the Prophet (saw) did so on numerous other occasions. Imam Alee (a.s) status according to the Qu'raan and Hadeeth would not require any introduction, especially to a companion. But more importantly, why did the Prophet (saw) deliver this message seperately from Hadeeth Al-Thaqalayn i.e. Following  'Qur'aan and Ahlulbayt (a.s)?' Was not Alee (a.s) already included in the Ahlulbayt (a.s)? 

Ibn Kathir:

Narrated Al-Nasa'i in his Sunan from Muhammad ibn Al-Mothanna from Yahya ibn Hamad from Abi Uwana from A'mash from Habib ibn Abi Thabit from Abi Tufayl from Zayd ibn Arqam who said: While returning from Hijjatul Widaa the Messenger of Allah (saw) stopped in a place Ghadir -e- Khum and ordered the Muslims to stop there. The Messenger of Allah (saw) gave a sermon and again repeated that he is going to leave two heavy things among the Ummah, the Book of Allah (swt) and his Ahlulbayt, his Progeny. Then he said: 'Allah is my Master and I am the Master of every Believer.' Then he held the hand of Alee (a.s) and said: "Whomever I am his Master, then Alee (saw) is his Master."

Aboo Tufayl said: "I asked Zayd. Did you hear it from the Messenger of Allah (saw)?" He said: "There was none who was around the pulpit except he saw this with his eyes and heard this with his ears."

Ibn Kathir: Our Sheikh Al-Dhahabi said: This narration is Saheeh (Authentic).

Source: Al-Bidaya Wa'an-Nihaya. Vol. 7, Pg. # 668. 




Al-Nasa'i:

Narrated Muhammad ibn Al-Mothanna from Yahya ibn Hamad from Abi Uwana from A'mash from Habib ibn Abi Thabit from Abi Tufayl from Zayd ibn Arqam who said: While returning from Hijjatul Widaa the Messenger of Allah (saw) stopped in a place Ghadir -e- Khum and ordered the Muslims to stop there. The Messenger of Allah (saw) gave a sermon and again repeated that he is going to leave two heavy things among the Ummah. The Book of Allah (swt) and his Ahlulbayt, his Progeny. Then he said: 'Allah is my Master and I am the Master of every Believer.' Then he held the hand of Alee(as) and said: "Whomever I am his Master, then Alee (a.s) is his Master."

Aboo Tufayl said: "I asked Zayd. Did you hear it from the Messenger of Allah (saw)?" He said: "There was none who was around the pulpit except he saw this with his eyes and heard this with his ears."

Source: Sunan Al-Kubra Al-Nasa'i. Vol. 7, Pg. # 310. 



Ibn Hajar:

Narrated Is'haq from Aboo Amir Al-Aq'di from Kathir ibn Zayd from Muhammad ibn Umar from his father from Alee (a.s): The Messenger of Allah (saw) stopped under a tree in Khum then took Alee's hand and said: "Are you witnessing that Allah Almighty and High is your Lord?" The people said: 'Yes!' Then he said: "Are you witnessing that Allah and His Messenger have more authority over you than yourselves and they are you master?" They said: 'Yes!' Then he said: "So to everyone whose master is Allah (swt) and His Messenger (saw) then Alee (a.s) the master, and I have left behind two things for you, if you hold to these two you will not go astray. They are the Book of Allah (swt) which has two sides, one is in my hand and the other side is in your hands, and my Ahlulbayt (a.s)."

Ibn Hajar: This narration is Saheeh (Authentic).


Source: 
Al-Matalib Al-Aliya bi Zawa'id Al-Masanid Al-Thamaniya. Vol. 14, Pg. # 132. H. # 3943.


Al Nasa'i:

Topic: The Prophet’s (saw) statement, “Any one I am his master, Alee will be his master.”

Muhammad ibn Al-Muthanna told us that Yahya ibn Hammad informed us that Aboo Awana reported from Sulaiman who said that, Habib ibn Aboo Thabit informed us through Aboo Tufayl and him through Zayd ibn Arqam who said, while the Messenger of Allah (saw) was returning from his Last Hajj and reached the ponds of Al-Ghadir Khum, he requested that a pulpit should be erected and we erected it for him. Then he stood saying, ‘It is as if I have been called and I have answered the caller and I have left for you behind two weighty things. The one is greater than the other, the Book of Allah and my Ahlulbayt (a.s), thus, see through them, how you represent me in both of them, for both of them will never depart from each other until they come to me at the Pool (of Kawthar)." Then he said,  'Surely Allah is my Master, and I am the Master of every Believer." Then he took the hands of Alee and said, "whomsoever I am his master, this (Alee) is his Master. O Allah, love whoever loves him and hate whosoever hates him.' Then I said to Zayd, have you heard this yourself from the mouth of the Messenger of Allah (saw)? Zayd said, there was none who was around the pulpit except he saw this with his eyes and heard this with his ears.’ 

Footnote: It is Saheeh (Authentic). Its narrators are trustworthy and they are the narrators of Shaykhayn (Al-Bukhari and Muslim).

Source: Al-Khasa'is. Pg. # 96, H. # 79.


Muttaqi Al-Hindi:

Narrated Alee that the Prophet (saw) was present near a tree at Khum then He went out (to the public) holding Alee's hand and he said, 'O people! Don't you witness that Allah is your Lord?' They said, 'Yes.' He (saw) said, 'Don't you witness that Allah and His Messenger (saw) has more authority over you then you do over yourselves and that Allah and His Messenger are your Masters?" They said, 'Yes.' He said, "So whomever Allah and His Messenger are his masters then this one (Alee) is his Master! And I have left among you something that if you abide by, you shall never astray. The Book of Allah (swt), with one side of it in the hand of Allah (swt) and the other side in your hands, and my Ahlulbayt (a.s)."

Footnote: Reported by ibn Rahwayh, ibn Jarir, ibn Abi Assim, and Al-Mahamily in his Aamali and authenticated it.

Source: Kanz-ul-Ummal. Vol. 13, Pg. # 140, H # 32441.



Al-Tahawi:

Habeeb ibn Abi Thabit from Abi Al-Tufayl from Zaid ibn Arqam he said: "That when the Prophet (saw) of Allah (swt) returned from Hajj Al-Wida and reached to Ghadeer Khum, he ordered us to get Dawhat (material to create high platform) and so we stood up and he said: "As if I was called and I accepted that I left to you two weighty things, one of them is greater then the other. The Book of Allah (swt) and my progeny Ahlulbayt (a.s) and be aware of how to follow them after me,  for they do not separate until they return to me at the Pond of Kawthar in paradise. Allah (swt) is my Master and I am the master of all true believers." And so he grabbed the hands of Imam Alee (a.s) and called, "To whomever I was his master, Alee (a.s) is his master. O Allah (swt), be pleased with whoever follows him and be the enemy of whoever shows enmity towards him." So then I (narrator): "I heard it from the Prophet Muhammed (saw) and there wasn't anyone on top of the Dawhat (platform) only that he saw him 'The Prophet' and I saw him with my eyes and heard him with his ears."

Aboo Ja'far said: The chain of this narration is Saheeh (Authentic), there is no weakness in any of its narrators, the Messenger of Allah(saw) said this about Alee (a.s) when he came back from his Hajj to Madinah and not when he went out from Madinah to his Hajj.

Footnote: This Hadeeth is Saheeh (Authentic).

Source: Sharh Mushkil Al-Athaar. Vol. 5, Pg. # 18, H # 1765.


Al-Busiri:

Chapter: "He whom I am His Master than Alee is His Master."

Narrated Alee ibn Abi Talib (a.s): 'The Prophet was at the tree in Khum then He appeared holding my (Alee) hand and said:' "Don't you witness that Allah is your Lord [Master]? They replied, 'Yes.' He said; ''Don't you witness that Allah and His Prophet are more entrusted with yourselves more than your own selves do, and that Allah and His Messenger are your Masters?" They replied, 'Yes.' He said, ''He whom Allah and His Messenger are his Masters than this one [Alee] is his Master, and I have left amongst you something that if you adhere to, then you would never go astray. The book of Allah (swt) like a rope having one termination in the Hand of Allah and your hands are the other termination and my household."

Footnote: Ishaq narrated it with a Saheeh (Authentic) chain and the hadeeth of Khum was brought up by Al-Nasa'i from the narration of Abi Tufayl narrating Zayd ibn Arqam and Alee and a group of companions, and in this version there is an addition and it is not found there [at Al-Nasa'i copy] and the origin of the hadeeth was brought up by Al-Tirmidhi also.

Source: Et'haf Khiratul Mohra. Vol. 9, Pg. # 279, H # 7984.


Hakim Al-Nishaburi:

Narrated Abi Thabit (r.a) the servant of Aboo Zar Ghaffari (r.a), he said; "I was with Alee (a.s) on the day of the battle of Jamal (Camel) then when I saw A'isha standing, some doubt that came into people came into me, and Allah (swt) took that away from me at noon prayer. Then I fought with the commander of the faithful (Alee) and when he (a.s.) was done (i.e the battle), I went to Madinah and went to visit Umm Salama (r.a), then I said: "By Allah! I swear that I did not come to ask for food or drink, however I am a servant (belonging) to Aboo Zar Ghaffari." She said, 'Welcome!' And I told her my story, then she said, 'Where were you when the hearts (minds) flew where they have flown i.e (when people doubted). I said, 'Where Allah (swt) took that away from me at midday." She said, 'Well done, I heard the Messenger of Allah (saw) saying, "Alee (a.s) is with The Qur'aan and The Qur'aan is with Alee (a.s) and they shall not separate until they come to me at lake-fount 'Kawthar.'

Al-Hakim: This narrations chain is Saheeh and Aboo Saeed Al-Timi his name is Aqeesa he is trustworthy and truthful but they (i.e. Bukhari and Muslim) have not narrated this hadeeth.

Al-Dhahabi: It is Saheeh (Authentic), and Aboo Sa'eed is trustworthy and truthful.

Source: Al-Mustadrak Alaa Al-Sahihain. Vol. 3, Pg. # 134, H. # 4628.



Al-Hakim Nishapuri:

Zayd ibn Arqam, he said: 'We went out with the Messenger of Allah (saw) till we reached the rivulet of Ghadeer Khum and He ordered [to make] a vast space so [some people] swept a place on a day that we never witnessed a hot day alike. Then he praised Allah (swt) and gave tribute to Him, and he said, "O people! It has always been that any [sent] Prophet would live for half the age of the precedent [Prophet], and I am about to be called for and I would answer, and I am leaving among you [something] that if you adhere to, you would never go astray. The Book of Allah (swt) [whom is] far from being [truly] known and has majesty." Then he stood and took the hand of Alee (a.s) with him and said, ''O people! Who has more authority over yourselves more than your own selves have [over you]?" And they said, ''Allah (swt) and His Messenger (saw) know best!' Then he said, "Don't I have authority over yourselves more than you have over yourselves?'' They said, 'Yes!' He said, ''He whom I am His master than Alee is His master!''

Al-Hakim: The chain of this Hadeeth is Saheeh (Authentic) but they (i.e. Bukhari and Muslim) have not narrated it.

Al-Dhahabi: It is Saheeh (Authentic). 

Source: Al-Mustadrak Alaa Al-Sahihain. Vol. 3, Pg. # 613. H. # 6272.



Other articles relating to this subject can be found by clicking on the following links:

Alee (a.s) The Master Of Every Believer

http://www.revisitingthesalaf.com/2012/04/alee-as-is-your-wali.html


Al-Haytami:

Know that the Hadeeth of Adherence (to the Qur’aan and the Ahlulbayt) has been narrated through a large number of chains, and has been narrated on the authority of more than twenty of the Sahabah (i.e. It is double mutawaatir)...In some of these chains, it is narrated that he said it during the Farewell Hajj at Arafat, and others narrate that he said it in Madinah during his fatal illness… In others it is narrated that he said it at Ghadir Khum, and in others it is narrated that he said it during a sermon after returning from Taif as previously cited. There is no reason to deny that he repeated the hadeeth at these various places and others to emphasize the importance of the noble Book and the pure Itrah.' 

Source: Al-Sawa’iq Al-Muhriqah. Vol. 2, Pg. # 209.


Ibn Taymiyyah:

As for Al-Hassan and Al-Hussain, then their right (title) is a duty without any doubt; and it was proved in Al-Saheeh (a true book) that the Prophet (saw) addressed people at a rivulet i.e. Stream called ''Khum'' between Makkah and Al-Madinah and he said, ''I am leaving amongst you the two onuses; one of them is the book of Allah (swt)'' and he mentioned the book of Allah and motivated (people) towards it (its application) then he said..."and my family whom they are my household. I remind you of obeying Allah in abiding by the rights He granted to my Household, [I remind you of obeying Allah in abiding by the rights He granted to my Household]."

Source: Minhaj Al-Sunnah Al-Nabawiyah. Vol. 4, Pg. # 561.


Ibn Kathir:

It is narrated through Saheeh (Authentic) narrations that the Messenger of Allah (saw) in his sermon in Ghadeer Khu
m said: "I am leaving among you Al-Thaqalayn (two heavy things): The Book of Allah (swt) and my Progeny (a.s), and they will not separate from each other until they reach me on the sacred lake-Fount."

Source: Tafsir ibn Kathir. Vol. 7, Pg. # 201.

 

The Meaning Of Al-Thaqalayn

What is that, which if we hold firm to, we will never go astray? The Messenger of Allah (saw) answered: 'The Book of Allah and His Progeny (a.s).' Obviously, that “what” and its pronoun “it” refer to these two. A similar expression can be found in the Holy Qur’aan;


يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِنَّمَا الْخَمْرُ وَالْمَيْسِرُ وَالْأَنصَابُ وَالْأَزْلَامُ رِجْسٌ مِّنْ عَمَلِ الشَّيْطَانِ فَاجْتَنِبُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ

O you who believe! Intoxicants AND gambling AND divination are A DIRT from the handiwork of the Devil. Therefore, avoid IT in order that you may be successful.

 Holy Qur'aan {5:90}


This shows that it is permissible, grammatically, to describe a number of things with a singular noun or pronoun. Normally, when a number of things are grouped under “what” as in the above hadeeth, the corresponding pronoun is “it.” But, it may also be made to reflect the number (i.e.“both”). 

Muhammad al-Farra' al-Baghawi:

Abo Saa'd Ahmad ibn Mohamed ibn Al Abbas Al Hamidy narrated from Aboo Abdullah Muhammad ibn Abdullah Al Hafiz narrated Aboo Al Fadl Al Hassan ibn Yaqoob ibn Yousif Ala'dl narrated from Aboo Ahmad Mohamed ibn Abdul Wahhab Ala'bdy narrated from Ja'far ibn Awn narrated from Aboo Hayyan Yahya ibn Sa'eed ibn Hayyan narrated from Yazid ibn Hayyan, he said; I heard Zayd ibn Arqam saying; ''The Messenger of Allah rose between us to give a speech at a certain day then He magnified the Grace of Allah and praised Him then He said; ''0h people, I am a human being and the Messenger of my Lord [the angel responsible of taking the soul back to Her Lord] is about to come to me and I would answer him [His soul will answer the call of Her lord to go back to Him] and I am leaving among you the two weighty things, the first of Them is the Book of Allah which has guidance and enlightenment therefore adhere firmly to the Book of Allah and take it as your leader then He urged to stick to it and incited desires to abide by it "then He said; ''And my Family! I urge you to remember to respect Allah by adhering to my Household''


This hadeeth is recorded in the Saheeh of Muslim ibn Hajjaj*1* and narrated it from Zuhayr ibn Harb from Ismaeel ibn Ulya from Abi Hayyan, and also narrated through Sa'd ibn Masrooq from Yazeed ibn Hayyan with the addition:"and verily they will not separate from each other until they enter upon me on the lake-fount"


It has been said; He called 'Them Al Thaqalayn'' [The Two Weighty Things] because adhering to them and following their commandments is heavy and it has been said in the explanation of His saying to whom belongs Might and Majesty- ''Indeed, We will cast upon you a weighty word" (Surah Al-Muzzammil V.5) which means that the orders of Allah (swt) and His ordinances and His inhibitions can't be applied without carrying heavy burdens and it has been said that ''Weighty word'' means something that has weight and Jinn and mankind have been called 'Thaqalayn' because they were favored and differentiated from other living creatures, and everything that has weight and value to compete with others than it is 'weighty'.


And Zayd ibn Arqam said; ''His [the Prophet] household are those whom they were forbidden 'sadaqa' (charity) after him, the Family of Alee, the Family of Aqeel, the Family of Jaafar and the Family of Abbas*2*

Imam Al Hussain ibn Muhammad Al Qazi narated from Aboo Al Abbas Al Tayssafoony narrated from Aboo Al Hassan Al Turabi narrated from Aboo Bakr Al Bustami narrated from Ahmed ibn Sayyar Al Qarashy narrated from Al Hussain ibn Huraith narrated from Al Fadl ibn Moosa narrated from Abdul Malik ibn Abi Suleyman narrated from Atiyah Al Awfi

*1* 2408 in ‘fada’el alsahaba’; bab fada’el Alee ibn Abi-Talib (r.a) and it is found also in ‘Al Musnad’ (4/366-367) and Al Darmi (2/431-432) and Al Hakim (3/148) and it was corrected and accepted by Al Dhahabi and the addition is his.
*2*narrated by muslim (2408)


Narrating Aboo Sa'id al-Khudri he said; I heard the Messenger of Allah saying; ''Oh people! I have left among you two weighty things that if you adhere to then you shall never astray after me (my death) and one is greater than the other, the Book of Allah which is extended between the Sky and the Land and my Family (Itra) whom they are my household and They shall never separate till They come back to me at lake-fount

Narration is Hasan 'Reliable'

Footnote: N
arrated by Ahmad 3/14 & 17 & 26 & 59 and by Al Tirmidhi (3790) in section of the virtues of the Household of the Messenger prayers and peace of Allah be upon Him and we find a witness of this hadeeth in the saying of Zayd ibn Thbait narrating Ahmad 5/181,182,189,190 and another witness at Al Tirmidhi (3788) from the saying of Jabir by which this statement gets stronger, and it is strong hadeeth

Source: Sharh Sunan Al Baghawi. Vol. 14. Pg. 117 - 119.


 Al-Nawawi:


The statement of the Prophet (saw): “And I will leave among you two weighty things (Thaqalayn)” and he mentioned the Book of Allah and his Ahlulbayt. The scholars said that he named them two weighty things (Thaqalayn) due to their magnificence and their great significance. It is also said that he so named them due to the importance of following them both.

Source: Sharh Saheeh Muslim. Vol. 15, Pg. # 180.


Al-Haythami:

The second narration: "For every successor from my Nation (Ummah) there would be someone who has equal qualifications to those needed by this post - among my household (Ahlulbayt) whom will take away from this religion the tahreef (distortations) of the errant ones and the claiming of the revocatories and the explanations of the ignorants. And keep in mind that your Imams [guides, leaders] are your delegation to Allah the most Gracious, so be aware of whom you choose as delegates."
..., (They are called) thaqalayn (two weighty things) because (the word) Al-Thaqal (singular of Al-Thaqalayn) covers every precious item. The two of them (i.e. the Qur'aan and the Ahlulbayt) are like that (i.e. precious). Each one of them is a fountain of religious knowledge and the (divine) secrets, and the highest government and judgement, and the Shari’ah rulings.

... And we find in the Hadeeths that urge to adhere to the household of the Prophet (saw), an indication that there would never be, till the Day of Judgment, absence of someone among them whom will be merit of being adhered to. The same as for the Holy Qu'raan, and this is why they were 'Safety' for the people of the Earth (land) as the previous narration comes and witnesses that; in every successor from my Nation (Ummah) there is someone who has equal qualifications to those needed by this post - among my Household (Ahlulbayt)...


Source: Al Sawa’iq Al-Muhriqah. Vol. 2 - 3, Pg. # 210.




Ibn Manzur:

It is narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said at the end of his life: “I will leave among you the two weighty things (Al-thaqalayn): The Book of Allah and my ‘itrah.” He identified them (i.e. the two weighty things) as the Book of Allah the Almighty and his itrah. We have already explained what ‘itrah means. Tha’lab said: “They are named two weighty things (thaqalayn) because holding fast to them BOTH is significant and following them BOTH is important.” The root of the word Al-thaqal (singular of al-thaqalayn) is that the Arabs say about anything that is important and precious that it is a thaqal (a weighty thing). He named them both two weighty things (thaqalayn) to magnify their significance and worth. 

Source: Lisan Al-Arab. Vol. 11, Pg. #  85.


Sayyid Al-Saqqaf:

The meaning of holding fast to the Ahlulbayt (a.s) and adhering to them is to love them, protect their sacredness, copy their manners, follow their guidance and practises, act by their reports, rely upon their opinions, statements and ijtihad, and prefer them above others.

Source: Saheeh Sharh Aqidah Al-Tahawiyyah. Pg. # 654.



Al-Manawi:

It is making us understand that there will be a presence of someone from Ahlulbayt (a.s) (Prophet's household) and the pure progeny whom will be worthy of being adhered to him, at every period till the rising of the (Final) Hour (doomsday). And this is the reason behind urging to adhere to him. The same as for the Book, therefore they are (a guarantee of) safety for the people of Earth. Then if they are gone then the people of Earth would be gone.


Source: Fayd Al-Qadir Sharh Al-Jami’ Al-Saghir. Vol. 3, Pg. # 15.




Al-Haythami:

In the Hadeeth emphasising adherence to the Ahlulbayt (a.s) is an indication that the one to be adhered to from among them will always be present till the Qiyamah 'Day Of Judgement,' just as the Qur’aan is like this too (i.e. will be present to be followed forever).

Source: Al-Sawa'iq Al-Muhriqah. Pg. # 210.


Ibn Hajar:

In the narrations that mention that Prophet Isa (a.s) will pray behind a man of this Ummah in the end times near the day of judgement there is a proof for the authentic sayings that: "The earth will not remain empty of someone who stands up as Hujjah (as) of Allah (swt)." Allah (swt) knows best.


Source: Fath Al-Bari. Vol. 8, Pg. # 92-93.

 

It is necessary to take note of the fact that there must be a living Imam 'Divine Proof Of Allah (swt)' present at all times in the same manner the Qur'aan will remain with us till the day of Judgement. According to the followers of the Ahlulbayt (a.s), this is our 12th and final Imam (Allah hasten his reappearance) who is in occultation. This will be discussed further in future articles if Allah (swt) wills. The Qur’aan and the Ahlulbayt (a.s) are the Prophet (saw) two commands that we must obey and thus follow them both. Obeying them means obeying the Prophets (saw) command, and disobeying them means disobeying his command. Whosoever refuses to obey and follow either of the two commands has disobeyed the noble Prophet (saw). Whosoever follows them both will find himself in the saved group.

Muhammad ibn Ismail:

Narrated Aboo Hurayrah: Allah’s Apostle, peace be upon him, said: “All of my Ummah will enter Paradise except whoever refuses to.” They said: “And who is it that refuses to?” He replied: “Whosoever obeys me will enter Paradise, and whosoever disobeys me has refused to enter it.”

Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. # 1798, H. # 7280.



Whomsoever follows the Qur’aan and Ahlulbayt (a.s) will be part of the saved group and whomsoever refuses to follow both of them will be part of the doomed sect. This is why one must refer all matters to them and submit absolutely to whatsoever they judge. They are infallible guides, and the most knowledgeable of the entire nation at all times till the day of Judgement. Now, let us consider the ramifications of this well established Islamic tradition. The Prophet (saw) says one must follow both Qur’aan and Ahlulbayt (a.s) to be guided in Islam. Both on an equal setting and neither in exclusion of the other. What does it mean for the Holy Qur’aan to be literally equated with the Ahlulbayt (a.s)? The Holy Qur’aan is an infallible authority. It cannot be challenged. The Muslim does not bind the Qur’aan, rather it is the Qur’aan that binds the Muslim. If the Qur’aan is an infallible authority, then the Ahlulbayt (a.s) must also be a corresponding infallible authority. The Qur’aan is the final Revelation from Allah (swt). Consequently, the Ahlulbayt (a.s) would be parcel of that final Revelation as well.  If the Qur’aan is the bridge between Allah (swt) and mankind. Then so must the Ahlulbayt (a.s) be the bridge between Allah (swt) and mankind. The two factions are holistically being equated with one another, otherwise it makes no sense for the Prophet (saw) to speak on them in unison and as a unitary medium of guidance. He does not say one is infallible and the other is not, despite the so-called 'Ahl us Sunnah' insisting on such a difference. This train of logic is very simple to follow. Given this exemplar, Shi'ee conceptions on the Ahlulbayt (a.s) being infallible, as well as being the medium of conveying God’s will to the people, which is what a Khalifah is supposed to do, no longer seem to be eccentric. If it were not so, then Sunnis would have a lot of elucidation to do on the Hadeeth, Al-Thaqalayn. They would be trapped, and indeed are already trapped in the maze of explaining why the Holy Qur’aan should be taken as an absolutist, infallible authority, yet the corresponding Ahlulbayt (a.s) should not. If in the so-called 'Ahl us Sunnah,' as well as the Shi’ite creed it can be agreed that not so much as a nuktah can be overturned from the Qur’aan due to its absolutist infallible authority, then accordingly, we have no reason to believe the same does not apply to what is disseminated from the lips of the Ahlulbayt (a.s), since both the Qur'aan and the Ahlulbayt (a.s) convey divine speech. To the Sunnites this will be an eternal, unsolvable labyrinth. To the Shi'ee the answer is so obvious that its denial is just capricious.



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2 comments:

  1. Assalam o Allaikum WR WB !!!! MasahAllah what an effort. May Allah, Prophet Muhammad (SAWW)and Ahle Bait reward you for this effort. Ameen

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  2. Your hard Work is marvellous, and I wanted to tell you that we, shias in Denmark, are helping spreading your hard Work on facebook(we refer to your website ofc) and hopefully we will try to translate this to Danish if that is possible! Thank you very much!

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