Wednesday, 26 September 2012

The Oppression Of Sayeda Faatima (s.a) Part II





Umar's Violence Towards Women And His Cowardice Behaviour Against The Kuffar!

In this section we will be looking to cover:







Introduction

This chapter places the character of Umar Ibn Al-Khattab under the microscope. Its requirement has arisen to quash the claims of his advocates who are of the belief that his attacking the home of Sayeda Faatima (s.a) was not plausible for him to undertake as it simply would have been 'out of character' for him.

If Umar ibn al Khattab  were to be tried in court he would be charged and found guilty for the following crimes: conspiracy to murder, murder, sedition, espionage, high treason, pedophilia, rape, torture, illegal invasion of sovereign countries, assault on civilians, illegal detention of citizens, racial discrimination, discrimination and violence against women, and desertion from the field of battle.

The so-called 'Ahl ul Sunnah' adherents are from a young age fed on a staple diet on the excellence's of Umar, and are led to believe that if Umar had a short fuse it was exacted on the kuffar and no one else. In this regard they commonly insist this verse refers to Umar:


{مُّحَمَّدٌ رَّسُولُ اللَّهِ وَالَّذِينَ مَعَهُ أَشِدَّاء عَلَى الْكُفَّارِ رُحَمَاء بَيْنَهُمْ تَرَاهُمْ رُكَّعًا سُجَّدًا يَبْتَغُونَ فَضْلًا مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَرِضْوَانًا سِيمَاهُمْ فِي وُجُوهِهِم مِّنْ أَثَرِ السُّجُودِ ذَلِكَ مَثَلُهُمْ فِي التَّوْرَاةِ وَمَثَلُهُمْ فِي الْإِنجِيلِ كَزَرْعٍ أَخْرَجَ شَطْأَهُ فَآزَرَهُ فَاسْتَغْلَظَ فَاسْتَوَى عَلَى سُوقِهِ يُعْجِبُ الزُّرَّاعَ لِيَغِيظَ بِهِمُ الْكُفَّارَ وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ مِنْهُم مَّغْفِرَةً وَأَجْرًا عَظِيمًا }


Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. And those who are with him are severe against disbelievers, and merciful among themselves. You see them bowing falling down prostrate, seeking reward from Allah and acceptance. The mark of them is on their faces from the traces of prostration. This is their description in the Tawrah. But their description in the Injil is like a seed which sends forth its shoot, then makes it strong, and becomes thick and it stands straight on its stem, delighting the sowers, that He may enrage the disbelievers with them. Allah has promised those among them who believe and do righteous good deeds, forgiveness and a mighty reward. 

Holy Qur'aan: {48.29}


By means of this article, we will prove that Umar was in fact precisely the opposite to the above revealed Qur'aanic Ayah. He was found to be soft with the kuffar and firm against the believers, particularly the women. Despite the exalted status afforded to women by Allah (swt) in His Glorious Book, Umar was incapable or rather unwilling to view them in a favourable light. We will evidence the fact that he was a violent misogynist, prone to acts of physical violence against his subjects (particularly women) and also treated slave women as objects of sexual humiliation. To corroborate our stance, we will make reference to various historical sources including those which spring from non-Muslims, in order to give a wider scope in evaluating his conduct in life both before and after his conversion to Islam. 


Umar's Burying His Daugther 

It is claimed that the narrations pertaining to Umar ibn Al-Khattab burying his daughter alive during the period of Jahiliyyah are false since the narrations are said to be "weak." This is rather interesting, normally one would expect this not to be problematic, or at least not too problematic considering this happened in the days of ignorance before Umar ibn Al-Khattab embraced Islam. Are the implications really that frightening? The implications being that a man, supposedly chosen to be a caliph is one who buried his child alive? Is the honour of Umar ibn Al-Khattab truly that crucial, that no sin can be allowed to be passed in subscription to him? Is the impetus to immunize him from all slander part of a grander desire to not provide any opportunity for a visage of him to be permitted that shows him clearly being inferior to lead the ummah compared to Imam Alee (a.s)? Let us keep all this in mind as we dissect the evidence to counteract this claim – Insha'Allah Ta'ala.


Al-Tabarani:

Narrated Umar ibn Al-Khattab, and he was asked about the meaning of, 'And when the female (infant) buried alive (as the pagan Arabs used to do) shall be questioned. Surah Al-Takwir, Verse 8.' He said, "Qays ibn Assem came to the Messenger of Allah (saw) and said, 'I have buried alive some daughters of mine during Jahiliyyah [the period before Islam].' Then 'he' said, 'Free a slave for each one of them.' Then I said, 'O Messenger of Allah (saw), I am a camel man.' 'He' said, 'Sacrifice one corpulent (of a camel) for each one of them (the buried alive daughters)."

Al-Bazar and Al-Tabarani narrated it, and the men of Al-Bazar are the men of Al-Saheeh other than Hussain ibn Mahdi Al-Ayli and he is trustworthy.

Source: Majma Al-Zawa'id Wa Manba Al-Fawa'id. Vol. 8, Pg. # 204.




Muhammad Shanqiti:

Narrated Umar ibn Al-Khattab's saying, "There were two things in Jahiliyyah, one of them makes me cry and the other one makes me laugh. The one that makes me cry; I had taken a daughter of mine to bury her alive and I was digging the hole for her while she was dusting my beard off without knowing what I am planning for her, then when I remember that I cry. And the other one is that I used to make a God of dates that I put over my head to guard me during the night, then when I woke up I a well state I would eat it, and whenever I remember that I laugh at myself.

Source: Adwa Al-Bayan Fi Idhah Al-Qur'aan Bil Qur'aan. Vol. 9, Pg. # 63.




Al-Nawawi:

It is narrated that Umar said, "O Messenger of Allah (saw), I have committed female infanticide in Jahiliyyah time." Then the Prophet peace and prayers of Allah be upon him said, "Manumit a slave for each Maw'uda."

And the Maw'uda is the killed girl at birth. The Jahiliyyah people used to do so because of their fear of shame and poverty.

Source: Kitab Al-Majmu Sharh Al-Muhazzab Lil-Shirazi. Vol. 21, Pg. # 21







Al-Shafi'ee: 

It is narrated that Umar ibn Al-Khattab said, "O Messenger of Allah (saw), I have committed female infanticide in Jahiliyyah times." Then 'he' said, "Manumit a slave for each buried alive girl." Since Arabs used to dig a hole under the pregnant woman whenever she had labour that the child will fall into it whenever delivered then if he was a boy they would take him out of it and if she was a girl then they would leave it and they would dump soil over her body till she dies and this is premeditated killing and expiation has been ordered for this.

Source: Al-Hawi Al-Kabeer. Fi Fiqh Madhab Al-Imam Shafi wa Huwa Sharh Mukhtasar Al-Mudhni. Vol. 13, Pg. # 67.





Abbas Mahmud Aqqad:

He had buried a girl in Jahiliyyah times according to the abominable way that the narrations describe. In summary that he (Umar), was sitting with some of his companions and he laughed a little then he cried, therefore the present ones asked him about it then he said, "During Jahiliyyah times, we used to make an idol from dates then we would worship it then eat it, and this is the reason of my laughing. However, my crying was because I had a daughter and I wanted to bury her alive, then I took her with me and I dug a hole for her then she started dusting my beard off and I buried her alive."

Source: Abqariyyat Umar. Pg. # 222.




Umar's Conversion to Islam

One should note that in regards to his conversion, authentic or sound narrations are non-existent. Only those which are generally believed to be true exist and are accepted by a certain group of people. The following has been stated in the famous book, 'The Life of Umar Ibn Al-Khattab':

'Many reports have been narrated concerning the reason why Umar became a Muslim, but when we examine their isnads (chain of narration) according to the standards of the science of Hadeeth, we see most of them are not sound.'

Source: Umar Ibn Al-Khattab His Life And Times. Vol. 1, Pg. # 51.






Now the apparent narrative that has been attributed to Umar's conversion begins with him setting out to kill the Prophet (saw). Whilst en route to perform this heinous crime, he was informed that his sister and brother-in-law had embraced Islam. In a rage, he diverted his attention to them, and upon arrival at their home he beat them to a pulp before resuming his initial task. This not only highlights Umar's intolerance, but further proves the hideous, violent character he possessed. 

Dr. Al Muhammad as-Sallabi

Umar's Raid On His Sister's House

When Umar heard that his sister and her husband became Muslim, anger overtook him and he went to them. When he knocked at the door they said, 'Who is it?' He said, 'The son of Al-Khattab.' They were reading a paper that was in their hands, but when they realised that Umar was there, they rushed to hide and they left the paper where it was. When he came in, his sister saw him, she recognised the evil intent that was on his face, so she hid the paper beneath her leg. He said, "What is this muttering and whispering that I heard in your house?" For they had been reading Soorah Ta-Ha. They said, "We were just talking amongst ourselves." He said, "Perhaps you have changed your religion?" His brother-in-law said, "O Umar what if the truth were in something other then your religion?!" Umar attacked his brother-in-law Sa'eed, pulling his beard, and they wrestled. Umar was very strong, and he threw Sa'eed to the ground and jumped on him, then he sat on his chest. His sister came to her husband's defence, but he pushed her away with his hand, and her face started to bleed. She said angrily, "O enemy of Allah, are you hitting me because I believe in Allah alone?!" He said 'Yes.'  She said 'Do what you like. I bear witness there is no God but Allah and Muhammad is His Messenger.'

Source: Umar Ibn Al-Khattab His Life And Times. Vol. 1, Pg. # 52 - 53.


What has been kept hidden from the general public even though it is narrated in their most authentic book Saheeh Al-Bukhari, is that Umar's acceptance of Islam was done while he was hiding at home fearing death at the hands of the Mushrikeen and he did not embrace Islam until one of the enemies of the Prophet (saw) known as 'Al-As ibn Wa'il gave him protectionThe two narrations in Saheeh Al-Bukhari reveal the real story of his conversion from which all the legends in connection with Umar's bravery and significance in Makkah are wiped out.  

Al-Bukhari:

1 - Narrated by Abdullah bin Umar:

"While Umar was at home (hiding) in a state of fear, there came Al-'As bin Wa'il As-Sahmi Abu Amr, wearing an embroidered cloak and a shirt having silk hems. He was from the tribe of Bani Sahm who were our allies during the pre-Islamic period of ignorance. Al-'As said to Umar, "What is wrong with you?" He said, "Your people claim that they would kill me if I become a Muslim." Al-'As said, "Nobody will harm you (I give you protection), after that I embraced Islam." So Al-'As went out and met the people streaming in the whole valley. He said, "Where are you going?" They said, "We want Ibn Al-Khattab who has embraced Islam." Al-'As said, "There is no way for anybody to touch him." So the people retreated.

Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Vol. 63, Book 35, H 3864, Pg. # 945.


2 - Narrated by Abdullah bin Umar:

"When Umar embraced Islam, all the (disbelieving) people gathered around his home and said, "Umar has embraced Islam." At that time I was still a boy and was on the roof of my house. There came a man wearing a cloak of Dibaj (i.e. a kind of silk), and said, "Umar has embraced Islam. Nobody can harm him for I am his protector." I then saw the people going away from Umar and I asked who the man was, and they said, he was "Al-'As bin Wa'il."


Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Vol. 63, Book 35, H 3865, Pg. # 945. 


The peculiar circumstances that surrounded Umar's conversion is based on nothing but cowardice behaviour. This would indeed raise further questions as to why he sought protection under a disbeliever who coincidentally was one of the arch enemies of the Prophet (saw).

Allamah Shibli Nomani:

His domestic life is not so well known. It appears that he was not over-fond of his wives and children. Of wives especially he was not very fond. It was due perhaps to the fact that he did not have that regard for womankind which one ought to have. Bukhari in his Chapter of Dress reports him saying "In pagan days we looked upon women as mere nothings. When the Qur'aan was revealed and in it was made the mention of womankind, it was then that we learnt that they too were some bodies. Still, we never allowed them to interfere with our affairs." The same report has it that on his rebuking his wives once the wife answered back. "So you have come to that now" Umar said, to which the wife retorted that his own daughter spoke like that to the Prophet (saw).

One of Umars wives was Jamila, of whom was born 'Asim' He was yet a baby when Umar divorced his mother for some reason. It was the reign of Aboo Bakr and Umar, leaving Quba where he lived formerly, had settled in Madinah. One day he went to Quba. Seeing his son 'Asim' playing with children caught hold of him and put him on his horse and wanted to carry him away. When Asims mother learnt of it, she objected to it and wished to keep that boy with herself. The dispute became prolonged. She made her suit before Aboo Bakr and Aboo Bakr gave the judgement against Umar. Umar had to submit. The incident is reported in Muwatta and shows that Umar's attitude towards women was not characterized by affection and compassion as was the case with their saintly men. Nor had he any particular unusual affection for his children or other relations. The only person he loved dearly was his brother Zaid. When the latter died a martyr in the battle of Yamamah, Umar wept and sorrowed deeply. He used to say, "When the wind blows from the direction of Yamamah it brings me the fragrance of Zaid."

Source: Al-Farooq. Life Of Umar The Great. Vol. 2, Pg. # 331 - 332.



He (Umar) used to defend all the traditions, acts of worship and systems to which Quraysh were accustomed to (idol worship etc). His nature was one of sincerity which led him to defend all that he believed in to the bitter end. So Umar resisted Islam in the beginning, because he feared that this new religion would shake the system that was well established in Makkah and which gave Makkah a special status among the Arabs. For it was the location of the House to which people came on pilgrimage, which gave Quraysh a unique status among the Arabs and brought spiritual and material wealth to Makkah. This was the reason for a city's prosperity and its peoples wealth. So the rich men of Makkah resisted this religion and persecuted the weak among its converts, and Umar was at the forefront of those who persecuted these weak ones.

He kept on beating a slave woman who had become a Muslim, until his arms grew tired and the whip fell from his hand, then he stopped to rest. Aboo Bakr passed by and saw how the slave woman was being tortured, so he bought her from him and set her free.


Source: Umar Ibn Al-Khattab. His Life And Times. Vol. 1 , Pg # 48.




Ibn Al-Hisham:

(Aboo Bakr) saw that Umar Ibn Al-Khattab was torturing a slave-girl of Bani Mo’ammal from the family of Adee Ibn Ka’b to force her to leave the religion of Islam, and Umar at that time was a polytheist (Mushrik). He hit her until he was tired, then he said: "I apologise to you that I had to stop hitting you, that is only because I got tired" whereupon she said, "Allah (swt) will do the same to you!" And then Aboo Bakr bought her and freed her.

 Source: Saheeh Al-Sirah. Pg. # 117.



Muhammad Ibn Sa‘d:

The slave-girl Bint Amr Ibn Mo’ammal, one of the early converts to Islam in Makkah was tortured in the way of Allah (swt). And Umar Ibn Al-Khattab before his conversion was the one who tortured her to force her to leave Islam, so he hit her until he got tired, and said to her: "By God, I did not stop hitting you unless I got tired!" Whereupon she said: "Your God will do the same to you!"

 Source: Al-Tabaqat Al-Kabir. Vol. 10, Pg. # 244.


Al-Suyuti:

Narrated Ibn Al-Monzir from Awn Ibn Abi Shaddad who said: Umar had a slave-girl who embraced Islam before him. She was called Zennaira. Because of her conversion to Islam Umar used to hit her, and the disbelievers of Quraysh used to say: If Islam was a good thing, Zennaira would not have preceded us in it, whereupon Allah (swt) revealed a verse in the Qur’aan: {And those who disbelieve say of those who believe: 'Had it (Islam) been a good thing, they (the weak and poor) would not have preceded us thereto!'}[46:11]

Source: Tafsir Durr Al-Mansoor. Vol. 13, Pg. # 322.


Ibn Athir:

(Those who were tortured because of their conversion to Islam:) One of them was Laniba a slave-girl of Bani Mo’ammal Ibn Habib Ibn Adi Ibn Ka’b. She converted to Islam before Umar, and he used to torture her forcing her to apostate, in which he said to her: "I did not stop hitting you but for the fact I got tired." Whereupon she said: "Your God will do the same to you if you do not become Muslim!" Then Aboo Bakr bought her and freed her. And another one of them who Umar used to torture was Zennaira from Bani Adi.

Source: Al-Kamil Fi Tarikh. Vol. 1, Pg. # 591.


Al-Baladari:

Lobina was a slave girl of Bani Al-Mo’ammal Ibn Habib Ibn Tamim Ibn Abdullah Ibn Qart Ibn Razah Ibn Adi Ibn Ka’b and she was called by Umar to leave her faith, as Abul Bakhtari says: 'Lobaina, she converted to Islam before Umar Ibn Al-Khattab and he used to torture her trying to force her to apostatise, after he hit her for a while he said: "I stopped hitting you because I am frustrated" whereupon she said: "Your God will do the same to you if you do not become Muslim!"

And Al-Waqidi with his chain of narrators said, Hasan Ibn Thabit said: 'I went to Makkah as a Pilgrim, and the Prophet (saw) was inviting people to his faith and his companions were being tortured and persecuted. So I stopped before Umar while he was busy suffocating a slave-girl of Bani Amr Ibn Al-Mo’ammal until she relaxed in his hands, whereupon I said, "She is dead!" Then he left her and bounced over to Zennaira to do the same to her.

Source: Ansab Al-Ashraaf of Al-Baladari. Vol. 1, Pg. # 195.


Al-Salihi Al-Shammi:

One of those (who were tortured) was a slave-girl of Bani Al-Mo’ammal Ibn Habib, on the authority of Al-Baladari and Abul Bakhtari who said: 'She was called 'Labiba' (rather Lobaina), she converted to Islam before Umar Ibn Al-Khattab, and Umar used to torture her forcing her to apostate, after he hit her for a while he said: "I stopped hitting you because I am frustrated" whereupon she said: "Your God will do the same to you if you do not become Muslim!"

And Ibn Sa’d has narrated from Hasan (Ibn Thabit) who said: 'I went to Makkah as a pilgrim, and the Prophet (saw) and his companions were being persecuted and tortured. So I stopped before Umar and saw that he was busy suffocating a slave-girl of Bani Amr Ibn Al-Mo’ammal until she relaxed in his hands, so I said': "She died!" Then Aboo Bakr bought her and freed her.

Another one of them was called Zennaira (which means small pebble). Her name has been also narrated as Zanbara, she was from Rome, Umar Ibn Al-Khattab and Aboo Jahl used to torture her. 

Source: Sobol Al-Hoda Wa Rashad. Vol. 2, Pg. # 482.


Ibn Kathir:

Aboo Bakr bought the slave-girl of Bani Mo’ammal family of Bani Adi because Umar used to torture her upon her conversion to Islam.

Source: Al-Bidaya Wa'l Nihaya. Vol. 4, Pg # 145.




وغير سمية كثيرات احتملن فوق محتملاً، فمن المؤمنات الأوائل من كانت تلقى ثم تحمى لها مكاوي الحديد ثم توضع بين أعطافجلدها، ويدعون الأطفال يعبثون بعينها حتى يذهب بصرها، وقد عذب بهذا العذاب زنيرة جارية عمر بن الخطاب رضي الله عنه، وكان هو وجماعة من قريش يتولون تعذيبها كما ذكرنا، ولما ذهب بصرها من لعب الأطفال بعينها قال المشركون: ما أزال بصرها إلا اللات والعزى. فقالت لهم: والله ما هو كذلك، وما تدري اللات والعزى من يعبدهما، ولكن هذا أمر من الله، والله قادر على أن يرد علي بصري. قيل: فرد الله عليها بصرها، فقالت قريش: هذا من سحر محمد). فبدل أن يعتقدوا أن هذه الكرامة من الله لهذه المرأة الصالحة قالوا -والعياذ بالله-: هذا من سحر محمد. وقد قام أبو بكر رضي الله عنه بشرائها ثم أعتقها، فهي من الذين اشتراهم وأعتقهم أبو بكر رضي الله عنه، فقد كان أعتق سبعة ممن كانوا يعذبون في الله في بداية الإسلام، منهم: بلال و عامر بن فهيرة وزنيرة، وجارية بني مؤمل، والنهدية وابنتها. و أم عبيس من هؤلاء المؤمنات اللاتي كان المشركون يعذبونهن، فقد كانوا يجعلونها تشرب كمية كبيرة من العسل، ثم يوثقونها بالأغلال ثم يلقونها بين الرمال ولها حر يذيب اللحم ويصهر العظم، حتى تموت من العطش ويقتلها الظمأ،..وكان عمر بن الخطاب رضي الله عنه قبل أن يسلم يتولى تعذيب جارية مسلمة لبني مؤمل، فلا يزال يضربها بالسياط حتى إذا مل وتعب من كثرة الضرب قال لها: إني أعتذر إليك أني لم أتركك إلا ملالاً. فتقول له: كذلك فعل الله بك. أي: بل الله هو الذي يصرفكعني


Sumayya many other women suffered and endured more than one can bear. Among the early female believers there were those who were tortured by placing hot metal over their skin, and in once case the polytheists invited children to play with it until she could not see anymore. Zennaira slave-girl of Umar Ibn Al-Khattab was tortured in this way, and as we said before, Umar and a group of Quraish were in charge of her torture. When she lost her sight because of children playing with her eyes, the polytheists said: "Her sight is not taken away except by Laat and Uzza (the two Idols)," and she said to them: "By Allah (swt) it is not as you claim, Laat and Uzza are not even aware of who worship them, but this is in the hands of Allah, and Allah is capable of returning my eyesight back." It is said that Allah returned her sight back and the people of Quraish said: "This is of Muhammad’s magic." And they denied that this miracle was from Allah for this pious lady, and they said –I seek refuge in Allah- this is of Muhammad’s magic. And then Aboo Bakr bought her and freed her, and she was one of those who were bought and freed by Aboo Bakr. He freed seven of those who were tortured in the way of Allah in the beginning of Islam, and they are: Bilal, Amer Ibn Fahira and Zennaira and a slave-girl of Bani Mo’ammal and Al-Nahdiyya and her daughter. Umme Obiss was among those female believers that the Polytheists of Quraish tortured, they used to force her to drink a large quantity of honey and then they used to bind her in chains and throw her in the hot sand, whereupon she suffered such a heat that melts the flesh and burns the bones, until she died of thirst and they killed her brutally. Also Umar Ibn Al-Khattab before his conversion undertook the torture of a slave-girl of Bani Mo’ammal, and he did not stop hitting her with whips until he became tired and frustrated due to the frequent beatings, whereupon he said: "I apologise from you, because I stopped beating you on account of my exhaustion" and she replied: "Allah (swt) will do the same to you!" Her statement means that it was rather Allah (swt) who has diverted you from me.



وضمن سنوات الكفر ست سنوات كاملة وهو يعيش مع الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم في مكة، ومع ذلك يصر على كفره وإنكاره لوحدانية الله عز وجل، ويصر على عبادة الأصنام، فهذا هو عمر قبل أن يقول: لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول الله، ولم يكن كافراً عادياً، بل كان من أشد الكفار غلظة على المسلمين، فقد كان يعذب جارية بني مؤمل -وبني مؤمل أحد فروع قبيلة عمر ، وقبيلة عمر هي بني عدي- من الصباح إلى المساء، ويتركها في الليل ليس رحمة بها ولكن يقول: والله ما تركتك إلا ملالة، أي: أنه تعب من تعذيبها، وهذا كان عقل عمر الذي رضي أن يسجد لصنم، فيطلبه ويرجوه ويخافه ويعتمد عليه، هو نفس العقل الذي كان بعد إسلامه، فعرف ربه كما لم يعرفه كثير من الخلق، وهو هذا العقل الذي صار يدير دولة كبيرة كسرت شوكتي فارس والروم اللتين ملكتا المشرق والمغرب، ما هو الذي حصل في عقل عمر ؟ لا إله إلا الله، محمد رسول الله خلقت إنساناً جديداً. وانظر إلى قلب عمر كيف كان يقبل أن يجلد بالسياط امرأة مسكينة ضعيفة، لا لشيء إلا لأنها آمنت بالله وحده، وما نقم منها إلا أنها آمنت بالله العزيز الحميد، وهذا هو قلب عمر نفسه بعد كلمة الإسلام، فقد تغير وصار يخاف خوفاً غير متخيل على كل مسلم في الأرض، سواء كان يعرفه أو لا يعرفه،

(Umar Ibn Al-Khattab) within his period of expressed disbelief lived six complete years with the Messenger of Allah (saw) in Makkah, and despite that, he insisted in his infidelity and held fast to his ignorant stance that Allah Almighty is one, and insisted in worshipping the idols. This was the condition and nature of Umar Ibn Al-Khattab before he said: "There is no God but Allah and Muhammad is his Messenger", besides that he was not a normal infidel (Kafir) but rather he was one of the most brutal infidels over the Muslims. He used to torture a slave-girl of Bani Mo’ammal from the morning to the evening, and Bani Mo’ammal was a sub-tribe of the tribe of Umar, and the tribe of Umar was Bani Adi, and he used to leave her be in the evenings, not because he felt pity on her but in his own words: "By Allah, I did not stop beating you except because I got so tired." It means that he got frustrated beating and torturing her, and this was the intellect of Umar who was satisfied to prostrate before idols, in particular the idol that he used to bring his desires to and trusted and held hope in. It is the same intellect that was with him after his conversion to Islam, so he recognised his real creator that many other people did not, and he is the same intellect that became the leader of a great government which broke the glory of Persians and Rome who reigned the east and the west. What has happened in the intellect of Umar? The sentence "There is no God but Allah and Muhammad is his Messenger" created a new man. Look into the heart of Umar, how he used to whip a poor and weak woman, there was nothing that changed him except the fact that he accepted the unity of the only God, a creed that requires nothing of him except to believe in Allah the Mighty and the Praised. And this is the same heart of Umar after accepting Islam, it changed and became so unimaginably sympathetic that it became concerned for every individual Muslim on the earth, whether he knew him/her or not.

Al-Haithami:

Narrated Abdullah Ibn Amir Ibn Rabee'ah from his mother Laili who said: When we were travelling, migrating to Abyssinia, Umar who used to persecute us mercilessly, came and stood over me and said to me, "Are you leaving, O Umm Abdullah?" I said 'Yes, you have persecuted us and oppressed us, and by Allah we are going out in the land of Allah until Allah grants us a way out!' Umar said, 'May Allah be with you' and went. When my husband Amir ibn Rabee'ah came, I told him about the softness that I saw in Umar, and he said, 'It seems that you hope Umar will become a Muslim?' I said 'Yes!' He said, 'by Allah he will not become a Muslim until Al-Khattab's donkey becomes a Muslim!'

Footnote: Al-Haythami says: Narrated it Al-Tabarani, and Ibn Ishaq mentions that he has heard it, so it is Saheeh 'Authentic'.

 Source: Majmahul Zawahid. Vol. 6, Pg. # 16.


 Umar Ibn Al-Khattab After Conversion


Narrated A'isha: The wives of the Prophet used to go to Al-Manasi, a vast open place (near Baqia at Madinah) to answer the call of nature at night. Umar used to say to the Prophet (saw) "Let your wives be veiled," but Allah's Apostle did not do so. One night Sauda bint Zam'a the wife of the Prophet went out at 'Isha time and she was a tall lady. Umar addressed her and said, "I have recognised you, O Sauda (r.a)." He said so, as he desired eagerly that the verses of Al-Hijab (the observing of veils by the Muslim women) may be revealed. So Allah revealed the verses of "Al-Hijab" (A complete body cover excluding the eyes).

Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. # 50, H # 146.



Whilst the advocates of Umar rejoice at the said tradition which portrays Umar as having acquired merits and a “divine seal of approval” after his conversion, one must also note how atrocious his behaviour was towards women which continued unabated after his conversion. In this case, the woman was not someone ordinary, but rather a wife of the Prophet (saw). In the first tradition we learn that Umar’s desire for a verse to be revealed in connection to hijab was so intense that he felt compelled to publicly humiliate the wife of the Prophet (saw) Sauda (r.a), when she went out at night in order to answer the call of nature by saying, “I have recognised you, O Sauda." Let us ask ourselves, is this the kind of approach and conduct one would adopt towards any woman, let alone the wife of the Prophet (saw)? Was she not entitled to answer the call of nature in privacy? Her going out at night was very clandestine in nature, yet despite this, Umar sought to humiliate her by asserting that he recognised who she was. Even if he did recognise her, what attracted his ire? Was she not entitled to quietly answer the call of nature without fear of someone humiliating her in this manner? Is this type of conduct acceptable? It seems that Umar felt this was the most apt way to get what he wanted without having any moral or ethical compunction about humiliating the wife of the Prophet (saw) who was merely seeking to relieve herself. Additionally, is it not questionable that Umar actually had the nerve to order the Prophet (saw) to veil his wives, or was it that he knew better than the best amongst mankind who did nothing out of his own desire? Nevertheless, we learn that even when Umar got what he wanted, he continued to humiliate poor Sauda (r.a).

“A'isha reported that Sauda went out (in the fields) in order to answer the call of nature even after the time when veil had been prescribed for women. She had been a bulky lady, significant in height amongst the women, and she could not conceal herself from him who had recognized her. Umar b. Khattab saw her and said: "Sauda, by Allah, you cannot conceal yourself from us. Therefore, be careful when you go out.” She (A'isha) said, turned back upon hearing this callous address. Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) was at that time in my house having his evening meal and there was a bone in his hand. She (Sauda) returned and said: Allah's Messenger, I went out and Umar said to me so and so. She (A'isha) reported: At that point the revelation came to him and then it was over; the bone was in his hand and he had not thrown it and he said: "Permission has been granted to you that you may go out for your needs."

Source:  Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Book 65, Page # 1205. Hadeeth # 4795.




Al-Albani:

Al Humadi told us narrated from Sufyan narrated from Misaar narrated Moosa Ibn abi-Kahitr narrated from Mujahid narrated narrating Aisha " I was eating Haysa with Prophet. Umar  passed by, so Prophet [saw] who invited him, he (Umar) came over and joined (us) in food. His hand got touched with my finger, so he (Umar) said: 'Oh! If I were to be agreed (obeyed) about you (regarding Hijab), then no eye would have (ever) seen you!'. Then after the Hijab was revealed".

Footnote: Narration is Saheeh 'Authentic'

Source: Saheeh Al-Adab Al Mufrad, Vol.2, Pg. H # 1053. 






Ibn Hajar:

I  say but what is meant by the first veil is different from the second veil and what happened is that Umar felt some aversion against the fact that strangers were acquainted with the Prophet’s wives ,until he revealed that telling Him (saw) ; 'Withhold your women!' and he affirmed that till the verse of veil have descended, then he (Umar) intended later that they do not show themselves even if they were veiled, and he exaggerated and he disallowed it, and they were authorised to go out for their need to ward off hardship and waiver of embarrassment. Some commentators objected that mentioning the stated hadeeth in the assigned section was not corresponding , but mentioning it in the section of veil denial is more accurate. And it was answered that it was referred to the origin of the hadeeth, as usual as if he was pointing out that combining the two narrations is possible, and God knows best. Another reason for the descent of the veil’s verse appeared in the mujahid’s narration narrating Aisha, that Al- Nasa'i mentioned with the following incident; 'I was having a stew in a huge thick bowl, and Umar passed by therefore He (saw) invited him [to eat with us] and he ate, and his finger touched mine therefore he (saw) said; 'If I was obeyed in you [prophet’s wives] then no eye would ever see you'. Afterwards the order of hijab descended. And it can be agreed that this event and veil order happened before the story of Zaynab, and it is because it was close in time to what happened with Zaynab that the reason of veil ordering was adhered to this story in general but there is nothing to mind the multiplicity of reasons [behind the order of veil]. And ibn Mardawayh mentioned according to Ibn Abbas narration, he said 'A man entered to prophet’s [house] (saw) and he sat for a long period, then the prophet (saw) went out three times so that (the man) goes out but he did not , then Umar came in and he saw the repugnance in the prophet’s face (saw) therefore he told the man; you may have hurt the Prophet (saw)'. Then the Prophet (saw) said; 'I went out thrice so that he follows me but he did not', therefore Umar told Him; 'O Messenger of Allah , wouldn’t it be better if you order [put] a cover [for your women], certainly that your women are not like other women and that is more chaste for their hearts, then the verse of veil descended'.

Source: Fatah al-Bari Sharh Saheeh Al Bukhari, Vol. 10, Pg. # 513 - 514.



So we see that despite the revelation of the verse of Hijab on numerous occasions, Umar still remained a toilet loiterer. He was of the view that the wives of the Prophet (saw) should remain confined within their homes and should not be permitted to leave. Such was his determination on this view that he again singled out Bibi Sauda (r.a) for humiliation stating, “Sauda, by Allah, you cannot conceal from us.” From the narration, we may note that due to the intimidation that was such a chagrin to her, she abandoned her trip and returned to the Prophet (saw) complaining about Umar’s conduct. It is known that during that era there were no toilets in houses and people would relieve themselves by going into the fields, but according to the world of Umar this was completely unacceptable. He was prepared to humiliate the wives of the Prophet (saw) and let them suffer through constipation rather than venture from their homes, despite the fact they were completely veiled! Does such conduct concur with good manners and etiquette? Would today's followers of the so called 'Ahl ul Sunnah' deem it apt to humiliate their Sheikhs' wives were they to observe them venturing out to tend to their personal needs? Would humiliating a wife of one of their Sheikhs in a manner that caused her upset not be a form of reprehensible conduct? Would the Sheikh not feel angered and humiliated by the fact that one of his students was embarrassing his wife in such a manner? On the other hand, how would their wives themselves feel about it? No rational minded person would behave like this, yet Umar ibn Al-Khattab adopted such an aggressive approach that with it, he humiliated a wife of the Prophet (saw) and caused her embarrassment. How can anyone fail to ponder how disgracefully he had conducted himself?!


Narrated Yazid from Hemad Ibn Salama from Alee Ibn Zaid from Yusuf Ibn Mehran from Ibn Abbas who said: 'When Uthman Ibn Madh’oon died, a woman said: "Blessed you are!" The Messenger of Allah (saw) looked at her annoyingly and said: "How do you know?!" She said: "O Messenger of Allah (saw) he was your knight and companion," whereupon he (saw) said: "By Allah, I am the Messenger of Allah and I do not know what will happen to me," and when Zainab daughter of the Messenger of Allah (saw) died, the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "Join our pious friend the good one, Uthman Ibn Madh‘oon," whereupon the women started to cry, then Umar started to beat them with his whip, so the Messenger of Allah (saw) took his hand and said: "Leave them O Umar!" And then said to the women: "Do cry, but be careful not to whoop like Satan!" He continued: "When the eye weeps and the heart becomes sad for a person, it is from Allah the Almighty and of His mercy, and what comes from the hand and the tongue it is from the Satan."

Footnote: This Hadeeth is 'Saheeh' (Authentic!)

Source: Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal. Vol 2, Page # 530 - 531.



Ahmad Ibn Hanbal:

When Ruqayyah daughter of the Messenger of Allah (saw) died, the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "Join our good friend, Uthman Ibn Madh‘oon," whereupon the women started to cry. Then Umar started to beat them with his whip, whereupon the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "Let them cry!" And then said to the women: "But be careful not to whoop like Satan!" And then continued: "When the eye weeps and the heart becomes sad for a person, it is from Allah the Almighty and of His mercy, and what comes from the hand and the tongue it is from the Satan." And then the Messenger of Allah (saw) sat to the side of the grave and Faatimah (s.a) was beside him crying, so the Messenger of Allah (saw) wiped the eyes of Faatima (s.a) with his garment, because of his mercy upon her.

Footnote: This Hadeeth is 'Saheeh' (Authentic!)

Source: Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal. Vol. 3, Pg. # 345 - 346.


There exists criticism regarding one of the sub-narrators, 'Alee bin Zaid bin Jadaan' with scholars having differences in opinions. Some have deemed him authentic, while others have deemed him weak. Ahmad Mohammmed Shakir has graded these narrations as Saheeh (Authentic). Ahmad Ibn Hanbal believed these narrations to be authentic and thus included it into his authentic works.

Tahir al-Dimashqi:

سند الإمام أحمد بن حنبل مع انه التزم الصحيح بمسنده

"Musnad Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal although he commited himself to record Saheeh in his book."

Source: Tawjeeh Al-Nazar. Pg. # 154.



 Muhammad bin Umar Al-Madini:

قد احتاط فيه اسنادا ومتنا ولم يورد فيه إلا ما صح عنده

"He (Ahmad bin Hanbal), was careful with the chain and the content, hence he only recorded what is authentic according to him."


Source: Khasa'is Musnad Ahmad. Pg. # 34 - 35.



Al-Albani:

Hanbal Ibn Ishaq said: 'Our uncle (Ahmad) gathered us, me, Saleh and Abdullah. He taught us "Al-Musnad" and nobody else heard it in its complete form except us. And he (i.e. Ahmad Ibn Hanbal) said: "This book is what I compiled and picked from more that seven hundred and fifty thousand Hadeeths, whenever the Muslims argue about a Hadeeth of the Messenger of Allah (saw) you should turn to this book, if you find it in this book then it is true, and if not then it is not true."

(Al-Albani says): 'This is what Al-Hafiz Al-Madini in "Al-Khasaes" and Ibn Al-Jawzi in "Manaqib Imam Ahmad" have narrated through two chains from Hanbal, so it is firm and Saheeh 'Authentic.'

Source: Al-Zaab Al-Ahmad. Pg. # 12. 


 


Al-Shawkani:

Narrated from ibn Abbas who said: When Zainab daughter of the Messenger of Allah (saw) died, the women started to cry, then Umar started to beat them with his whip, and then the Messenger of Allah (saw) held Umar by his hand and said: "Leave them O Umar!" And then said to the women: "But be careful not to whoop like Satan!" And then said: "When the eye weeps and the heart becomes sad for a person, it is from Allah the Almighty and of His mercy, and what comes from the hand and the tongue it is from the Satan." It is narrated by Ahmad.

The narration is through Ibn Abbas, Alee Ibn Zaid is in it, there is some discussion about him, and he is Trustworthy, and Al-Hafiz (Dhahabi) has pointed to this Hadeeth and he is silent about it.

Source: Nayl Al-Awtaar of Al-Shawkani. Vol. 5, Pg. # 197.



Al-Aynee:

There is another Hadeeth from Ibn Abbas narrated by Aboo Dawood Al-Tialisi that he said: 'The women started to cry when Ruqayyah died, Umar started to prevent them, and then the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "Leave them O Umar!" And then he said to the women: "But be careful not to whoop like Satan!" and then said: "When the eye weeps and the heart becomes sad for a person, it is from Allah the Almighty and of His mercy, and what comes from the hand and the tongue it is from the Satan." And then the Messenger of Allah (saw) sat to the side of the grave and Bibi Faatimah (s.a) was beside him crying, then the Messenger of Allah (saw) wiped the tears off her face with his hand or his garment.

Source: Umdatul Qari Sharh Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Vol. 8, Pg. # 108-109.




Al-Salihi Al-Shaami:

Aboo Dawood Al-Tialisi and Ahmad and Ibn Abi Shayba narrated from Ibn Abbas who reported: 'The women started to cry when Ruqayyah died, Umar started to prevent them or beat them, and in another narration‚ then Umar started beating them with his whip and the Messenger of Allah (saw) took his hand and said': "Leave them!" And then he said to the women: "Be careful not to whoop like Satan! When the eye weeps and the heart becomes sad for a person, it is from Allah the Almighty and of His mercy, and what comes from the hand and the tongue it is from the Satan." Then Faatimah (s.a) returned to the side of the grave and she was crying whereupon the Messenger of Allah (saw) wiped the tears off her face with his hand or with his garment.

Source: Sobol Al-Hoda Wa Rashad. Vol. 8, Pg. # 477.



Al-Haithami:

When Zainab (s.a) daughter of the Messenger of Allah (saw) died, the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "Join our good friend, Uthman Ibn Madh'oon," the women started to cry, then Umar started to beat them with his whip, and then the Messenger of Allah (saw) held Umar by his hand and said: "Stop O Umar!" And then said to the women: "But be careful not to whoop like Satan!" And then said: "When the eye weeps and the heart becomes sad for a person, it is from Allah the Almighty and of His mercy, and what comes from the hand and the tongue it is from the Satan."

It is narrated by Ahmad, Alee Ibn Zaid is in it, there is some discussion about him, and he is 'Thiqa' Trustworthy, and in another narration he says: "And then the Messenger of Allah (saw) sat to the side of the grave and Faatimah (s.a) was beside him crying, whereupon the Messenger of Allah (saw) wiped the tears off her face with his garment" because of his mercy upon her.

Source: Majmahul Zawahid of Al-Haithami. Vol. 3, Pg. # 81.


Al-Mawardi Al-Basri:

Ibn Abbas has reported: When Ruqayyah the daughter of the Messenger of Allah (saw) died, the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "Join our good friend, Uthman Ibn Madh'oon." The women started to cry, then Umar started to beat them with his whip, and then the Messenger of Allah (saw) held Umar by his hand and said: "Stop O Umar!" And then said to the women: "But be careful not to whoop like Satan!" And then said: "When the eye weeps and the heart becomes sad for a person, it is from Allah the Almighty and of His mercy, and what comes from the hand and the tongue it is from the Satan." Ibn Abbas said: "And Faatimah (s.a) was crying beside the grave, then the Messenger of Allah (saw) wiped the tears from her face with his garment."

Source: Al-Hawi Al-Kabir Fi Fiqh Al-Shafi. Vol. 3, Pg. # 68.



Ibn Hajar:

(About women in attendance at a funeral) what Ibn Abi Shayba has narrated is a proof, he has narrated it through Muhammad Ibn Amr Ibn Ata from Abi Huraira that the Messenger of Allah (saw) was in a funeral and Umar saw a women who cried. Umar shouted at her and the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "O Umar leave her alone!"

It is also narrated by Ibn Majah and Al-Nisa'i in this form, and they also have narrated this Hadeeth through another chain through Muhammad ibn Amr ibn Ata from Salama ibn Al-Azraq from Abi Huraira and it’s narrators are 'Thiqh' Trustworthy.

Source: Fathul Bari Sharh Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Vol. 4, Pg. # 18 - 19.


The following are what Ibn Abi Shayba, Al-Nisa'i, Ibn Majah and others have narrated:

Ibn Abi Shayba:

Narrated Affan from Wahib Ibn Urwa from Wahab Ibn Kaisan from Muhammad ibn Amr ibn Ata from Salama Ibn Al-Azraq from Abi Huraira who said: The Messenger of Allah (saw) was at a funeral in which the women were crying, and myself and Umar Ibn Al-Khattab were there, so Umar rebuked the women who were crying, then the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "O son of Khattab leave them alone! Because the soul is afflicted, and the eye is tearful and it has not been a long time since (he/she) has died."

Source: Al-Musannaf Ibn Abi Shayba. Vol. 4, Pg. # 644.



Al-Nisa'i:

Narrated Alee Ibn Hujr from Isma’eel Ibn Ja’far from Muhammad ibn Amr ibn Halhala from Muhammad ibn Amr ibn Ata from Salama ibn Al-Azraq who said: I heard Abi Huraira saying: "Someone from the family of the Prophet (saw) died, so the women gathered and were crying, then Umar chased them out and prevented them from doing so, then the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "O Umar leave them alone! Because the eye is tearful and the heart is afflicted and it is not a long time that (he/she) has died."

Source: Sunan Al-Nisa'i Sharh Al-Suyuti. Vol. 4, Pg. # 318.


  
Ibn Majah:

Narrated Aboo Bakr ibn Abi Shayba and Alee Ibn Muhammad who both said: narrated Wakee from Hisham Ibn Urwa from Wahab Ibn Kaisan from Muhammad ibn Amr ibn Ata from Abi Huraira who said: The Messenger of Allah (saw) was at a funeral, then Umar saw a women and shouted at her, then the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "O Umar leave her alone! Because the eye is tearful and the heart is afflicted and it is not a long time that (he/she) has died."

Explanation of Al-Sindi: In Al-Fath Al-Bari said: 'It’s narrators are 'Thiqh' (Trustworthy!)

Source: Sunan Ibn Majah. Vol. 2, Pg. # 260.


Al-Hakim With The Attestation of Al-Dhahabi:

Narrated Aboo Bakr Ahmad Ibn Ibraheem Al-Faqih Al-Isma’eeli from Aboo Ja’far Muhammad Ibn Abdullah Al-Hadhrami from Aaron Ibn Ishaq Al-Hamdani from Abdat ibn Sulaiman from Hisham Ibn Urwa from Wahab Ibn Kaisan from Muhammad ibn Amr from Abi Huraira who said: The Messenger of Allah went to a funeral and with him was Umar. When Umar heard the women crying, so he rebuked them, then the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "O Umar leave them! Because the eye is tearful and the heart is afflicted and it is not a long time that (he/she) has died."

Al-Hakim: This Hadeeth is Authentic by the criteria of Bukhari and Muslim and they have not narrated it. Al-Dhahabi in Al-Talkhees: 'Authentic by their criteria (i.e. Bukhari and Muslim).

Source: Al-Mustadrak Al-Hakim. Vol. 1, Pg. # 537.



Al-Dhahabi:

Ibn Jarij reported, narrated Hisham Ibn Urwa from Wahab Ibn Kaisan from Muhammad ibn Amr that Salama ibn Al-Azraq reported to him: While he was sitting with the son of Umar, a corpse was carried and the women were crying, so the son of Umar reproached the act and rebuked the women, then Salama said: "Do not say this, because I witnessed Aboo Huraira and heard him when a woman from Kana’en died and we bore witness that Marwan had given orders to chase out those women who were crying, when Aboo Huraira said: "Leave them Aba Abdulmalik, because the Messenger of Allah (saw) was at a funeral in which the women were crying, and me and Umar Ibn Al-Khattab were with him, so Umar rebuked the women who were crying on the funeral, then the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "O son of Khattab leave them alone! Because the soul is afflicted, and the eye is tearful and it is not a long time that (he/she) has died." Then the son of Umar asked: "Did you hear that?" Salama said: "Yes!" Then the son of Umar said: "So Allah and his Messenger know best."

Al-Dhahabi says: Ahmad has narrated it, from Abdulrazaq from Ibn Jarij and it’s narrators are 'Thiqh' (Trustworthy), and Al-Nisa'i and Ibn Majah also narrated some part of it through Muhammad Ibn Amr Ibn Halhala from Muhammad ibn Amr ibn Ata, from them through Hemad ibn Salama and from him Hisham.

Source: Tanqih Al-Tahqeeq. Vol. 1, Pg. # 321 - 322.


{يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تُقَدِّمُوا بَيْنَ يَدَيِ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ}

{O you who believe, do not proceed ahead of Allah and His Messenger, and fear Allah. Surely Allah is All-Hearing, All-Knowing} 

Holy Qu'raan {49:1}

If an individual regards Allah (swt) as his Lord, accepts Allah's Messenger (saw) as his guide and leader and is true in his belief, an attitude in which he passes his own judgements, gives his own independent opinions/views on matters without referring them to Allah (swt) and His Messenger (saw) can never be adopted. Taking precedence of ones own views/opinions above that of Allah (swt) and His Messenger is one in which would lead mankind astray for it has been revealed in the Holy Qur'aan:

{وَمَا كَانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ وَلاَ مُؤْمِنَةٍ إِذَا قَضَى اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ أَمْراً أَن يَكُونَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ مِنْ أَمْرِهِمْ وَمَن يَعْصِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلَـلاً مُّبِيناً }

{It is not for a believer, man or woman, when Allah and His Messenger have decreed a matter that they should have any option in their decision. And whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger, he has indeed strayed into a plain error} 

Holy Qu'raan {33:36}

Thus a believer should not decide upon matters themselves by using their own initiative, but should look for guidance in Allah's (swt) Book and His Prophet's Sunnah concerning those matters. Clearly, Umar believed he was above the decree of Allah (swt) and His Messenger (saw). Had he truly believed he would never have carried out such actions!


As for Umar's vehemence on the battlefield, historians relate that whenever Umar encountered a powerful enemy, he took to his heels. Consequently, other companions also fled along with him and as a result of this, the Muslim army were often defeated.

Margoliouth. D. S. (David Samuel) 

If satan were to meet Omar, said Mohammed "he would get out of Omar's way." Yet we have no record of any occasion on which Omar displayed remarkable courage, though many examples are at hand of his cruelty and bloodthirstiness; at the battle of Hunayn he ran away and on another occasion owed his life to the good nature of an enemy. Probably the above story is in the main true. Novelists sometimes employ similar motives an impetuous but chivalrous man finds the he has rushed into an ungentlemanly act, and in his extreme desire it atone loses command of his will. The shock which Omar experienced at having wounded his sister made him anxious to do anything which would atone for it; the most obvious course being to express admiration for the Koran and become a Muslim, he hastens to adopt that; he is admitted into the society and becomes its most fanatical member. Moreover, to this sister he appears to have been fondly attached; when, as children, they looked after their mother's camel in a desert. Omar used when it grew hot to throw his garment over his sister and tend the beast, exposed without any coverage to the sunshine. This explains the difficulty that Omar's conduct on other occasions displays no trace of chivalry. He was a wife beater; he went to the length of scourging some women for weeping over the death of one of Mohammed's daughter's.

Source: Mohammed And The Rise Of Islam. Pg. # 63 - 64.



Muslim bin Hajjaj:

Narrated Aboo Bakr Ibn Abi Shayba from Affan from Hemad Ibn Salama from Thabit from Anas who said: "When (the news of) the advance of Aboo Sufyan (at the head of a force) reached him, the Messenger of Allah (saw) held consultations with his Companions. He said: Aboo Bakr spoke (expressing his own views), but he (the Holy Prophet) turned away from him. Then spoke Umar (expressing his views), but he (the Holy Prophet)  turned away from him (too). Then Sa'd Ibn Ubada stood up and said: 'Messenger of Allah, you want us (to speak?) By God in whose control is my life, if you order us to plunge our horses into the sea, we would do so. If you order us to goad our horses to the most distant place like Bark al-Ghimad, we would do so.' He said: Now the Messenger of Allah (saw) called upon the people (for the encounter). So they set out and encamped at Badr. (Soon) the water-carriers of the Quraish arrived. Among them was a black slave belonging to Banu al-Hajjaj. The Companions of the Messenger of Allah (saw) caught him and interrogated him about Aboo Sufyan and his companions. He said: 'I know nothing about Aboo Sufyan, but Aboo Jahl, Utba, Shayba and Umayya b. Khalaf are there.' When he said this, they beat him. Then he said: 'All right, I will tell you about Aboo Sufyan.' They would stop beating him and then ask him (again) about Aboo Sufyan. He would again say, 'I know nothing about Aboo Sufyan, but Aboo Jahl. 'Utba, Shayba and Umayya b. Khalaf are there.' When he said this, they beat him likewise. The Messenger of Allah (saw) was standing in prayer. When he saw this he finished his prayer and said: 'By Allah in whose control is my life, you beat him when he is telling you the truth, and you let him go when he tells you a lie.' The narrator said: Then the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: 'This is the place where so and so would be killed.' He placed his hand on the earth (saying) here and here; (and) none of them fell away from the place which the Messenger of Allah (saw) had indicated by placing his hand on the earth."

Source: Saheeh Muslim. Vol. 2, Pg. # 855.


Ahmad Ibn Hanbal:

Narrated Abdulsamad from Hemad from Thabit from Anas who said: "The Messenger of Allah (saw held consultations with his companions on the day of Badr, Aboo Bakr spoke (expressing his own views), but he (the Holy Prophet) turned away from him. Then spoke Umar (expressing his views), but he (the Holy Prophet)  turned away from from him (too). Then Ansaar said: 'Do you want us to speak?' Then Midaad Ibn Al-Aswad (r.a) said: 'O Messenger of Allah (saw) by God in whose control is my life, if you order us to plunge our horses into the sea, we would do so. If you order us to goad our horses to the most distant place like Bark al-Ghimad, we would do so, so what do you want us to do?' Now the Messenger of Allah (saw) called upon the people (for the encounter). So they set out and encamped at Badr. (Soon) the water-carriers of the Quraish arrived. Among them was a black slave belonging to Banu al-Hajjaj. The Companions of the Messenger of Allah (saw) caught him and interrogated him about Aboo Sufyan and his companions. He said: 'I know nothing about Aboo Sufyan, but Aboo Jahl, Utba, Shayba and Umayya b. Khalaf are there.' When he said this, they beat him. Then he said: 'All right, I will tell you about Aboo Sufyan.' They would stop beating him and then ask him (again) about Aboo Sufyan. He would again say, 'I know nothing about Aboo Sufyan, but Aboo Jahl, 'Utba, Shayba and Umayya b. Khalaf are there.' When he said this, they beat him likewise. The Messenger of Allah (saw) was standing in prayer. When he saw this he finished his prayer and said: 'By Allah in whose control is my life, you beat him when he is telling you the truth, and you let him go when he tells you a lie.' The narrator said: Then the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: 'This is the place where so and so would be killed. He placed his hand on the earth (saying) here and here; (and) none of them fell away from the place which the Messenger of Allah (saw) had indicated by placing his hand on the earth. He said: Allah's Messenger (saw) let the dead bodies of the unbelievers who fought in Badr (lie unburied) for three days. He then came to them and sat by their side and called them and said: 'O Aboo Jahl, O Utba, O Shayba, O Umayya! Have you not found what your Lord had promised with you to be correct? As for me, I have found the promises of my Lord to be (perfectly) correct.' Umar said: 'O Allah's Messenger, how do they listen and respond to you? They are dead and their bodies have decayed.' Thereupon he (the Holy Prophet) said: 'What I am saying to them, even you cannot hear more distinctly than they, but they lack the power to reply.' Then he commanded that they should be buried, so they were taken by their legs and thrown in the well of Badr."

Footnote: The chain is Saheeh 'Authentic!' by the criteria of Muslim

Source: Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal. Vol. 21, Pg. # 21 /22/ 23 .


Al-Dhahabi:

Chapter of battle of Badr from Al-Maghazi of Musa Ibn Uqba, 'The most authentic book of battles': 

Narrated Ibraheem Ibn Al-Munzir Al-Hezami from Motref and Ma’an and others that Malik was asked from Al-Maghazi 'book of battles the Messenger of Allah (saw)' said: 'Take Al-Maghazi of Musa Ibn Uqba, because it is the most authentic book of Battles.'

(After mentioning some facts before the battle of Badr, he narrates the consultations of the Messenger of Allah (saw) with his Companions in the day of Badr:

Then Umar said: "O Messenger of Allah (swt), it is tribe of Quraysh and it is dear, by God, it is not belittled since it has been respected, and has not believed since denied the belief, by God they will fight with you, and you will suffer from that?!" The Messenger of Allah (swt) said: 'Consult me', Al-Miqdad Ibn Amr said: 'We will not say what the companions of Musa said {So go you and your Lord and fight you two, we are sitting right here}[5:24], we say rather ‘go you and your Lord and fight you two we are with you and follow you', the Messenger of Allah (swt) said: 'Consult me'… (and then Sa’d Ibn Ubada said what he said).


Source: Tarikh Al-Islam. Vol. 1, Pg. # 106.


The Sheikhayn advised the messenger of Allah (swt) not to partake in battle as they feared the army would face destruction against the disbelievers. The Holy Prophet (saw) showed his dislike not once but twice by turning his face away from both of them. On the contrary, a group of companions came forward to take an oath to fight till they would die. While the intention is unclear as to why the Sheikhayn would vote against the idea, Allah (swt) had revealed it in the Holy Qur'aan. 

{خُذِ الْعَفْوَ وَأْمُرْ بِالْعُرْفِ وَأَعْرِضْ عَنِ الْجَاهِلِينَ}

{Use thou indulgence and enjoin seemliness and turn away from the ignorant}

Holy Qur'aan {7:199}


{فَاصْدَعْ بِمَا تُؤْمَرُ وَأَعْرِضْ عَنِ الْمُشْرِكِينَ}

{Therefore proclaim openly that which you are commanded, and turn away from Al-Mushrikun}

Holy Qur'aan {15:94}


{فَأَعْرِضْ عَن مَّن تَوَلَّى عَن ذِكْرِنَا وَلَمْ يُرِدْ إِلَّا الْحَيَاةَ الدُّنْيَا}

{So, turn away from him who turns away from Our advice, and seeks nothing but (pleasure of) the worldly life}

Holy Qur'aan {53:29}


{وَيَقُولُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَوْلَا نُزِّلَتْ سُورَةٌ فَإِذَا أُنزِلَتْ سُورَةٌ مُّحْكَمَةٌ وَذُكِرَ فِيهَا الْقِتَالُ رَأَيْتَ الَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ يَنظُرُونَ إِلَيْكَ نَظَرَ الْمَغْشِيِّ عَلَيْهِ مِنَ الْمَوْتِ فَأَوْلَى لَهُمْ}

{And the believers say, “Why has a (new) Surah not been revealed?” Then, once an operative Surah is sent down, and fighting (in Allah’s way) is mentioned in it, you notice those who have disease in their hearts, looking to you like one who is faint because of death. So, destruction is very close to them.}

Holy Qur'aan {47:20}

Further insight regarding the reaction of the Prophet (saw) during this incident has been recorded in Saheeh Al-Bukhari in the chapter, ‘Battle of Badr’. The Prophet (saw) was overwhelmed with the words of Al-Miqdad (r.a) who was among those who gave the pledge to fight till they die.

Al-Bukhari:

Narrated Aboo No’aim from Israeel from Mokhariq from Tariq Ibn Shehab who said: I heard Abdullah Ibn Masoud saying: I witnessed Al-Miqdad bin Al-Aswad in a scene which would have been dearer to me than anything had I been the hero of that scene. He (i.e. Al-Miqdad) came to the Prophet while the Prophet was urging the Muslims to fight with the pagans. Al-Miqdad said, "We will not say as the people of Moses said: {Go you and your Lord and fight you two.} [5:24] But we shall fight on your right and on your left and in front of you and behind you." I saw the face of the Prophet getting bright with happiness, for that saying delighted him.

Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. 972, H # 3952.


Tabari:

Narrated Aboo Hisham Al-Rafi from Aboo Bakr Ibn Ayyash from Hasim Ibn Kulayb from his father who said: "Umar preached on the day of Friday and recited Surah Aal-Imraan and liked it when he reached {Those of you who turned back on the day the two hosts met}[3:155] he said: 'In the day of Uhud when we ran away, so I ran away and climbed the mountain, and I saw myself running and jumping like a mountain goat. And the people were saying: Muhammad is killed! I said: anyone who says Muhammad is killed I will kill him! Until we gathered on the mountain and the verse {Those of you who turned back on the day the two hosts met} was revealed in complete.

Source: Tafsir Jami Al-Bayan. Vol. 6, Pg. # 172.


Analysis Of The Chain Of Narrators:

The status of these four narrators in the books of Rijal:

      1 -  Aboo Hisham Al-Rafi
      2 -  Aboo Bakr Ibn Ayyash
      3 -  Hasim Ibn Kulayb
      4 -  Kulayb Ibn Shahab

      1 -   Aboo Hisham Al-Rafi

Al-Dhahabi:

Al-Rafi (narrated from him Muslim, Al-Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah): Al-Imam Al-Faqeeh Al-Hafiz Al-Allama, judge of Baghdad, Aboo Hisham, Muhammad ibn Yazeed ibn Muhammad ibn Kathir ibn Rafa’a, Al-Ijlli Al-Rafai Al-Kafi Al-Moqerri. He has narrated from: Abi Al-Ahwaz Salam, Al-Motallib iZiyyad and Abi Bakr ibn Ayyash and Hafs Ibn Ghiyas and Abdullah ibn Ajlah and Yahya Ibn Yaman and their generation.

Source: Siyar Ahlam Al-Nobala. Vol. 12, Pg. # 153.


Ibn Hibban:

Muhammad ibn Yazeed ibn Rafa’a ibn Samaha, Aboo Hisham Al-Rafai, from Kufa, narrated from Abi Bakr ibn Ayyash and narrated from him people of Iraq, died in Baghdad on Wednesday, died in 248 A.H, has some mistakes and negative narrations.

Source: Al-Thuqat 'Authenticated Ones'. Vol. 9, Pg. # 109.


Al-Khatib Al-Baghdadi:

Muhammad ibn Yazeed ibn Muhammad ibn Kathir ibn Rafa’a ibn Samaha, Aboo Hisham Al-Rafai Al-Kufi. Was a judge in Baghdad after Abi Hassan Al-Ziyadi’s death, and narrated from Abdullah Ibn Idrees and Hafs Ibn Ghiyas and Ibn Fodhail and Abi Bakr Ibn Ayyash and Abi Khaled Al-Ahmar and Wakih and Abi Mo’awiyya and Abdullah Ibn Nomair and Yahya Ibn Yaman and Abi Usama, he was a scholar in Ahkaam, and was a Hafiz in recitation (of Qur‘aan). Narrated from him Muhammad Ibn Ismaeel Al-Bukhari and Muslim Ibn Hajjaj. Narrated Al-Barqani from Muhammad Ibn Al-Abbas Al-Khazzaz from Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Mas’adda from Jahfar Ibn Darsawaih from Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Al-Qasem Ibn Mohrez who said: Yahya Ibn Mo’een was asked about Abi Hisham Al-Rafai, he said: I don’t see any problem in him.

…narrated Aboo Muslim Saleh Ibn Ahmad Ibn Abdullah Ibn Saleh ibn Muslim from his father who said: Aboo Hisham Al-Rafai Kufi has no problem, he is a reciter of  Qur’aan, narrated from Hafs and Ibn Idrees and learned from Solaim, and he was judge in Al-Madahen. Al-Barqani was asked about Abi Hesham Al-Rafaee, he said: He is trustworthy, Abulhasan Al-Dar Al-Qotni ordered me to narrate his narrations in Saheeh (i.e. his narrations are authentic).

Source: Tarikh Al-Baghdad. Vol. 4, Pg. # 595 - 597.


     2 -   Aboo Bakr ibn Ayyash

Al-Dhahabi:

Aboo Bakr ibn Ayyash Ibn Salem Al-Asadi, Maula of the Asad tribe, Al-Hannat, Al-Moqerri, Al-Faqeeh, Al-Muhaddith (one who remembers and narrates many Hadeeth), Sheikh Al-Islam, and the remaining of the scholars, Maula Wasel Al-Ahdab. About his name there are several opinions, the most famous of them is Shohba, was born in the year 95 A.H, reciter of Qur’aan, and has recited it three times with Tajweed before Hasim Ibn Abi Al-Najood, and narrated from Hasim, and Abi Is’haq Al-Sabiee, and Abdul Malik ibn Umair and Hisham ibn Urwa and many more. Narrated from him: Ibn Al-Mubarak, Al-Kasahi, and Wakih, and Aboo Dawood and many more. He has many students in recitation of Qur’aan, one of them is Abul Hassan Al-Kasahi who died before him. Yahya Ibn Mo'een said: He is trustworthy. And more than one said: He is truthful, and has mistakes. Ahmad Ibn Hanbal said: He is trustworthy, maybe has some mistakes (in some narrations),  he was owner of Qur’aan (reciter) and was owner of goodness. Died in Jamadi Al-Ulaa of the year 193 A.H at the age of 96.

Source: Tahdheeb Siyar Ahlam Al-Nobala. Vol. 1, Pg.  # 303.



      3 -     Hasim Ibn Kulayb

Al-Mizzi:

Hasim Ibn Kulayb Ibn Shahab Ibn Al-Majnoon Al-Jarmi Al-Kufi.(narrated from him Bukhari in his Tarikh, Muslim in his Saheeh, and the four: Tirmidhi, Abi Dawood, Nasa'i, and Ibn Majah). Narrated Aboo Bakr Al-Athram from Ahmad Ibn Hanbal who said: There is no problem in his narrations. And Ahmad Ibn Sa’d Ibn Abi Maryam from Yahya Ibn Mo’een who said: He is trustworthy. Al-Nasa'i said the same. Aboo Hatam said: He was righteous. Abi Dawood said: 'He was devout and righteous and mentioned his merits, and said somewhere else: he was the best of people of Kufa'. Ibn Hibban mentioned him in his book 'Al-Thuqat'. Narrated from him Bukhari in his Saheeh and narrated from him in the chapter of 'Rafh Al-Yadain in Al-Salat' and in his book 'Al-Adab' and narrated others from him.

Source: Tahdheeb Al-Kamal. Vol. 13, Pg. # 537 - 539.


Hasim Ibn Kulayb 

Muhammad Ibn Sa‘d:

Hasim Ibn Kulayb Ibn Shahab Al-Jarmi. Died in the beginning of Abi Ja’far’s caliphate, He was trustworthy, his narrations are to be trusted, he has not many narrations.

Source: Al-Tabaqat Al-Kabir. Vol. 8, Pg. # 460.


4 - Kulayb Ibn Shahab

Ibn Abdul Barr:

Kulayb Ibn Shahab Al-Jarami, father of Hasim Ibn Kulayb, and his father Shahab was  a Companion.

Source: Al-Istiab. Vol. 3, Pg. # 1329.




There exists a difference in opinion as to whether Kulayb ibn Shahab was a Tab'ee or a Companion.

Al-Razi:

Kulayb Ibn Shahab al-Jarami Al-Kufi father of Hasim Ibn Kulayb, he has narrated narrations from the Prophet (saw) but they are mursal 'broken' because he has not met the Prophet (saw), but people narrate it from Hasim Ibn Kulayb from his father from a man from the Ansaar. Kulayb has narrated from Umar and Alee (a.s) and Sa’d and Abi Zar and Wahil Ibn Hajar. Narrated from him his son Hasim Ibn Kulayb and Ibraheem Ibn Mohajir. I heard it from my father who taught me that Abdulrahman  said: Aboo Zar’a was asked about Kulayb Al-Jarami father of Hasim Ibn Kulayb, he said: 'He was trustworthy from Kufa'.

Source: Al-Jarh wa Ta'deel. Vol. 7, Pg. # 167.


Kulayb Ibn Shahab

Muhammad Ibn Sa’d:

Kulayb Ibn Shahab Al-Jarami from the tribe of Bani Qodha’a, he was father of Hasim Ibn Kulayb. He has narrated from Umar, Alee (a.s) and he is trustworthy, he has narrated many narrations. Ibn Sa’d said: 'I saw the (scholars) trust his narrations and take them'.

Source: Al-Tabaqat Al-Kabir. Vol. 8, Pg. # 243.




Note: Bukhari had deemed Aboo Hisham Al-Rafai as being weak. But this narration has also been narrated through other chains. 

Ibn Munzir:

Narrated Muhammad ibn Ismaeel Al-Sahigh from Yahya Ibn Abdulhamid from Aboo Bakr (Ibn Ayyash) from Hasim Ibn Kulayb from his father who said: Umar gave a sermon, he was wearing a white cloth with a patch on it. It looked bright, he was preaching on the pulpit and reciting Surah Aal Imraan. He said that this Surah was revealed in Uhud. Then said: we left the Messenger of Allah (swt) in the day of Uhud and I climbed the mountain, and I heard a Jew calling: 'Muhammad is killed, I said: 'Anyone who says Muhammad is killed I will chop his head!' Then I looked and saw the Messenger of Allah (swt) in the battlefield and saw that people are returning to him. Then this verse was revealed: {Muhammad is no more than a Messenger: many were the Messengers that passed away before Him. If he died or was slain, will ye then turn back on your heels?}[3:144].

Source: Tafsir Ibn Munzir. Vol. 1, Pg. # 402.


The two narrators in this are:

1. Muhammad Ibn Ismaeel Al-Sahigh:

Al-Dhahabi:

Al-Sahigh Al-Imam, scholar of narrations, trustworthy, Sheikh of Haram, Aboo Jahfar, Muhammad Ibn Ismaeel Ibn Salim, Al-Qorashi, Al-Abbasi, Maula Al-Mahdi, Al-Baghdadi, migrated to Makkah. He heard narrations from his father, and father of Usama, and some others. Narrated from him Aboo Dawood, and Ibn Sa’ed and others. Ibn Abi Hatam says: He is truthful. I (Dhahabi) say: 'He was around ninety. Died in Jamadi Al-Ulaa of the year 276 A.H'.

Source: Tahdheeb Siyar Ahlam Al-Nobala. Vol. 1, Pg. # 516.



2. Yahya Ibn Abdulhamid:

Al-Dhahabi:

Yahya Ibn Abdulhamid Ibn Abdulrahman Ibn Maymoon Ibn Abdulrahman, Al-HafIz, the great Imam Aboo Zakaria Ibn Al-Mohaddeth the trustworthy Abi Yahya Al-Hemmani Al-Kufi, author of the great Al-Musnad. He was born around 150 A.H, Ahmad and Alee used to accuse him. Motim said: 'I asked Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Nomair about Yahya Al-Hemmani, he said: He is trustworthy, he is older than all of them (i.e. Ahmad and Alee), so write his narrations'. It is frequent that Yahya Ibn Mo’een says: 'He is trustworthy, and the opposite is also frequent from Ahmad who accused him'. He has no narration in the six books, they intentionally have not narrated from him. He died in 228 A.H.

Source: Tahdheeb Siyar Ahlam Al-Nobala. Vol. 1, Pg. # 391.


Al-Albani:

Al-Hemmani is Yahya Ibn Abdulhamid, and he is trustworthy Hafiz, of the narrators of Muslim, the only thing is that they have accused him is of stilling narrations as in Al-Taqreeb.

Source: Silsalat Al-Hadeeth Al-Saheeh. Vol. 2, Pg. # 168.


Let us observe what other scholars have said pertaining to Yahya Ibn Abdulhamid and what he is accused of regarding stilling narrations:

Al-Khatib Al-Baghdadi:

Yahya Ibn Abdulhamid Ibn Abdulrahman Ibn Maymoon Ibn Abdulrahman, and Maymoon’s title is Shameen, his title is Aba Zakariyya, Al-Hemmani Al-Kufi.

Aba Hatam Al-Razi said: 'I asked Yahya Ibn Mo’een about Al-Hemmani, he talked good about him', 'How should he be? His Musnad contains more than 4000 sections, but Shareek’s Musnad contains 3000 sections as an example (of his knowledge). Aboo Hatim mentioned ten thousand and then said he was one of Muhaddith (specialist who is profoundly known and narrates Hadeeth)'.

Aba Sa’eed Uthman ibn Sa’eed Al-Darami said: 'I heard Yahya Ibn Mo’een saying: 'Ibn Al-Hemmani is a famous truthful person, there is nobody in Kufa like him, and whatever is said against him is because of jealousy.

Ahmad ibn Zaheer said: 'I heard Yahya Ibn Mo’een saying: Yahya Ibn Abdulhamid Al-Hemmani is trustworthy, and there was no one in Kufa in his time more knowledgeable than him in narrations, therefore they envy him.

Aboo Ja’far Muhammad Ibn Uthman ibn Abi Shayba said: 'I asked Yahya Ibn Mo’een about Yahya Ibn Abdulhamid, he said: 'He is trustworthy, and his father was Abdulhamid Ibn Abdulrahman also trustworthy'.

Abbas ibn Muhammad said: 'I heard Yahya saying: 'Aboo Yahya Al-Hemmani and his son are trustworthy.' And Abbas said: 'He said that more than one time'.

Abbas Al-Doori said: 'I heard Yahya Ibn Mo’een saying: 'Aboo Yahya Al-Hemmani is trustworthy, and Yahya Ibn Abdulhamid is trustworthy.' Abbas said: 'Yahya did not stop saying this untill he died'.

Saleh Ibn Muhammad said: 'I heard Yahya Ibn Mo’een when he was asked about Yahya Ibn Abdulhamid Al-Hemmani, He said: 'He is owner of narrations and truthful'.

Abdulkhaliq Ibn Mansoor said: 'Yahya Ibn Mo’een was asked about Yahya Ibn Al-Hemmani, he said: 'He is truthful, trustworthy'.

Abdullah Ibn Muhammad Ibn Manih said: 'While we were near the door of Yahya Ibn Abdulhamid Al-Hemmani that Yahya Ibn Mo’een came riding his mule and narrators asked him to narrate them narrations, he denied and said: "I came here to meet Abi Zakariyya", and entered the house and when he came out he said: "He is trustworthy son of trustworthy".

Alee Ibn AbdulAziz said: I heard Yahya Al-Hemmani talking to a group of strangers in his session: 'Where are you from?' They said their hometown, then He said: 'Have you heard anyone in your land talking against me? Saying that I am weak in narrations?' Do not listen to what people of Kufa say against me, because they envy me, because I was the first one who collected a Musnad and I achieved other things also prior to them'.

Ahmad Ibn Yusuf Al-Sulmi said: 'I heard Alee Ibn Al-Madini saying: "I meet three people who narrate narrations that have not heard: Yahya Ibn Abdulhamid, Abdul Aala Al-Sami and Al-Mo’tamer Ibn Sulaiman"'.

Muhammad Ibn Abdullah Ibn Sulaiman Al-Hadhrami said: 'I asked Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Nomair about Yahya Al-Hemmani, He said: 'He is trustworthy, he is older than these all of them (i.e. Ahmad Ibn Hanbal and Alee Ibn Al-Madini), so write his narrations'. And I asked Ahmad Ibn Muhammad ibn Hanbal about Yahya Al-Hemmani and said: 'Do you know him? Have you knowledge about him?' He said: 'How can I not know him?' So I said to him: 'Was he trustworthy?' Ahmad said: 'You know your Sheikhs better than us.' And I asked Yahya Ibn Mo’een about Yahya Al-Hemmani and he said: 'He is trustworthy'.

Muhammad Ibn Abdul Rahman Al-Sami said: 'Ahmad Ibn Hanbal was asked about Yahya Al-Hemmani, so he remained silent about him and did not say anything.'

Hanbal Ibn Ishaq said: 'I said to Abi Abdullah When I came from Kufa, and Yahya Al-Hemmani had narrated to us from Abi Abdullah (Ahmad Ibn Hanbal) narration of Ishaq Al-Azraq, from Bayan a hadeeth that says "Cool yourself with Salat." So I asked Abi Abdullah that Ibn Al-Hemmani has narrated to us this hadeeth from you'. Abi Abdullah said: "I do not know if I have narrated this to him, and I do not know, maybe he has not memorized it well. And denied to have narrated this narration to him".

Abdullah Ibn Ahmad said: 'I heard my father when the name of Ibn Al-Hemmani was mentioned he said: 'He was writing narrations and was learning narrations, but what He has heard of narrations is less.'

Abdullah Ibn Ahmad Ibn Hanbal said: 'I said to my father that the two sons of Abi Shaybah have mentioned that they are coming to Baghdad what do you think about it?'' He said: 'Ibn Al-Hemmani came here and people gathered around him and he used to lie publicly, Ibn Abi Shayba’s case is okay'.

I said to my father that Ibn Al-Hemmani has narrated a hadeeth from you from Ishaq from Shareek from Bayan from Qais from Al-Mughira Ibn Sho’ba from the Prophet (saw) who said: "Cool yourself with Salat." He said: 'He has lied, I have not narrated it to him.' I said: 'They say from him that said: 'I heard it in a discussion on the door of Isma’eel Ibn Olayya.' He said, 'He has lied, I heard that narration from Ishaq after that occasion, I did not know in those days that this narration is Ghareeb 'rare', until these youngsters or these narrators asked me about it'. My father said: 'When we met on the door of Ibn Olayya we discussed about Al-Fiqh and other things. My father said: 'We got the book of Ishaq and I chose this narration from it'. I said to my father: 'A man has narrated to me who heard Ibn Al-Hemmani narrating from Shareek from Mansoor from Ibraheem: {and when harmed they become victorious}[42:39] He said: 'They did not like to get belittled'. That man said: 'This hadeeth exists in the books of Ibn Al-Mubarak from Shareek from Al-Hakam Al-Basri from Mansoor, and Ibn Al-Hemmani has said that Shareek has narrated it to us from Al-Hakam Al-Basri from Mansoor, my father then said: 'How bold was He, this is an intense boldness,' and said: 'I did not know that he used to still narrations and narrate it by himself.' Abdullah Ibn Ahmad said: 'And I heard my father saying in another occasion when Ibn Al-Hemmani’s name was mentioned' He said: 'He used to learn hadeeth and has heard hadeeth, if  only he sufficed with what he had heard it was sufficient for him, and this is the best thing that I heard my father said about him.'

And Al-Rumadi said: he (i.e. Yahya Ibn Abdulhamid) is more trustworthy for me than Abi Bakr Ibn Abi Shaybah, and whatever is said against him is nothing but jealousy.

Source: Tarikh Al-Baghdad. Vol. 16, Pg. # 251 - 261.


Al-Mizzi:

Aboo Bakr Al-Athram said: I said to Abi Abdullah: 'What do you say about Ibn Al-Hemmani?' He said: 'He is not the only one, or the second, or the third, or the fourth that they narrate narrations from him.' And then said: 'His case is bigger than this, and attacked him intensely in the knowledge of Hadeeth.'

Muhammad Ibn Abi Haroon Al-Hamdani said: I asked Yahya Ibn Mo’een about Al-Hemmani he said: 'He is trustworthy,' I said: 'They talk against him,' he said: 'Because they envy him, by Allah who there is no other God beside him he is trustworthy.'

Source: Tadheeb Al-Kamal. Vol. 31, Pg. # 426 - 432.



Note: The allegation made by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal regarding Yahya Al-Hemmani for having stilling narrations is based on nothing but spite. The son of Ahmad ibn Hanbal would narrate from unknown people and Ahmad ibn Hanbal would turn a blind eye to this. The remarks of of Ahmad Ibn Hanbal regarding Yahya Ibn Abdulhamid shows that Ahmad clearly had envy for him and this is a well established fact by Yahya Ibn Mo’een, Al-Rumadi and Yahya Ibn Abdulhamid himself.

Ibn Hajar:

Muhammad ibn Ibraheem Al-Bushanji was asked about Al-Hemmani he said: 'He is trustworthy, and Yahya Ibn Mo’een and Ibn Numair have said that he is trustworthy, and Aboo Al-Khaithma used to teach us his Musnad.'

Source: Tahdheeb Al-Tahdheeb. Vol. 11, Pg. # 249.



Al-Salehi Al-Shammi:

Narrated Ibn Al-Munzir Kulayb Ibn Shahab who said: Umar preached on the day of Friday and recited Surah Aal-Imraan and said: It was revealed in Uhud, when he reached {Those of you who turned back on the day the two hosts met}[3:155] he said: On the day of Uhud we ran away, so I ran away and climbed the mountain, and I saw myself running and jumping like a mountain goat. And I heard a jew saying: 'Muhammad is killed, I said: 'Anyone who says Muhammad is killed I will chop his head! Then I looked and saw the Messenger of Allah (swt) in the battlefield and saw that people are returning to him.'

Source: Sobul Al-Hoda wa Al-Rashad. Vol. 4, Pg. # 305.


Abi Hayyan:

{Those of you who turned back on the day the two hosts met (i.e. the battle of Uhud), it was Shaytan (Satan) who caused them to backslide (run away from the battlefield) because of some (sins) they had earned}[2:155], Umar preached on the day of Friday and recited Surah Aal-Imraan and liked it to recite, when he reached this verse he said: 'On the day of Uhud we ran away, so I ran away and climbed the mountain, and I saw myself running and jumping like a mountain goat'. And I heard people saying: 'Muhammad is killed!' I said: 'Anyone who says Muhammad is killed I will kill him! When we all gathered on the mountain, all of this verse revealed'.

Source: Tafsir Al-Bahr Al-Mohit of Abi. Vol. 3, Pg. # 97.



Fakhr Al-Razi:

The summary of narrations is that a group of them ran away and went far away, some of them entered Madina, some of them ran to other districts, but most of them went to the mountain and gathered thereAmong those who escaped was Umar, but he was not among the first ones who escaped and he did not run far away, but he remained on the mountain and waited there until the Messenger of Allah (swt) climbed the mountain! Among those who escaped was Uthman who escaped with two other men of Ansaar, their names were Sa’d and Uqba, they ran away until they reached a far place and came back after three days! Then Prophet (saw) said to them: 'You ran a far distance!'

Source: Tafsir Al-Razi Mafatih Al-Ghayb. Vol. 9, Pg. # 52.


A year had passed since Badr, and one would at least give Umar the benefit of the doubt as to his words and advice to the Prophet (saw) not to draw his troops forward against the disbelievers. It is abundantly clear that the Sheikhayn's actions had been based on nothing but cowardice. This is why he fled like a mountain goat despite the cries of the Holy Prophet (saw) for him to return back. 


Allah (swt) revealed the following verse in the Holy Qur'aan in regards to battle of Al-Ahzaab (also known as Al-Khandaq):


 يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اذْكُرُوا نِعْمَةَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ إِذْ جَاءتْكُمْ جُنُودٌ فَأَرْسَلْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ رِيحًا وَجُنُودًا لَّمْ تَرَوْهَا وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرًا  
إِذْ جَاؤُوكُم مِّن فَوْقِكُمْ وَمِنْ أَسْفَلَ مِنكُمْ وَإِذْ زَاغَتْ الْأَبْصَارُ وَبَلَغَتِ الْقُلُوبُ الْحَنَاجِرَ وَتَظُنُّونَ بِاللَّهِ الظُّنُونَا هُنَالِكَ ابْتُلِيَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ وَزُلْزِلُوا زِلْزَالًا شَدِيدًا وَإِذْ يَقُولُ الْمُنَافِقُونَ وَالَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ مَّا وَعَدَنَا اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ إِلَّا غُرُورًا وَإِذْ قَالَت طَّائِفَةٌ مِّنْهُمْ يَا أَهْلَ يَثْرِبَ لَا مُقَامَ لَكُمْ فَارْجِعُوا وَيَسْتَأْذِنُ فَرِيقٌ مِّنْهُمُ النَّبِيَّ يَقُولُونَ إِنَّ بُيُوتَنَا عَوْرَةٌ وَمَا هِيَ بِعَوْرَةٍ إِن يُرِيدُونَ إِلَّا فِرَارًا وَلَوْ دُخِلَتْ عَلَيْهِم مِّنْ أَقْطَارِهَا ثُمَّ سُئِلُوا الْفِتْنَةَ لَآتَوْهَا وَمَا تَلَبَّثُوا بِهَا إِلَّا يَسِيرًا وَلَقَدْ كَانُوا عَاهَدُوا اللَّهَ مِن قَبْلُ لَا يُوَلُّونَ الْأَدْبَارَ وَكَانَ عَهْدُ اللَّهِ مَسْؤُولًا قُل لَّن يَنفَعَكُمُ الْفِرَارُ إِن فَرَرْتُم مِّنَ الْمَوْتِ أَوِ الْقَتْلِ وَإِذًا لَّا تُمَتَّعُونَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا 

{O you who believe! Remember Allah's Favour to you, when there came against you hosts, and We sent against them a wind and forces that you saw not [i.e. troops of angels during the battle of Al Ahzab (the Confederates)]. And Allah is Ever All¬Seer of what you do. When they came upon you from above you and from below you, and when the eyes grew wild and the hearts reached to the throats, and you were harbouring doubts about Allah. There, the believers were tried and shaken with a mighty shaking. And when the hypocrites and those in whose hearts is a disease (of doubts) said: "Allah and His Messenger (saw) promised us nothing but delusion!" And when a party of them said: "O people of Yathrib (Al Madinah)! There is no stand (possible) for you (against the enemy attack!) Therefore go back!" And a band of them ask for permission of the Prophet (saw) saying: "Truly, our homes lie open (to the enemy)." And they lay not open. They but wished to flee. And if the enemy had entered from all sides (of the city), and they had been exhorted to Al Fitnah (i.e. to renegade from Islam to polytheism) they would surely have committed it and would have hesitated thereupon but little.  And indeed they had already made a covenant with Allah not to turn their backs, and a covenant with Allâh must be answered for.  Say (O Muhammad to these hypocrites who ask your permission to run away from you): "Flight will not avail you if you flee from death or killing, and then you will enjoy no more than a little while!"} 

 Holy Qur'aan [33:10-16]

Ibn Hibban:

Narrated Imran Ibn Musa Ibn Moshajeh from Uthman Ibn Abi Shayba from Yazeed Ibn Har'oon from Muhammad Ibn Amr from his father from his grandfather from A'isha who said: "I went out in the day of Al-Khandaq and I was standing behind the people, then I heard sounds of ground coming from behind me, I turned around and saw Sa’d Ibn Ma’aaz and his nephew Al-Harith Ibn Aws was carrying his armour, so I sat down on the ground and Sa’d passed by and he was wearing an armour that its outskirts were gone out of his limbs. I was afraid of his armours outskirts, and Sa’d was of the biggest and tallest people, she said: Sa’d passed by singing epic verses: 'Very soon the battle of the brave man begins.. what a good thing it is that the death comes'" She (A'isha) said: Then I entered a garden, and I saw that a group of people who had been (hiding) there, among them was Umar Ibn Al-Khattab, Umar said: 'Woe to you, what brought you here?! By God you are a bold woman, what made you think that you are safe of getting captured or get into trouble!' She (A'isha) said: 'He kept blaming me so much until I wished that the earth splits so that I enter into it.' Among them there was another man who was covering his face, then the man took the cover away, he was Talha Ibn Ubaidallah, so he said: 'Woe to you Umar! You said too much today, where is the place to escape or flee except towards Allah?'

Footnote: The Hadeeth is Hasan 'Reliable.'

Source: Saheeh Ibn Hibban. Vol. 15, Pg. # 498 - 501.


Al-Haithami:

Narrated Aisha: I went out in the day of Al-Khandaq and I was standing behind the people, then I heard sounds of ground coming from behind me, I turned around and saw Sa’d Ibn Ma’aaz and his nephew Al-Harith Ibn Aws was carrying his armour, so I sat down on the ground and Sa’d passed by and he was wearing an armour that its outskirts were gone out of his limbs. I was afraid of his armours outskirts, and Sa’d was one of the biggest and tallest people, she said: Sa’d passed by singing epic verses:'Very soon the battle of the brave man begins... What a good thing it is that the death comes...' She (A'isha) said: then I entered a garden, and I saw that a group of people are (hiding) there, among them was Umar Ibn Al-Khattab and there was another man who was covering his face, Umar said: 'Woe to you, what brought you here? By God you are a bold woman, what made you think that you are safe of getting captured or get into trouble?! She (A'isha) said: 'He kept blaming me so much until I wished that the earth splits so that I enter into it.' Then the man took the cover away, he was Talha Ibn Ubaidallah, so he said: 'Woe to you Umar! You said too much today, where is the place to escape or flee except towards Allah?'

A man of Mushrikeen hit Sa’d with an arrow, his name was Ibn Al-Urqa, he said: 'Take this, I am Ibn Al-Urqa', the arrow hit Sa’ds arm vein and cut it, Sa’d prayed to Allah (swt) and said: 'O Allah (swt) do let me die until you make me happy of about Bani Quraidha'. She (A'isha) said: 'And they were their allies and friends in Jahiliyya.' She (A'isha) said: 'And then Allah (swt) sent a wind over Mushrikeen and Allah (swt) suffice the believers of the battle, and Allah (swt) is Powerful and Almighty, then Aboo Sufyan and his men went to Tahama, and Oyaina Ibn Badr and his men went to Najjad and Banu Quraidha came back to their castles and the Messenger of Allah (swt) came back to Madinah, and ordered to build a dome out of date tree over Sa’d in the Mosque.

Footnote: Al-Haithami: narrated by Ahmad and Muhammad ibn Amr Ibn Alqama is in its chain, and his Hadeeth is Hasan 'Reliable', its other narrators are trustworthy.  

Source: Majma Al-Zawa'id. Vol. 6, Pg. # 144-145.



Muslim bin Hajjaj:

Narrated Zuhair Ibn Harb and Is’haq Ibn Ibraheem both from Jarir from Al-A’mash from Ibraheem Al-Taimi from his father who said: We were sitting in the company of Hudhaifa. A man said: "If I were in the time of the Messenger of Allah (saw), I would have fought by his side and would have striven hard for his causes." Hudhaifa said: 'You might have done that, (but you should not make a flourish of your enthusiasm). I was with the Messenger of Allah (saw) on the night of the Battle of Abzib and we were gripped by a violent wind and severe cold. The Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "Hark, the man who (goes reconnoitring and) brings me the news of the enemy shall be ranked with me on the Day of Judgement by Allah (the Glorious and Exalted)!" We all kept quiet and none of us responed to him. (Again) He (saw) said: "Hark, a man who (goes reconnoitring and) brings me the news of the enemy shall be ranked with me on the Day of Judgement by Allah (the Glorious and Exalted)!" We kept quiet and none of us responded to him. He again said: "Hark, a man who (goes reconnoitring and) brings me the news of the enemy shall be ranked with me on the Day of Judgement by Allah (the Glorious and Exalted)!" Then he (saw) said: 'Get up Hudhaifa, bring me the news of the enemy.' When he called me by name I had no alternative but to get up. He said: Go and bring me information about the enemy, and do nothing that may provoke them against me." When I left him, I felt warm as if I were walking in a heated bath untill I reached them. I saw Aboo Sufyan warming his back against fire I put an arrow in the middle of the bow intending to shoot at him, when I recalled the words of the Messenger of Allah (saw), "Do not provoke them against me." Had I shot at him, I would have hit him. But I returned and (felt warm as if) I were walking in a heated bath (hammam). Presenting myself before him, I gave him information about the enemy. When I had done so, I began to feel cold, so the Messenger of Allah (saw) wrapped me in a blanket that he had in excess to his own requirement and with which he used to cover himself while saying his prayers. So I continued to sleep until it was morning. When it was morning He said: 'Get up, O heavy sleeper!'

Source: Saheeh Muslim. Vol. 2 Pg. # 860 - 861.


Al-Hakim With The Attestation of Al-Dhahabi:

Narrated Aboo Bakr Ahmad Ib Kamil Al-Qadhi from Isa Ibn Abdullah Al-Tialesi from Aboo Na’eem Al-Fadhl Ibn Dokin from Yusuf Ibn Abdullah Ibn Abi Barda from Musa Ibn Al-Mokhtar from Bilal Al-Absi from Hudhaifa Ibn Al-Yaman who said: The people (companions) left the Messenger of Allah (saw) on the night of Al-Ahzaab (i.e. battle of Al-Khandaq) and except twelve people none remained, then the Messenger of Allah (saw) came to me and said: "Get up O son of Al-Yaman, bring me the news of the of army of Al-Ahzaab." I said: 'O Messenger of Allah (saw), By Allah (swt) who has sent you righteously, I did not stand up except for the respect of yours, it is too cold.' He (saw) said: "May the warmth get you and the cold leave you, go O son of Yaman, you will not suffer from warmth and cold until you get back to me." I went to their army and saw Aboo Sufyan warming himself by fire with people around him, then I went and sat among them, Aboo Sufyan said: "Everyone of you should take the hand of his nearby person!"So I hit with my hand the hand of the person on my right side and held his hand and hit the hand of my left side person and held his hand, and so I get covered among them and then I came back to Prophet (saw) and he was standing for prayers then he pointed with his hand to me and called me to come near to him so I went and he gestured again to come nearer so I went nearer until he gave me from his clothing which he had covered himself during prayers, when he finished the prayers he said: "Sit down O son of Al-Yaman, what is the news?" I said: 'O Messenger of Allah (saw) the people have left Aboo Sufyan and none has remained with him except those around the fire, maybe Allah (swt) has made it difficult for them as he made it difficult for us by cold, but we have hope in Allah(saw) which they do not have!'


Al-Hakim: This narration’s is authentic, but they (i.e. Bukhari and Muslim) have not narrated it.

Al-Dhahabi said in Al-Talkhees: it is Saheeh 'Authentic.'

Source: Al-Mustadrak Ala Sahihain. Vol. 3 Pg. # 33.


This is the faith of the so-called Sahaba in Allah (swt) and his Messenger (saw), that except twelve of them no one remained, leaving the Prophet(saw) alone in hard times. Undoubtedly, among the first ones who left the Prophet (saw) were Aboo Bakr and Umar, as we somewhat observed that Umar was hiding in a garden during the day never mind the night!


Al-Hakim With The Attestation Of Al-Dhahabi:

Narrated Abul Abbas Muhammad ibn Ahmad Al-Mahboobi in Marw, from Sa’eed Ibn Masoud from Ubaidallah Ibn Musa from No’aim Ibn Hakim from Abi Musa Al-Hanafi from Alee (a.s) who said: 'The Messenger of Allah (saw) went out to Khaybar, when he reached it he sent Umar and a group of people with him to their town or their castle to fight them, but they could not do anything, and Umar with his companions escaped and came back to the Prophet(saw), his companions were saying that Umar is a coward and he was saying that his companions are cowards and then the Prophet (saw) said that famous Hadeeth.(*)

Al-Hakim: The chain of this narration is authentic, but they (i.e. Bukhari and Muslim) have not narrated it.

(*) It is known as The Hadeeth of Flag.


Footnote: Al-Dhahabi says in Al-Talkhees: It is Saheeh 'Authentic.'

Source: Al-Mustadrak Ala Al-Sahihain. Vol. 3, Pg. # 40.


Al-Muttaqi Al-Hindi:

Narrated Alee (a.s): 'The Messenger of Allah (saw) went out to Khaybar, when he reached it he sent Umar and a group of people with him to their town or their castle they went and fought them, but they could not do anything, and Umar with his companions escaped and came back to the Prophet (saw), his companions were saying that Umar is a coward and he was saying that his companions are cowards and the Messenger of Allah(saw) got annoyed and he said: 'I will send a man towards them who loves Allah (swt) and his Messenger (saw) and Allah (swt) and his Messenger (saw) love him, he will fight with them untill he succeeds and he is not a coward who runs away frequently!' The people raised their necks to see whom the Messenger of Allah (saw) will call. They wished to be that man. The Messenger of Allah (saw) remained silent for a while and then said: 'Where is Alee (a.s)? They said: 'He has an illness in his eyes.' He (saw) said: 'Bring him to me.' When I came to him, he opened my eyes and put his saliva on them and passed the flag to me and then I went fast, fearing that maybe the Messenger of Allah (swt) changed his decision, when I reached their castle and fought them. Then Al-Marhab invited me, singing epic verses and I went to him singing epic verses like people do, until we met and Allah (swt) killed him with my hands and his companions ran away and closed the door of their castle behind themselves, we went to the door and I did not stop trying to break it until Allah (swt) opened it.

Footnote: Al-Muttaqi Al-Hindi 'This narration is narrated by Ibn Abi Shayba and Al-Bazzar, and its chain is Hasan 'Reliable.'

Source: Kanz-ul-Ummal. Vol. 10, Pg. # 462.

Narrated Abdulrahman Ibn Abi Laili: I said to Alee (a.s), 'You used to wear a cloak and thick clothes in the extreme hot days and wearing two thin cloths in the extreme cold days and came out and do not fear the cold weather.' Alee (a.s) said to me: 'Were you not with us in the day of Khaybar O Aba Laili?' I said: 'Yes, by Allah (swt) I was with you!', he (a.s) said: "The Messenger of Allah (saw) sent Aboo Bakr with people, they ran away and returned to him (saw), then the Messenger of Allah (saw) sent Umar with people and he also ran away and came back with people to the Messenger of Allah (saw), then the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: 'I will give the flag to a man who loves Allah (swt) and his Messenger (saw) and Allah (swt) and his Messenger (saw) love him, he will be victorious, he is not a coward who runs away frequently!' Then he sent someone to me and called me, and I went to him (saw) and I had an illness in my eyes that I could not see anything. He put his saliva on my eyes and said: 'O my God, suffice him from the heat and coldness, after that I have never suffered from heat and coldness.'"

Footnote: Al-Muttaqi Al-Hindi: 'This narration is narrated by Ibn Abi Shayba, Ahmad in his Musnad, Ibn Maja, Al-Bazzar, Ibn Jarir and he has Authenticated this Hadeeth, and Al-Tabarani in Al-Awsat, Al-Hakim, Baihaqi in Al-Dalahil and Dhia Al-Maqdesi in Al-Mukhtara.

Source: Kanz-ul-Ummal. Vol. 13, Pg. # 122.





Ibn Abi Shaybah:

Narrated Ubaidallah from No’aim Ibn Hakim from Abi Maryam from Alee (a.s) who said: "The Messenger of Allah (saw) went out to Khaybar, when he reached it he sent Umar and a group of people with him to their town or their castle they went and fought them, but they could not do anything, and Umar with his companions escaped and came back to the Prophet (saw), his companions were saying that Umar is a coward and he was saying that his companions are cowards and the Messenger of Allah (saw) got annoyed and he said:'I will send a man towards them who loves Allah (swt) and his Messenger (saw) and Allah (swt) and his Messenger (saw) love him, he will fight with them until he succeeds and he is not a coward who runs away frequently!' The people raised their necks to see whom the Messenger of Allah (saw) will call, they wished to be that man. The Messenger of Allah (saw) remained silent for a while and then said: 'Where is Alee (a.s)?' They said: 'He has an ailment in his eyes,' He (saw) said: 'Bring him to me.' When I came to him (saw), he opened my eyes and put his saliva on them and passed me the flag and then I went fast fearing that maybe the Messenger of Allah (swt) would change his decision. When I reached their castle and fought them, then Al-Marhab invited me singing epic verses, and I went to him singing epic verses like people do until we met and Allah (swt) killed him with my hands and his companions ran away and closed the door of their castle behind themselves. We went to the door and I did not stop trying to break it until Allah (swt) opened it.

Footnote: Narrated by Al-Bazzar and narrated also by Al-Hakim whom has Authenticated it and Al-Dhahabi has confirmed it. In Kanz-ul-Ummal Al-Muttaqi Al-Hindi has said that it is Hasan 'Reliable.'

Source: Al-Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah. Vol. 20, Pg. # 446.



Ahmad Ibn Hanbal:

Narrated Zaid Ibn Al-Hobab from Husein Ibn Al-Waqid from Abdullah Ibn Buraida from his father Buraida who said: "When we reached Khaybar Aboo Bakr took the flag and came back and he did not succeed, the next day Umar took the flag and went out and came back and he also did not succeed, on that day the people encountered difficulties so the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: 'Tomorrow I will pass the flag to a man who loves Allah (swt) and his Messenger (saw) and Allah (swt) and his Messenger (saw) love him, he will not come back until he succeeds!' All of us wished to be that man the next day who is going to be victorious. Next morning when the Messenger of Allah (saw) performed the prayer, he stood up and took the flag and the people were standing before him. Then he called Alee (a.s) and Alee (a.s) had an ailment in his eyes on that day, so the Prophet (saw) put his saliva on Alee’s (a.s) eyes and gave him the flag, and he succeeded." Buraida said: 'I was one of those who wished to receive the flag.'

Footnote: The narration is Saheeh 'Authentic!' And this chain is strong because of Hussain Ibn Al-Waqid Al-Maruzi, and He is Truthful and has no problems, and the rest of its narrators are Trustworthy.

Source: Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal. Vol. 38, Pg. # 98.



Ibn Abdul Barr:

It has been narrated through a group of Sahaba like Sa’d Ibn Abi Waqqas, Sahl Ibn Sa’d, Aboo Huraira, Buraida Al-Aslami, Aboo Sa’eed Al-Khudri, Abdullah Ibn Umar, Imraan Ibn Al-Hussain and Salama Ibn Al-Akwah all of them with the same meaning from the Prophet (saw) who said in the day of Khaybar: "Tomorrow I will pass the flag to a man who loves Allah (swt) and his Messenger (saw), and Allah (swt) and his Messenger (saw) loves him. He is not someone who runs away frequently. Allah (swt) will give put the victory on his hands. And then He called Alee (a.s) while He had a ailment in his eyes, so the Prophet (saw) put his saliva on his eyes and gave him the flag, and Allah (swt) gave him victory. And these narrations all of them are firm and valid.

Source: Al-Isti’ab. Vol. 3, Pg. # 1099 - 1100.



Al-Bukhari:

Narrated Al-Laith from Yahya Ibn Sa’eed from Umar Ib Kathir Ibn Aflah from Abi Muhammad Mawla Abi Qotada that Aba Qotada said: 'When it was the day of (the battle of) Hunayn, I saw a Muslim man fighting with one of the pagans and another pagan was hiding himself behind the Muslim in order to kill him. So I hurried towards the pagan who was hiding behind the Muslim to kill him, and He raised his hand to hit me but I hit his hand and cut it off. That man got hold of me and pressed me so hard that I was afraid (that I would die), then He knelt down and his grip became loose and I pushed him and killed him. The Muslims  started fleeing and I too, fled with them. Suddenly I met Umar bin Al-Khattab amongst the people and I asked him, "What is wrong with the people?" He said, "It is the order of Allah." Then the people returned to Allah's Apostle (after defeating the enemy). Allah's Apostle said, "Whoever produces a proof that he has killed an infidel, will have the spoils of the killed man." So I got up to look for an evidence to prove that I had killed an infidel, but I could not find anyone to bear witness for me, so I sat down. Then it came to my mind (that I should speak of it) and I mentioned the case to Allah's Apostle. A man from the persons who were sitting with him (i.e. the Prophet), said, "The arms of the deceased one whom He (i.e. Aboo Qatada) has mentioned, are with me, so please compensate him for it (i.e. the spoils)." Aboo Bakr said, "No, Allah's Apostle will not give it (i.e. the spoils) to a weak humble person from Quraish and leave one of Allah's Lions who fights on behalf of Allah and His Apostle." Allah's Apostle then got up and gave that (spoils) to me, and I bought with it, a garden which was the first property I got after embracing Islam.'

Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. # 1056 - 1057.


Ibn Hajar Asqalani's Explanation Of Umar's Words

Umar’s statement that, "It is the order of Allah" means that it is the decision of Allah (swt) and what He decreed.

Source: Fathul Bari Sharh Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Vol. 9, Pg. # 439.


Al-Ayani's Explanation Of Umar's Words

'The Muslims started fleeing and I too, fled with them. Suddenly I met Umar bin Al-Khattab among the people and I asked him, "What is wrong with the people?" The statement of Umar that, "It is the order of Allah" means that it is the decision of Allah (swt) the Almighty and what He decreed."

Source: Umdatul Qari Sharh Sahih Al-Bukhari. Vol. 17, Pg. # 399.


Just contemplate over the contradictory views offered by Umar to explain his conduct on the battlefield. When it came to Uhud He put his fleeing the battlefield down to cowardice, making it clear that Shaytan had told him to flee, thus He was in other words under the influence of Shaytan. This frank admission was in conformity with the condemnation of such actions at the time, it was revealed:


 إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَوَلَّوْاْ مِنكُمْ يَوْمَ الْتَقَى الْجَمْعَانِ إِنَّمَا اسْتَزَلَّهُمُ الشَّيْطَـنُ بِبَعْضِ مَا كَسَبُواْ وَلَقَدْ عَفَا اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ حَلِيمٌ


{Those of you who turned back on the day the two hosts Met, it was Satan who caused them to fail, because of some (evil) they had done. But Allah Has blotted out (their fault): For Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Forbearing} 

Holy Qu'raan [3.155]

Those that fled on the day did so as they were listening to Satan. The verse makes it clear that deserting the Prophet (saw) on the battlefield is adherence to Satan, something that Umar himself acknowledged. Curiously when it came to the battle of Hunayn when Umar again deserted Rasulullah (saw) and left the hear of battle to save his life, Umar blames not Satan, but in fact states "It is by the will of Allah!" This is all despite the fact that the companions of the Prophet (saw) had paid allegiance to him in the sixth Hijri year to not flee in the battles ahead and Hudaibiyya was one year before Khaybar and two years before Hunayn.

Muslim ibn Hajjaj:

Narrated Qotaiba Ibn Sa’eed from Laith Ibn Sa’d and Muhammad ibn Romh from Al-Laith from Abi Al-Zubair from Jabir who said: We were one thousand and four hundred on the Day of Hudaibiya. We paid allegiance to him (the Holy Prophet) and 'Umar was holding the latter's hand (when he was sitting) under the tree (called) Samura (to administer the oath to the Companions). He said: We took oath to the effect that we would not flee, but we did not take oath to death.

Source: Saheeh Muslim. Vol. 2, Pg. # 900.





The treaty of Hudaybiyya took place four years prior to his death of the Holy Prophet (saw). The pagans prohibited the Muslims from entering into Makkah. The Messenger of Allah (saw) requested thereupon the companions paid allegiance to him (saw) under the Tree as a result of this the following verses was revealed:

{لَقَدْ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ إِذْ يُبَايِعُونَكَ تَحْتَ الشَّجَرَةِ فَعَلِمَ مَا فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ فَأَنزَلَ السَّكِينَةَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَأَثَابَهُمْ فَتْحًا قَرِيبًا}



{Indeed, Allah was pleased with the believers when they gave the Bayah (pledge) to you (O Muhammad saw) under the tree, He knew what was in their hearts, and He sent down As-Sakinah (calmness and tranquillity) upon them, and He rewarded them with a near victory}

Holy Qu'raan [48:18]


The allegiance to the Holy Prophet (saw) and revelation of the verse was met under certain conditions as the previous verse sheds more light on this:


{ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يُبَايِعُونَكَ إِنَّمَا يُبَايِعُونَ اللَّهَ يَدُ اللَّهِ فَوْقَ أَيْدِيهِمْ فَمَن نَّكَثَ فَإِنَّمَا يَنكُثُ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ وَمَنْ أَوْفَى بِمَا عَاهَدَ عَلَيْهُ اللَّهَ فَسَيُؤْتِيهِ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا}


{Verily, those who give Bayah (pledge) to you (O Muhammad) they are giving Bayah (pledge) to Allah (swt). The Hand of Allah (swt) is over their hands. Then whosoever breaks his pledge, breaks it only to his own harm, and whosoever fulfils what he has covenanted with Allah, He will bestow on him a great reward.}
Holy Qur'aan [48:10]

The verse [48:18] excludes Aboo Bakr and Umar along with their associates. The verse emphasizes that those who broke the conditions of pledge will not be given the mighty reward. However, the actions of the Sheikhayn fleeing in the battle(s) after the allegiance would no longer mean they fit the criteria of this verse. Furthermore, Umar is definitely not among the believers based on his actions in Hudaibiyya which shows that He did not have faith in Allah (swt) and his Messenger (saw).

Al-Bukhari:

Narrated from Meswar Ibn Mekhrama and Marwan who both said: (the narration is too long, so we take only a part of it which help us to know Umar and the other socalled Sahaba better, and that is when the Prophet(saw) wrote the peace agreement with the pagans) Umar bin Al-Khattab said, "I went to the Prophet and said, 'Aren't you truly the Apostle of Allah?' The Prophet said, 'Yes, indeed.' I said, 'Isn't our Cause just and the cause of the enemy unjust?' He said, 'Yes.' I said, 'Then why should we be humble in our religion?' He said, 'I am Allah's Apostle and I do not disobey Him, and He will make me victorious.' I said, 'Didn't you tell us that we would go to the Ka`ba and perform Tawaf around it?' He said, 'Yes, but did I tell you that we would visit the Ka`ba this year?' I said, 'No.' He said, 'So you will visit it and perform Tawaf around it?' " `Umar further said, "I went to Aboo Bakr and said, 'O Aboo Bakr! Isn't He truly Allah's Prophet?' He replied, 'Yes.' I said, 'Then why should we be humble in our religion?' He said, 'Indeed, He is Allah's Apostle and He does not disobey his Lord, and He will make him victorious. Adhere to him as, by Allah, He is on the right.' I said, 'Was he not telling us that we would go to the Ka`ba and perform Tawaf around it?' He said, 'Yes, but did he tell you that you would go to the Ka`ba this year?' I said, 'No.' He said, "You will go to Ka`ba and perform Tawaf around it." (Az-Zuhri said, " `Umar said, 'I performed many good deeds as expiation for the improper questions I asked them.' ") When the writing of the peace treaty was concluded, Allah's Apostle said to his companions, "Get up and' slaughter your sacrifices and get your head shaved." By Allah none of them got up, and the Prophet repeated his order thrice. When none of them got up, He left them and went to Um Salama and told Her of the people's attitudes towards him. Um Salama said, "O the Prophet of Allah! Do you want your order to be carried out? Go out and don't say a word to anybody till you have slaughtered your sacrifice and call your barber to shave your head." So, the Prophet went out and did not talk to anyone of them till He did that, i.e. slaughtered the sacrifice and called his barber who shaved his head. Seeing that, the companions of the Prophet got up, slaughtered their sacrifices, and started shaving the heads of one another...'

Source: Saheeh Al-Bukhari. Pg. # 672, H. # 2731 - 2732.





This narration demonstrates how disobedient the companions were. Even though the Messenger of Allah (saw) ordered them three times to slaughter their sacrifices and shave their heads, none of them obeyed him (saw). Umar even goes as far as questioning the integrity of the Holy Prophet (saw).

Muslim ibn Hajjaj:


Narrated Aboo Bakr Ibn Abi Shayba from Abdullah Ibn Nomair and Ibn Nomair from his father from Abdulaziz Ibn Siyah from Habib Ibn Abi Thabit from Abi Wahil who said: Sahl Ibn Hunaif stood up on the Day of Siffin and said: O ye people, blame yourselves (for want of discretion) ; we were with the Messenger of Allah (saw) on the Day of Hudaibiyya. If we had thought it fit to fight, we could fight. This was in the truce between the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) and the polytheists. Umar Ibn Khattab came, approached the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) and said: Messenger of Allah, aren't we fighting for truth and they for falsehood? He replied: By all means. He asked: Are not those killed from our side in Paradise and those killed from their side in the Fire? He replied: Yes. He said: Then why should we put a blot upon our religion and return, while Allah has not decided the issue between them and ourselves? He said: Son of Khattab, I am the Messenger of Allah. Allah will never ruin me. Umar went away while he was angrySo he approached Aboo Bakr and said: 'Aboo Bakr, aren't we fighting for truth and they for falsehood? He replied: Yes. He asked: Aren't those killed from our side in Paradise and those killed from their side in the Fire? He replied: Why not? He (then) said: Why should we then disgrace our religion and return while God has not yet decided the issue between them and ourselves? Aboo Bakr said: Son of Khattab, verily, he is the Messenger of Allah, and Allah will never ruin him. (The narrator continued): At this (a Sura of) the Qur'an (giving glad tidings of the victory) was revealed to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). He sent for Umar and made him read it. He asked: Is (this truce) a victory? He (the Messenger of Allah) replied: Yes. At this Umar was pleased, and returned.

Source: Saheeh Muslim. Vol. 2, Pg. # 859.







How can any believer not be content with what Allah (swt) and His Messenger (saw) have decided?! Allah (swt) says in His Book that whoever does not submit to His Messenger (saw) and his decisions are those who do not have faith:

{فَلاَ وَرَبِّكَ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ حَتَّىَ يُحَكِّمُوكَ فِيمَا شَجَرَ بَيْنَهُمْ ثُمَّ لاَ يَجِدُواْ فِي أَنفُسِهِمْ حَرَجًا مِّمَّا قَضَيْتَ وَيُسَلِّمُواْ تَسْلِيمًا}


{But no, by your Lord, they have no Faith, until they make you (O Muhammad (saw) judge in all disputes between them, and find in themselves no resistance against your decisions, and accept (them) with full submission.}

 Holy Qur'aan [4:65]

Ibn Hibban:

Narrated from Miswar Ibn Mekhrama and Marwan who both said: (the narration is too long, so we take only a part of it what Umar has said about his dipute with the Messenger of Allah (saw) and that is after the Messenger of Allah (saw) signed the peace treaty). Umar said: by God, I had never doubted since I embraced Islam except in that day, so I went to the Messenger of Allah (saw) and said: 'Aren't you truly the Apostle of Allah?' The Prophet said, 'Yes, indeed!'. I said, 'Isn't our Cause just and the cause of the enemy unjust?' He said, 'Yes.' I said, 'Then why should we be humble in our religion?' He said, 'I am Allah's Apostle and I do not disobey Him, and He is my Helper.' I said, 'Didn't you tell us that we would go to the Ka`ba and perform Tawaf around it?' He said, 'Yes, but did I tell you that we would visit the Ka`ba this year?' I said, 'No.' He said, 'So you will visit it and perform Tawaf around it?'`Umar further said, "I went to Aboo Bakr and said, 'O Aboo Bakr! Isn't he truly Allah's Prophet?' He replied, 'Yes.' I said, 'Then why should we be humble in our religion?' He said, 'Indeed, he is Allah's Apostle and he does not disobey his Lord, and He is his Helper...


Footnote: The narration is Saheeh 'Authentic.'



Source: Saheeh Ibn Hibban. Vol. 11, Pg. # 224.








Umar testified he never doubted in the the message of the Prophet (saw) more than he did on that day. The same individual who fled from the battlefield but now wants to fight. This hypocritical attitude that Umar was displaying was nothing but an illusion of a mighty valiant warrior. The Messenger of Allah (saw) immediately rebuked Umar by saying, "Did you forget the day of Uhud that you were fleeing and climbed the mountain and the day of Khandaq and the day of such and such..." Bukhari and Muslim have not narrated this therefore we need to refer to secondary sources to produce this evidence.


Al-Waqidi:



Aboo Sa’eed Al-Khudri said: (the narration is too long, so we take only a part of it what Umar has said in his dipute with the Messenger of Allah (saw) and what the Messenger of Allah (saw) said to him). Umar and some of the men of companions of the Prophet (saw) who were with Umar said: 'Didn't you tell us that you will enter the Ka`ba and hold the door of it and and perform Tawaf around it?' And now neither our sacrifices reached Makkah nor we.' He said: 'Did I tell you that we would visit the Ka`ba this year?' Umar said: 'No.' The Messenger of Allah (saw) said, 'So you will enter the Ka’ba, and I will hold the door of Ka’ba and shave my head and your heads in the center of Makkah and will perform Tawaf around it?' " Then He came to Umar and said: 'Did you forget the day of Uhud when you were going up, and paid no heed for anyone, and I was calling you from behind?'

[Qur’aan 3:153] Did you forget the day of Al-Ahzaab that their army came on you from above and from below, and when your eyes swerved and your hearts leaped to your throats? [Qur’aan 33:10]



And the Messenger of Allah (saw) kept asking them, did you forget the day of such and such? Until the Muslims said: 'Allah (swt) and His Messenger (saw) told the truth, O Messenger of Allah (saw), we had not thought what you had, you are more knowledgeable in Allah (swt) and his decisions than us.' When the Messenger of Allah (saw) entered the Ka’ba next year and shaved his head, he said: 'This is what I had promised to you'. On the day of Fath (conquering Makkah) he took the door of Ka’ba and said: 'Bring Umar Ibn Al-Khattab to me!' And then said: 'This is what I told you.' And when it was Hajjatul Wida he said: 'O Umar, this is what I told you.' Then Umar said: 'O Messenger of Allah (saw), yes there is no victory greater than this victory in Islam.'



Source: Al-Maghazi. Vol. 2, Pg. # 609.



Conveniently Al-Waqidi has been criticised heavily by scholars of Hadeeth. One can only wonder why ? Perhaps because He used to narrate the scandals of the Sheikhayn which do not reveal them in any positive light.

And yet the very same Al-Waqidi's narrations are accepted outside the six major books of Hadeeth regarding the narration of adult fosterage (A Chapter found in Saheeh Muslim under 'Suckling Young Lad') in means to prove the breastfeeding was not direct rather the milk was extracted into a cup!

This is one of many examples of the preposterous double standards of the Ahlul-Sunnah. They choose to accept His narrations when it suits their interests but reject any that reveals illicet behavior from Sahaba they revere.

Despite the narration of Al Waqidi, both Bukhari and Muslim only recorded a fraction of the incident in order to avoid any shame upon the Sahaba. Al-Dhahabi has also narrated the very same narration through Urwah, but without mentioning the names of the individuals.

Al-Dhahabi:

Narrated Ibn Lahi’a from Abul Aswad from Urwa who said: 'When the Messenger of Allah (saw) came back from Hudaybiyya, some of the companions of the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: 'By God this is not a victory, the pagans prevented us from entering the Ka’ba and abandoned our sacrifices too. Then the Messenger of Allah (saw) was informed about what those men of his companions had said that, 'This is not a victory,' whereupon he (saw) said: 'What an evil speech, this is a big victory, the pagans were content and happy just to prevent you from your homes and they asked you about it and they hope to have safety from your side, (this is despite the fact that) they have seen from you what you do not like (i.e. cowardice), and Allah (swt) gave you victory upon them and returned you unharmed, with wealth and hired guns, so this is the greatest victory. Did you forget the day of Uhud when you were going up, and paid no heed for anyone, and I was calling you from behind? [Qur’aan 3:153] Did you forget the day of Al-Ahzaab that their army came on you from above and from below, and when your eyes swerved and your hearts leapt to your throats? [Qur’aan 33:10]Whereupon the Muslims said: 'Allah (swt) and His Messenger (saw) told the truth, O Apostle of Allah (saw), by Allah (swt) this is the greatest victory'.

Source: Siyar Ahlam Al-Nobala of Al-Dhahabi. Vol. 2 of Sira Al-Nabawiyya Pg.  # 55.


Surah [48:18] includes only believers and does not include Aboo Bakr and Umar who had broken their pledges. The Sheikhayn (i.e. Aboo Bakr and Umar) had fled in at least two battles after the Allegiance in Hudaibiyyah, and Allah (saw) had promised them a severe punishment.

{ وَمَن يُوَلِّهِمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ دُبُرَهُ إِلاَّ مُتَحَرِّفًا لِّقِتَالٍ أَوْ مُتَحَيِّزًا إِلَى فِئَةٍ فَقَدْ بَاء بِغَضَبٍ مِّنَ اللّهِ وَمَأْوَاهُ جَهَنَّمُ وَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ}


{And whoever turns his back to them on such a day - unless it be a stratagem of war, or to retreat to a troop (of his own), he indeed has drawn upon himself wrath from Allah (swt). And his abode is Hell, and worst indeed is that destination!}

Holy Qur'aan [8:16]

One can never doubt that the Muslims achieved great conquests during the reign of Umar. However, this is no merit on his half, rather we find it was achieved due to the advice of Imam Alee (a.s) who acted as an advisory during this period. The conquests fell in to two periods, those that took place after the martyrdom of the Prophet (saw) and those during his (s.a) life. Many of the victories of these battles had been achieved due to Imam Alee (a.s) valiant character. Had Imam Alee (a.s) not contributed in these battles, victory would not have been achieved. As for instance, at Khaybar, he was unable to participate due to an eye ailment. The army of the Messenger of Allah (saw) repeatedly suffered defeats in the hands of the enemy until the Messenger of Allah (saw) cured the eye of Alee (a.s) with his blessed saliva. Due to the recovery of this ailment, he (a.s) conquered the forts of Khaybar. 
It must be pointed out that there exists no evidence in which Imam Alee (a.s) fought in any of the battles during the reign of the Sheikhayn. This was not done out of fear Nozbillah! It was only due to the fact he (a.s) did not deem them to be an authority and rather than being a part of these expeditions after the life of the Prophet (saw), Imam (a.s) consulted with Umar, not for the usurpers personal achievement, but for the sake of the Muslim Ummah at large.

Umar’s Atrocious Conduct Post Death Of The Prophet (saw)


Dr. Al Muhammad as-Sallabi

Disciplining By Hitting

Umar Ibn Al-Khattab used this method and was famous for carrying his stick with which he struck people. He struck some of the governors because of some deeds that they committed. During Umar's vist to Syria, he entered the house of one of his governors and found they had too many possession's. 'Umar got angry and started hitting them with his stick. Also during Umar's vist to Syria, some of the governors came to meet him. The first ones who met him were Yazeed ibn Abi Sufyan and Aboo Ubaydah, then Khalid, who came riding horses and wearing fine garments, that did not befit the Mujahideen. Umar dismounted, picked up some stones and started throwing them, and said, 'How quickly you have changed your ways! Are you receiving me in this manner?....."

Source: Umar Ibn Al-Khattab His Life And Times. Vol. 2, Pg. # 251.




Hakim Al-Nishaburi:

It was narrated that Ash'ath bin Qais said: "I was a guest (at the home) of Umar one night, and in the middle of the night he went and hit his wife, then he called me and said to me: 'O Ash'ath, learn from me something that I heard from the Messenger of Allah (swt) saying, "A man should not be asked why he beats his wife, and ask not which one of his brother he trusts or does not trust and do not go to sleep until you have prayed the Witr."

Footnote: Al-Hakim: The chain is Saheeh 'Authentic' but they (Bukhari and Muslim) have not narrated it.

Al-Dhahabi: It is Saheeh 'Authentic.'

Source: Al-Mustadrak ala Al-Sahihain. Vol. 4, Pg. 194. H # 103/7342.




A woman came to Umar and said, 'O Amir ul Mumineen, my husband is very bad and is not good.' Umar said to her, 'Who is your husband?' She said, 'Aboo Salamah.' Umar knew him, for he was a companion of the Prophet (saw). Umar said to her, 'We do not know anything good about your husband.' Then he asked a man who was near him, "What do you say?" He said, ''O Amir ul Mumineen we do not know anything but that.' He sent for her husband and he told her to sit behind him (Umar). A man soon came back with her husband and Umar asked him, 'Do you know this woman?' He said, 'Who is she O Amir ul Mumineen?' He said 'She is your wife!' He asked 'What is she saying?' He said, 'She claims you are very bad and not good.' He said, 'What a bad thing she has said O Amir ul Mumineen, by Allah, she is the best clothed woman and has the most comfortable home but her husband is impotent.' He said (to her), ''What do you say?' She said, 'He is telling the truth,' Umar took his stick and started hitting her, saying 'O enemy of yourself, you have taken his youth and consumed his wealth and now you're saying things that are not right about him.' She said, 'O Amir ul Mumineen, let me off this time, and by Allah you will not see me do this again.'

Source: Umar Ibn Al-Khattab His Life And Times. Pg. # 269 - 270.



Malik Ibn Anas:

Yahya related to me from Malik that Abdullah ibn Dinar said, "A man came to Abdullah ibn Umar when I was with him at the place where judgments were given and asked him about the suckling of an older person. Abdullah ibn Umar replied, 'A man came to Umar ibn al-Khattab and said, 'I have a slave-girl and I used to have intercourse with her. My wife went to her and suckled her. When I went to the girl, my wife told me to watch out, because she had suckled her!' Umar told him to beat his wife and to go to his slave-girl because kinship by suckling was only by the suckling of the young'.

Footnote: Narration is Saheeh Mawqoof 'Authentic from a Tab'ee.

Source: Mutwaata Malik. Vol. 3, Pg. # 1403.


 



Ibn Abi Shaybah:

Narrated Abd Al-A’laa from Mo’ammar from Al-Zuhri from Anas who said: Umar saw a slave-girl wearing Hijab then he beat her and said: "Do not make yourself like free women!"

Narrated Alee Ibn Mos’har from Al-Mokhtar Ibn Folfol from Anas Ibn Malik who said: A slave girl of Muhajirun or Ansaar came to Umar wearing Jilbab (complete Hijab), he said: "Have you been freed?" She said: “No!” He said: “Put it off your head.” Jilbab is for the freed women. So she hesitated, so he got up to her with the whip (darrah), and he hit her on the head, until she threw it.

Source: Al-Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah. Vol. 3, Pg. # 128.



Al-Albani:

Narrated Abd Al-A’laa from Mo’ammar from Al-Zuhri from Anas. (Al-Albani: I say: This chain is Authentic, if Al-Zuhri heard it from Anas) Narrated Alee Ibn Mos’har from Al-Mokhtar Ibn Folfol from Anas Ibn Malik who said: A slave girl of Muhajirin or Ansaar came to Umar wearing Jilbab (complete Hijab), he said: "Have you been freed?" She said: “No!” He said: “Put it off your head!” Jilbab is for the freed women. So she hesitated, so he got up to her with the whip (Darrah), and he hit her on the head, until she threw it.

Al-Albani: I say: This this is Saheeh 'Authentic' by the criteria of Muslim.

Source: Irwaa Al-Ghalil. Vol. 6, Pg. # 204.


Ibn Hajar:

Narration of Umar: "Take off your your veil, you stinky! Are you resembling yourself to free women?" I haven’t seen it in this formbut it is famously known that Umar has beaten a slave-girl who had veil and he said "Take off your veil, and do not resemble yourself to free women", it has been narrated by AbdulRazaq through an Authentic chain. And from Abdulrazaq from Ibn Jarij who said: "Umar beat Aqeela a slave-girl of Abi Musa because she wore Jilbaab (full veil)."

And Ibn Abi Shayba recorded another incident through an Authentic chain from Anas that: Umar saw a slave-girl wearing Jilbaab (Full veil), whereupon he said: "Have you been freed?" She said: “No! He said: “put it off your head.” Jilbaab is for the freed women. She hesitated, so he went up to her with the whip (Darrah), and he hit her on the head, until she threw it. And narrated it Muhammad ibn Al-Hassan in Al-Athaar from Abi Hanifa from Himad from Ibraheem that Umar used to beat the slave-girls who wore veil and used to say: "Do not resemble yourselves to free women!"

Source: Al-Diraya Fi Takhrij Ahadeeth Al-Hidayah. Vol. 1, Pg. # 124.


Note the followers of the Ahlulbayt (a.s) have similar narrations that have been attributed to the Imams of the Ahlulbayt (a.s) in which they are said to have whipped slave women. These narrations are as follows:

Defence One

سألت أبا عبد الله (ع) عن المملوكة تقنع رأسها إذا صلت؟ قال لا قد كان أبى إذا رأى الخادمة تصلى في مقنعة ضربها لتعرف الحرة  من المملوكة

“I asked Aboo AbdAllah (a.s) concerning the possession’s covering of her head when she prayed? He replied: ‘No! For when my father saw the female servant *praying* with a scarf on, he *hit* her so that the free can be known from the possession”.

Source: Ilal Sharai. Vol. 2, Pg. # 345 - 346.

Reply One

The narration is Da`eef (Weak) the primary narrator is Majhool (unknown) he is said to be 'Hamaad al-Khaadam' and there is no attestation of him in the Imami books of Rijal.

Defence Two

ليس على الأمة قناع في الصلاة

Imam Al-Baqir (a.s) said: “There is no cover for the slave girl during prayer.”

Reply Two

This narration is authentic. However, notice it states a slave woman is not required to cover herself during prayer whereas the books of the opponents state the slave girl is not required to cover her head in front of the public. In addition, there is no mention of the Imam (a.s) hitting the slave girl in this narration.

Defence Three

لا كان أبى رضوان الله عليه إذا رأى أمة تصلى وعليها مقنعة ضربها وقال يا لكع لا تتشبهي بالحرائر

Imam Jafar Al-Saddiq (a.s): “No, when my father, (a.s) saw a slave girl praying and she had a scarf on her, he hit her! And he said: ‘You rascal! Do not resemble the free ones!’”

Source: Qadi Nu`man al-Maghribi’s Da`a’im al-Islam. Vol. 1, Pg. # 177. Also recorded in Mustadrak Al-Wasa’il. Vol. 3, Pg. # 217.

Reply Three

The narration is chain-less and is therefore weak.


Al-Bayhaqi:

Narrated Aboo Al-Qasim Abdul Rahman Ibn Ubaidullah Al-Harfi in Baghdad, from Alee Ibn Muhammad Ibn Al-Zubair from Al-Hasan Ibn Alee Ibn Affan from Zaid Ibn Al-Hebab, from Himad Ibn Salama from Thamana Ibn Abdullah Ibn Anas from his grandfather Anas Ibn Malik who said: "The slave-girls of Umar were serving us with uncovered hair and their breasts were shaking."

Footnote: Narration is Saheeh 'Authentic'.

Source: Sunan Al-Kubra. Vol. 2, Pg. # 320 - 321.


Al-Albani:

Al-Bayhaqi has narrated through Hamad Ibn Salama from Thamana Ibn Abdullah Ibn Anas from his grandfather Anas who said: "The slave-girls of Umar were serving us with uncovered hair and their breasts were shaking."

Al-Albani: The chain of this Hadeeth is 'Jayyid' (at a level between Hasan and Saheeh) and all of it’s narrators are trustworthy except the teacher of Bayhaqi Abul Qasim Abdul Rahman Ibn Ubaidullah Al-Harbi and he is very Truthful as Al-Khatib says and Al-Bayhaqi said: "And the reports from Umar Ibn Al-Khattab concerning that matter are authentic."

Source: Irwa Al-Ghalil. Vol. 6, Pg. # 204.


At times the word 'Tad'tarib' has been mistranslated as  'Tadrabu' (hair). Thus making the text sound like “The slaves of `Umar used to serve us with their hair uncovered and hitting their breast.” This is not the case in order to clarify these are two different words:

Tad'tarib = Shaking, Wobbling تضطرب 
Tadribu = Hitting تضرب

The correct word has been recorded by Al-Albani who chose Tad'tarib (Wobbling) in his book Irwa Al-Ghalil as we have shown above. Albani wrote the tradition with this word only. If Umar's advocates are going to insist that this did not mean topless per se, we will point out that under Islamic law a woman is expected to dress modestly, in a manner that does not attract male attention, hence the duty to cover her bosom.  This was clearly not the case here, even if these slave girls were clothed, it was tantamount to not being clothed, since the shape and movements of their breasts were clearly visible, so much so that it came to the attention of the narrator who cited it.  This lack of modest dressing was all going on under the roof of Umar, simply so that slave girls could appear as sex objects whom dinner guests could ogle at.



يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تَدْخُلُواْ بُيُوتَ النَّبِىِّ إِلاَّ أَن يُؤْذَنَ لَكُمْ إِلَى طَعَامٍ غَيْرَ نَـظِرِينَ إِنَـهُ وَلَـكِنْ إِذَا دُعِيتُمْ فَادْخُلُواْ فَإِذَا طَعِمْتُمْ فَانْتَشِرُواْ وَلاَ مُسْتَأْنِسِينَ لِحَدِيثٍ إِنَّ ذَلِكُمْ كَانَ يُؤْذِى النَّبِىِّ فَيَسْتَحْيِى مِنكُمْ وَاللَّهُ لاَ يَسْتَحْىِ مِنَ الْحَقِّ وَإِذَا سَأَلْتُمُوهُنَّ مَتَـعاً فَاسْـَلُوهُنَّ مِن وَرَآءِ حِجَابٍ 

O you who believe! Enter not the Prophets houses, unless permission is given to you for a meal, (and then) not (so early as) to wait for its preparation. But when you are invited, enter, and when you have taken your meal, disperse without sitting for a talk. Verily, such (behaviour) annoys the Prophet, and he is shy of (asking) you (to go); but Allah is not shy of (telling you) the truth. And when you ask (his wives) for anything you want, ask them from behind a screen.

[Holy Qur'aan 33:53]

Ibn Hajar Asqalani:

The quotation of Bukhari says that Umar brought out the sister of Abi Bakr when she mourned) It has been narrated by Ibn Sa’d through a 'Saheeh' (Authentic) chain from Al-Zuhri from Zahri from Sa‘eed Ibn Mosayyib who said: When Aboo Bakr died, A'isha held a gathering in which eulogies had been read for him. Umar was informed of it, so he forbid them from doing so and ordered Hisham Ibn Al-Walid: "Bring Umme Farwa  out for me!" Then he lashed her when the news reached the mourners they escaped. And Ishaq ibn Rahwaih quoted this in his Musnad in another form from Al-Zahri and it is reported in it, "He brought out the women one by one and beat them with his whip."

Source: Fathul Bari Sharh Sahih Al-Bukhari. Vol. 6, Pg. # 225.



Muhammad Ibn Sa’d:

Narrated Uthman ibn Umar from Younis ibn Yazid from Al-Zahri from Sa’eed ibn Mosayyib who said: When Aboo Bakr died, A'isha held a mourning gathering in which eulogies had been read for him, Umar was informed of it, so he forbid them [the mourners] from doing so. They refused, so he said to Hisham ibn Al-Walid: "Bring out for me the daughter of Abi Qohafa (sister of Abi Bakr)!" Then he lashed her, and when the mourners heard this they escaped, and he said: "Do they want to punish Aboo Bakr by their weeping?" The Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "The dead man suffers when his family weep for him."

Source: Al-Tabaqat Al-Kabir. Vol. 3, Pg. # 191.


Al-Tabari:

Narrated Younis from ibn Wahab from Younis ibn Yazid from Al-Zahri from Sa’eed ibn Mosayyib who said: 'When Aboo Bakr died, A'isha held a mourning gathering for him in which eulogies had been read, Umar was informed of it, so he came to her door and forbade them from mourning on Aboo Bakr. They (the women) refused, so he (Umar) said to Hisham Ibn Al-Walid: "Enter and bring out for me the daughter of Abi Qohafa sister of Abi Bakr," when A'isha heard this she said to Hisham: "I forbid you from entering into my house!" Umar said to Hisham: "Enter, I allow you to do that!" So Hisham entered and brought out Umme Farwa sister of Abi Bakr to Umar, whereupon Umar started beating her with his whip for a while, when the mourners heard this they escaped.

Source: Tarikh Al-Tabari. Vol. 3, Pg. # 423.




Analysis Of The Chain Of Narrators:

The status of these five narrators in the books of Rijal:

1 - Youis ibn Abd Al-A’laa
2 - Abdullah ibn Wahab
3 - Younus ibn Yazid
4 - Ibn Shahab Al-Zahri
5 - Sa’eed ibn Mosayyib

1 - Younus ibn Abd Al-A’laa

Ibn Maysara Al-Sadafi, Aboo Musa Al-Misri, 'Thiqh' (Trustworthy!), one of the narrators of 10th generation, ... he has narrated in Saheeh Muslim, Al-Nisa'i and Ibn Majah.

Source: Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Pg. # 542, Person # 7907.


2 - Abdullah ibn Wahab


Ibn Muslim Al-Qorashi their slave, Aboo Muhammad Al-Misri, the Jurist, 'Thiqh' (Trustworthy!) Hafiz a good worshipper...has narrated in the 'Saheeh Al-Sittah.'

Source: Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Pg. # 271, Person # 3294.


3 - Younis ibn Yazid

Ibn Abi Al-Najad Al-Iaylee, Aboo Yazid Mawla Aal Abi Sufyan: 'Thiqh' (Trustworthy!) when it is through Al-Zahri, and they are few, but through other than Al-Zahri it is false... narrated in the Saheeh Al-Sittah.

Source: Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Pg. # 543, Person # 7919.


4 - Ibn Shahab Al-Zahri

Muhammad ibn Muslim Ibn Ubaydullah ibn Abdullah ibn Shahab ibn Zohra ibn Kilaab Al-Qorashi Al-Zahri, Aboo Bakr, Al-Faqih 'Narrator of Hadeeth' Al-Hafiz 'Jurist': All agreed upon his superiority and Truthfulness narrated in the Saheeh Sittah.

Source: Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Pg. # 440, Person # 6296.


5 - Sa’eed Ibn Mosayyib

Ibn Hazn ibn Abi Wahab ibn Amr ibn Hahiz ibn Mehran ibn Makhzoom Al-Qorashi Al-Makhzoomi, one of the Trustworthy scholars and of the great Fuqaha, all are agreed over his Mursal (hurried) that are the most authentic, Ibn Al-Madini said: "There is no one among Al-Tabe’een to the extent of his knowledge narrated in the Saheeh Al-Sittah.

Source: Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Pg. # 181, Person # 2396.


Ibn Al-Jawzi:

... (after narrating this hadeeth) I say: "Daughter of Abi Qohafa is Umme Farwa sister of Abi Bakr, because Umar couldn’t rebuke A'isha due to fear and respect for her, so he punished sister of Aboo Bakr!"

Source: Kashf Al-Mushkil Min Hadeeth Al-Sahihain. Vol. 1, Pg. # 59 - 60.



Abdul Razzaq Al-San‘ani:

Abdul Razaq from Ibn Oyaina from Amr Ibn Dinaar who said: 'When Khalid bin Al-Waleed died, the women gathered in the house of Maymoona (wife of the Messenger of Allah) and were crying, so Umar came and Ibn Abbas was with him and Umar had his whip (Darrah) with him, so he said: "O Aba Abdullah! Enter the house of the mother of believers and tell her to take her veil, and bring out the women for me," he said: Then he brought them out and Umar was hitting them with his whip, so the veil of one of those woman fell, whereupon the people said to Umar: "O Amir Al-Momineen! Her veil!" So he said: "so be it! She has no honour!" And Mo’ammar was astonished by his saying: "She has no honour!"

Source: Al-Musannaf al' San'ani. Vol. 3, Pg. # 557.


Narrators of this Hadeeth in Al-Kashaf of Al-Dhahabi:

1 - AbdulRazaq
2 - Ibn Oyaina
3- Amr Ibn Dinaar

1 - AbdulRazaq

Abdulrazaq Ibn Hamam Ibn Rafeh Al-Hafez Ab00 Bakr Al-San’ani, 'One of the great scholars', narrated from Ibn Joraij and Mo’ammar and Thawr and from him Ahmad and Ishaq and Al-Ramaadi and Al-Dabari, he owner of many books, died in 221 A.H, narrated in the Saheeh Al-Sittah.

Source: Al-Kashaf. Vol. 1, Pg. # 651, Person # 3362.


2 - Ibn Oyaina

Sufyan Ibn Oyaina Aboo Muhammad Al-Hilali their slave, Al-Kufi Al-A’war, 'One of the great scholars', narrated from Al-Zuhri and Amr Ibn Dinaar, and from him Ahmad, Alee and Al-Za’farani and Al-A’mash and Ibn Joraij are his teachers, he is 'Trustworthy steady Hafiz and Imam', died in Rajab of 198. Narrated in the Saheeh al-Sittah.

Source: Al-Kashaf. Vol. 1, Pg. # 449.


3 - Amr Ibn Dinaar

Aboo Muhammad slave of Qoraish, Makki and Imam, narrated from Ibn Abbas and Ibn Umar and Jaber and from him Sho’ba and the two Sufyans and Malik, died in the year 126 A.H at the age of 80, he has narrated from Aboo Huraira one Hadeeth in Sunan Ibn Majah, narrated in the Saheeh Al-Sittah.

Source: Al-Kashaf. Vol. 2, Pg. # 75, Person 4152.


Not a single wife of the Prophet (saw) ever heard of this ban on mourning. On the contrary, A'isha, who is regarded in some quarters as one of the most if not the most knowledgeable of women on Qur'aan and Sunnah, performed this act on the death of the Prophet (saw). 
  • What kind of respect did Umar exhibit when breaking in to the house of A'isha despite the fact this mob were prohibited from entering therein?
  • What form of Sharia were Umar and his cohorts seeking to implement by breaking in to the house of A'isha frightening the women residing therein and whipping the daughter of Aboo Bakr and thus hurting and humiliating her? 
  • What kind of respect did Umar show when ordering Abbas to enter the home of Maymoona (r.a) who allowed her home to be used for a mourning gathering and requested her to bring out the women so they be punished? 
The Qur’aan prohibits believers from entering the homes of the wives of the Prophet (saw) UNLESS their consent is obtained beforehand. This all goes back to respecting the sanctity of the wives of Rasulullah (saw). An obligation was set to observe purdah outside, but the wives were at least entitled to a lesser restriction within the confines of their own homes, one in which they could feel relaxed without having any concern of outsiders entering unannounced and hence casting a glance at them.  


Ibn Athir: 

Qutaylah is the daughter of Qays son of Ma'ad Yukrib Al-Kindiya; sister of Ash'ath son of Qays. The Messenger of Allah (saw) married her in the 10th year (of Hijra) but soon she complained, he passed away; she wasn't brought to him and he never saw her neither did he enter her. It was said that he married her a month before his death. It is also narrated that the Prophet (saw) willed to let her choose: if she wanted she could wear the veil and so she becomes forbidden for the Muslims, or if she wants she can divorce him so she can choose who she wants to marry. She chose to be separated, so she was given a divorce and Ikrimah ibn Abi Jahl married her. So Aboo Bakr was informed of this and he said: "I was urged to (i.e. thought of) burning the house over them". Umar in response said: "She is not the mother of believers, he didn't enter into her, or make her wear the veil".

It was said that the Messenger of Allah (saw) did not will for her anything, but did not enter into her, she apostasized with her brother when he apostatised, and so then Ikrimah ibn Abi Jahl married her. Aboo Bakr wanted to stone her but Umar said, "The Holy Prophet did not enter her and she isn't Mother of the Believers so Allah is innocent of the apostatized, whereupon Aboo Bakr was silent.

With regard to her (Qutaylah) and other wives of the Holy Prophet (saw) who were not entered into, there is great debate and scepticism, that has not resulted in any further benefit to the validation of the issue, and we have mentioned about every wife what has been narrated about her. And Allah knows. Narrated by Abu Naim and Abu Umar and Aboo Musa.

Source: Usd ul-Ghaybah. Pg.# 234 - 235, Person # 7219. 


Ibn Hajar Asqalanai:

She is the sister of Al-Ash'ath bin Qays.

And the correct is Qatila. She married the Messenger of Allah (saw) in year 10, then he claimed on the half of Safar, then he catched (his life taken from Allah (swt) on Monday for two days that passed on of Rabee' al-Awwal from the year 11. She had not come forth to him, and neither did he see her, nor 'enter' upon her. And some said: His marriage to her took place two months before his demise. And others claimed that he married her during his sickness.

And some of them said: That he (saw) ordered that she should be left to choose; if she wished. He would cast the veil on her and she would be prohibited for the believers, or, if she wished, she would marry whoever she liked. So she chose marriage, then 'Ikrimah bin Abu Jahl married her in Hadhramut, and when it (the news) reached Aboo Bakr, he said: "I will burn their house upon them". Then Umar said to him: "She is not of the mothers of the believers, and neither did he (the Prophet) 'enter' upon her, nor did he cast the veil on her!".

And Al-Jarjani said: 'Her brother married her to him (saw) then he (saw) died before she went out of Yemen. Then 'Ikrimah bin Abi Jahl succeeded him (i.e. succeeded the Prophet in marrying her)'.

And some of them said: 'The Messenger of Allah (saw) did not order her to do anything, but she apostasized when her brother apostasized, so Umar argued to Aboo Bakr that she is not of the wives of the Prophet (saw) due to her apostasy. And she did not have child from 'Ikrimah bin Aboo Jahl, and there is a lot of of disagreement about her.

Source: Al-Isaba fi Tamyiz Al-Sahaba. Vol. 2, Pg. # 1903 - 1904, Person # 4069.



What kind of respect was Aboo Bakr exhibiting when threatening to burn down the house of Qutaylah bint Qays the wife of the Prophet (saw) who apostatised? Regardless of her actions, does Islam permit one to burn the house of an apostate and that being a wife of a Prophet (saw)? Even If Qutaylah did not consummate the marriage with the Prophet (saw), is it lawful for a son to marry the widow or divorced wife of his father regardless if the marriage is consummated or not?

The Sheikhayn had a complete disregard for this Qur'aanic ordinance. If the Sheikhayn found something unacceptable in their eyes, they would happily enter the homes of anyone without seeking their consent and unleashing terror. Umar showing concerns over Qutaylah was nothing short of hypocrisy since he did not seek to protect the sanctity of the other women nor did he show any remorse. These threats and attacks did not take place on one occasion, rather we see it recurring. 

The harsh fact is this legendary ferociousness and strength that Umar allegedly possessed was only taken out on the weak and delicate such as the opposite sex. The sword that one would expect a chivalrous knight to unsheathe in the heat of battle remained firmly stationed by his side and was only unsheathed in non battle scenarios to threaten his subjects. The bottom line is, that this image of a battle hardened war hero is nothing but fiction. The reality is, Umar was a poltroon. Umar would only exhibit his violence and aggression against those weaker than him, most noticeably women, upon whom he frequently vented his anger and aggression towards, a fact in which we have cited throughout this chapter. Violence towards women was part and parcel of the character of Umar Ibn Al-Khattab and henceforth it is of no surprise that this same misogynist acted in the same manner towards Sayeda Faatima (s.a).

Continuation of 'The Oppression Of Sayeda Faatima (s.a)' (Part III) is available here.



2 comments:

  1. Mashaallah, my brother. Excellent work you've put in here to expose the cowardly, and misogynistic characteristics of the murder of Al-Zahra (as), Omar Ibn Al-Khattab, May Allah curse him and put him through torment for all eternity. I love your blogs and I frequently use them as reference to expose the Bakri cult. May Allah reward you for your contributions to the true Islam. I will be looking forward to reading your future blogs, Inshaallah. God bless.

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  2. Alhamdulillahil lathee bi ni’matihi tatimmus saalihaat

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