Friday, 27 April 2012

Khawarij Wa Al-Jammah


The germs of Kharijism had already formed during the time of the Prophet Muhammad (saw). Such was the condition of these people, they would even scrutinize the integrity of the Prophet (saw). During the battle of Hunayn, the Prophet (saw) distributed the booty and as incentive to the new Muslims he gave them more share from those who previously embraced the religion . A person from among that group was dissatisfied with the system set up by the Prophet. Thus he challenged him.

Muslim ibn Hajjaj:

Jabir b. Abdullah reported that a person came to the Messenger of Allah (saw) at Jirana on his way back from Hunain, and there was in the clothes of Bilal some silver. The Messenger of Allah (saw) took a handful out of that and bestowed it upon the people. He (the person who had met the Prophet at Ji'rana) said to him: Muhammad, do justice. He (the Holy Prophet) said: Woe be upon thee, who would do justice if I do not do justice, and you would be very unfortunate and a loser if I do not do justice. Upon this Umar b. Khattab said: Permit me to kill this hypocrite. Upon this he (the Holy Prophet) said: May there be protection of Allah! People would say that I kill my companions. This man and his companions would recite the Qur'aan but it would not go beyond their throat, and they swerve from it just as the arrow goes through the prey.

Source: Saheeh Muslim. Pg. # 471.  H. # 142.




Note: Umar referred to this individual as a hypocrite and wanted to kill him despite the Prophet (saw) plea not to as he was feared that people would say he (saw) kills his companions. But hold on a minute how can a companions be a Munfiq? and why did the Prophet (saw) call this vile person a companion?. This is why according to the school of the Ahlulbayt (a.s) to be called a companion does not hold any positive or negative connotations.

Outwardly such people were sticklers for the norms of the Religion and regular in prayers, fasting and the recitation of the Holy Qur’aan. Their outward appearance, their prayers and the large calluses on their foreheads would attract people and beguile them; their prayers were so intense that even the companion used to be impressed. But they were unaware of the Spirit of Islam and the Reality of the faith. Therefore, the Prophet (saw) had said about them:

Al-Bukhari:


Narrated Alee: I relate the traditions of Allah's Apostle to you for I would rather fall from the sky than attribute something to him falsely. But when I tell you a thing which is between you and me, then no doubt, war is guile. I heard Allah's Apostle saying, "In the last days of this world there will appear some young foolish people who will use (in their claim) the best speech of all people (i.e. the Qur'aan) and they will abandon Islam as an arrow going through the game. Their belief will not go beyond their throats (i.e. they will have practically no belief), so wherever you meet them, kill them, for he who kills them shall get a reward on the Day of Resurrection!."

Source: Saheeh Bukhari.
 Pg. # 888. H. # 3211.



The Khawarij were barbaric, warmongering nomads. History remembers them as agitators who enjoyed bloodshed. After the Prophet's (saw) departure, they were pushed into many a war. When there was no war to be had, they would would satisfy their bloodlust by fighting each other. During the leadership of Uthmaan they took a stance against him which lead to his death. And later opposed Alee (a.s). They subsequently withdrew to Nahrawan, east of the Tigris. The Kharijites equally condemned both Uthmaan and Imam Alee (a.s), and branded all those who disagreed infidels and thus worthy of execution. The terror caused by this deviant group forced Imam Alee (a.s) to take action which lead to the battle of Nahrawan. However, sporadic uprisings continued until Imam Alee (a.s) was killed by a Kharijite himself. The opponents of the school of the Ahlulbayt (a.s) falsely attach the term 'Khawarij' to Shiee in order to to create an impression that they converted the victory of Alee (a.s) into failure and then forsook him and later on they came to fight with him. No doubt, these people were in the army of Imam Alee (a.s) during his period of leadership just like they were Munfiqs companions during the time of the Prophet (saw). But calling them the Shiee of Alee (a.s) would be baseless. The army of the Imam (a.s) encompassed many different groups of people. Certainly there was a group who believed his (a.s) leadership was divinely appointed and thus would consider it an obligation to obey him under any circumstance. However it should be duly noted the Khawarij accepted the earlier usurper Aboo Bakar, Umar and Uthman unlike any present day Shiee. Unknown to many the connection with the Khawarij is more closer to home for the so called 'Ahl Sunnah'. So much so they have in fact have taken their Prophetic teachings from them even though the Prophet (saw) declared them out of the folds of Islam!


Ibn Hajar:

The apostates were the people of Al-Nahrawan (i.e. the Khawarij) due to the establishment of the authentic report about them that “They will apostasies from the religion as the arrow leaves the bow.”

Source: Talkhis Al-Habir fīiAhadith Raafi’i Al-Kabir. Vol. 4, Pg. # 44.

 

Ibn Timmiyah:

"…they are not of those who lie intentionally, they are known as 'Truthful ones', it has even been said that their narrations are amongst the most reliable Hadeeth"

Source: Minhaj Al-Sunnah. Vol. 1, Pg. # 68.



Narrator Imraan ibn Hataan

Al-Dhahabi:

Aboo Dawood said: "Amongst the people who followed their desire, there isn't anyone with more true narrations than the Khawarij ". Then he mentioned Imraan bin Hatan and Aba Ihsan al A'raj.

Source: Siyaar `Alaam Al-Nabulaa. Vol. 4, Pg. # 214, Person # 86.


Ibn Hajar:

"Imraan ibn Hataan Al-Sadusi, 'Truthful' but he was embracing the madhab of Khawarij, it has been said that he left, belongs to third generation and died in year 84 A.H"

Source: Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Pg. # 475. Person # 5152.


Ibn Hajar:

"Narrated in Al-Bukhari, Sunnan Aboo Dawood, Sunnan al-Nasa'i. Imraan bin Hataan bin Dhabyan bin Laudhan bin Amro al-Harith bin Hadoos. Al-Ijlli said: 'Basri, Tab'ee, Trustworthy' ibn Hibban mentioned him in Al-Thuqat (Authenticated Ones). Yaq'oob bin Shayba said: 'He met a group of the companions and become a Khariji and embraced the belief of khawarij in the end' ibn Hibban said in Al-Thuqat (Authenticated Ones): 'He had a tendency towards the doctrine of al-Shurat'. Bin al-Burqi said: 'He was Haruri' Al-Mubrad said in al-Kamil that he was the head of the Safria, their jurist, their preacher and their poet"

Source: Taqreeb Al-Tad'heeb. Vol. 3, Pg. # 317.



Al-Dhahabi:

Umran bin Haatan Al Sadousi 'Reliable' and he was Khariji, he praised ibn Muljim (Killer of Imam Alee a.s)

Source: Al-Kashaf. Vol. 2, Pg. # 92. Person # 4262.



Ibn Kathir:

In the era of Tab'een, some of the Khawarij praised ibn Muljim and that included Imraan bin Hattan. He is one of those worshippers who narrated hadeeth in Saheeh Bukhari from A'isha and he said regarding ibn Muljim: 'What should we say about the attack by that pious whose aim was just to attain the pleasure of God? Whenever I recall that day, I think of him better than all creations, who appears to be heaviest on the scale before Allah'"

Source: Al-Bidaya wa'l-Nihaya. Vol. 11, Pg. # 19.





Narrator Aboo Al-Hassaan Muslim bin `Abd Allaah

Ibn Hajar: 

"Aboo Al-Hassaanal-Araj al-Ajrad al-Basri, he is popularly known by his nickname, his name is Muslim ibn bin `Abd Allaah , 'Truthful', used to throw the beliefs of Khawarij, was killed in year 130 A.H"

Source: Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Pg. # 699. Person # 8046‏.


Ibn Hajar:

Narrated in Bukhari in commentary, Muslim and the four (Sunan Aboo Dawood, Sunan al-Tirmdhi, Sunan al-Nasa'i, Sunan ibn Majah). Aboo Hasaan Al-Araj and some call him Al-Ajrad, from Basra, his name Muslim bin Abdullah .Ishaq bin Mansoor narrates that ibn Mo'een said: 'Trustworthy' ibn Hibban mentioned him in Al-Thuqat (Authenticated Ones) and said: 'al-Ajri narrated from Aboo Dawood who said: 'He has been called as Al-Ajrad because he was walking on his heels, he participated with the Kharijis'. Al-Ijlli said: 'Basri, Tab'ee, 'Trustworthy' and they say he believed in the doctrine of Khawarij'. ibn Abdulbar said: 'al-Ajrad who used to walk on his feet and both of his feet were warped and he is 'Trustworthy' for them (Hadeeth Scholars)'. Narrated from Qutada: 'I heard Aba Hasaan al-Araj and he was Haruri'. Ibn Sa'ad said: 'He was 'Trustworthy'. Bukhari and ibn Hibban said that he died during the days of Haruriya'.

Source: Tahdeeb Al-Tahdeeb. Vol. 4, Pg. # 510 - 512.


Narrator Waleed ibn Kathir

Ibn Hajar:

Al-Waleed ibn Kathir al-Makhzoomi Aboo Muhammad al-Madani then al-Kufi, 'Truthful' and well aquainted with battles, but he used to exhibit views of Khawarij, he belongs to the sixth generation, died in year 51 A.H

Source: Taqreeb Al-Tahdeeb. Pg. # 653. Person # 7452.



Ibn Hajar:

Narrated in the six that is (Saheeh Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Sunnan Aboo Dawood, Sunnan al Nasa'i, Sunan al Timirdhi, Sunnan ibn Majah). Al-Waleed bin Kathir al-Makhzoomi. Isa bin Yunus said: 'al-Waleed bin Kathir narrator of Hadeeth and he was 'Trustworthy'. Ibraheem bin Saad said: 'Trustworthy'. Alee bin Al-Madini narrated that ibn Uyayna said: 'He was Truthful'. Al-Doori narrated that ibn Mo'een said: 'Trustworthy' ibn Hibban mentioned him in al-Thuqat (Authneticated Ones). Al-Saji said: 'Trustworthy and Realiable'. Al-Ajeri narrated that Aboo Dawood said: 'He is Trustworthy but Ibadi (sect of Kharji)'. Al-Saji said: 'He was Ibaadi but he was Truthful'.

Source: Tahdeeb Al-Tahdeeb. Vol. 4, Pg. # 323.



Narrator Dawood ibn Al-Hussain

Ibn Hajar:

Dawood bin Al-Hussain al-Umawi, their servant, Aboo Sulayman al-Madani: He is trustworthy, except 'Ikrima, and he were among those with the opnion of the Khawarij, from the sixth, he died on year 35 A.H. Kashaf al-Dhahabi: Of 'Ikrima, and al-A'rjaj, and (narrated) of him Malik, and ibn Ishaq, he was declared trustworthy by ibn Mo'een, and others, and Alee said: Whatever is narrated of 'Ikrima is 'munkar' (false). And Aboo Hatem said: 'If Malik would not have narrated of him, then he would leave his narration'. And ibn 'Uyayna said: We would fear his narration. And Aboo Zar'a said: He is light. Muqaddamat al-Fath: Bukhari narrated one narration of him from the narration of Malik of him, of Abi Sufyan, the servant of ibn Abi Ahmad, of Abi Huraira in 'Al-'Iraya' (a book), and it has witnesses.

Source: Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Pg. 185, Person # 1779.



Narrator Haajib bin 'Umar

Ibn Hajar:

Hajib bin Umar al-Thaqafi Aboo Khushayna, the brother of 'Isa bin Umar al-Nahawi, a Basri (from Basra): 'Trustworthy', and were among those with the opinion of the Khawarij, from the sixth, he died on year 58 A.H. Kashaf al-Dhahabi: Of Hassan, and Muhammad, and of him, al-Qattan, and al-Hawdhi, and he was the brother of 'Isa bin Umar 'Trustworthy'. 

Source: Taqreeb al Tahdeeb. Pg. # 124, Person # 1005.


Narrator Ismaa'eel bin Sumay' Al-Hanfi

Ibn Hajar:

Ismail ibn Samee al-Hanafi Aboo Muhammad al-Kufi bani'a al-Saberi, 'Truthful' and it has been talked about him because of Khariji bid'a, belongs to the fourth generation.

Source: Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Pg. 80, Person # 452



Ibn Hajar:

Narrated in Saheeh Muslim, Sunnan Aboo Dawood, Sunnan Nasa'i, Ismail bin Samee al-Hanafee Aboo Muhammad al-Kufi. Ahmad said: 'Trustworthy'. Bin Abi Khuthayma reported that ibn Mo'een said: 'Trustworthy'. Ibn Abi Maryam said: 'Trustworthy'. Muhamad bin Hamid reports from Jarir that he had beliefs of Khawarij'. Aboo Na'eem said: 'Ismail is Bayhasi'. Ibn Hajar say: 'Bayhasia is a sect of Khawarij, belongs to Abi Bayhas and he is the head of sect from Khawarij'. Ibn Uyauna said: 'He was Bayhasi'. Al-Azdi said: 'His opinion was not commendable, his sect was unpleasing, had beliefs of Khawarij'. Numair and al-Ijlli said: 'Trustworthy'. Al-Hakim said: 'I read in Abi amro al-Mustalami's hand writing that Muhammad bin Yahaya was asked about Ismail bin Samee, he replied: 'He was Bayhasi and was amongst those who hates Alee'. Al-Ajuri reports that Aboo Dawood said, 'Trustworthy'. Ibn Sa'ad said: 'Trustworthy'.

Source: Tahdeeb Al-Tahdeeb. Vol. 1, Pg. 154 - 155 .



Al-Dhahabi:

'Trustworthy but has Innovation'

Source: Al-Kashaf. Vol. 1, Pg. # 246, Person # 382.



Narrator Mu'ammar bin al-Muthanna

Ibn Hajar:

Mu'ammar bin al-Muthanna Aboo Ubaida al-Taimi, slave of al-Basri al-Nahaweei al-Laghaweei, 'Truthful Traditionalist' but used to exhibit the beliefs of the Khawarij, he belonged to the seventh generation, died in the year 88 A.H while some people say it was later, and that his age was almost 100 A.H.

Source: Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Pg. 604, Person # 6812.


Ibn Hajar:

Narrated in Saheeh Al-Bukhari in commentary and Sunnan Aboo Dawood. Mu'amar bin al-Muthana Aboo Ubaida al-Taimi. Ibn Hibban mentioned him in Al-Thuqat (Book of Authenticated Ones). al-Ijjli narrates from Aboo Dawood who said: 'He was from the most reliable people'. Aboo Hatim said: 'He was close to me because he thought that I belonged to the Khawarij of Sejestan'. (Ibn Qutaiba said:) 'He used to have the beliefs of the Khawarij'. Al-Darqutni said: 'No matter with him but he used to exhibit the beliefs of Khawarij'. Aboo Mansoor al-Azhary said in al-Tahdeeb that Aboo Ubaida authenticated him. Ibn Ishaq al-Nadim said in al-Fehrest: 'I read in Abi Abdullah bin Muqlah's hand writing that Thaliba said: 'Aboo Ubaida had the beliefs of the Khawarij'. 

Source: Tahdeeb Al-Tahdeeb. Vol. 4, Pg. # 126 - 127.



Narrator Imraan bin Dawer

Ibn Hajar:

"Imraan bin Dawer Aboo al-Awam al-Qatan al-Basri, 'Truthful' but he had illusion, used to exhibit the belief of Khawarij, he belongs to the seventh generation, died between the years 60 and 70 A.H"

Source: Taqreeb al-Tahdeeb. Pg. # 475, Person # 5154.



Ibn Hajar:

Narrated in Saheeh Al-Bukhari in his commentary and the four (Sunnan Aboo Dawood, Sunnan al-Nasa'i, Sunnan al-Tirmidhi, Sunnan Ibn Majah). Imraan bin Dawer al-Emai Aboo al-Awam al-Qatan al-Basri. Ibn Hibban mentioned him in Al-Thuqat (Authneticated Ones). Aboo al-Neihal narrates that Yazid bin Zur'aei said: 'He was Haruri 'Kharji'. Al-Sajji said: 'Truthful and Trustworthy'. Al-Ijjlli reported that ibn Mo'een said: 'He held beliefs of Khawarij'. Al-Tirmidhi narrates that Al-Bukhari said: 'Truthful but he had illusions'. Ibn Shahin said in Al-Thuqat that he was one of the most closest persons to Qatadah' Al-Ajli said: 'Basri Trustworthy.' al-Hakim said: 'Truthful'.

Source: Tahdeeb al-Tahdeeb. Vol. 3, Pg. # 318 - 319.



Narrator Nasr bin 'Aasim

Ibn Hajar:

Nasr bin 'Aasim al-Laythi, al-Basri: 'Trustworthy', and were among those with the opinion of the Khawarij. Kashef al-Dhahabi: Of Abi Bakra al-Thaqafi, and Malik bin al-Huwayrith, and of him Qatada, and Malik bin Dinar: trustworthy. Aboo Dawood said: Khariji. Maraseel Abi Zur'a: Nasr bin 'Asim, of Umar is a 'mursal', as what is said in Al-Tahdheeb. I said: He did not mention in Al-Tahdheeb that he is a 'Mursal', but rather mentioned the narration of him, and was quiet of it.

Source: Taqreeb Al-Tahdheeb. Pg. # 628, Person # 7113.





Narrator Ikramah ibn' Abdullah


Ibn Khallikan:

The Kharjite opinions help by 'Ikramah'. The Kharjite opinions held by 'Ikramah exposed him to animadversion of the public. He taught Traditions on the authority of a number of Muhammad's Companions, and Traditions were given on his authority...

Source: Wafa Al Ayaan. Vol. 3, Pg. # 253.


Ibn Hajar:

I (Aboo Abdullah Al-Maroozi) asked Ishaq bin Rahwe about the reliability of his Ikramah's narration in which, he replied: 'Ikramah for us is the Imam of the world'.

Source: Tahdeeb al-Tahdeeb. Vol. 3, Pg. # 138.



Al-Mizzi:

Narrated in Saheeh Al-Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim, Sunnan Aboo Dawood, Sunnan al-Tirmidhi, Sunnan al-Nasa'i, Sunnan ibn Majah. Ikramah al-Qurashi al-Hashemi, Aboo Abdullah al-Madani, slave of Abdullah bin Abbas, his origin was from al-Barbar (Morocco) Sufian bin Auyayna said that Amro bin Dinar said: 'I heard Aba al-Sha'atha saying: 'This is Ikramah the slave of ibn Abbas, he is the most knowledgeable man''.  Ismail bin Abi Khaalid said: 'I heard al-Shu'abi saying: 'No one left more knowledgeable in Qur'aan other than Ikramah''. Zaid bin al-Habab said: 'I heard Sufyan al-Thawri saying: 'Obtain Tafsir from four, from Saeed bin Jubair, Mujahid, Ikramah and al-Dhahak''. Alee bin al-Madani said: 'Ikramah embraced the belief of Najda al-Haruri' … Mus'ab bin Abdullah al-Zubairi said: 'He embraced beliefs of Khawarij'. Aboo Jaffar al-Aqili narrates from Muhammad bin Zuraiq bin Jame'a al-Madeni, from Ibraheem bin al-Munder, from Hisham bin Abdullah from bin Abi Deab who said: 'Ikramah the slave of ibn Abbas was 'Trustworthy' and Allah knows best'. Uthmaan bin Saeed al-Daremi said: 'I asked Yahya bin Mo'een: 'In your opinion is Ikramah more reliable or Ubaidllah bin Abdullah?'. He replied: 'Both'. I asked: 'Ikramah or Saeed bin Jubair ?'. He replied: 'Trustworthy, Trustworthy'. Al-Ijlli said: 'Makki, Tab'ee, 'Trustworthy'. Al-Nasa'i said: 'Trustworthy'. Abdul Rahman bin Abi Hatim said: 'I asked my father about Ikramah the slave of ibn Abbas, that how he was, to which he replied: 'Trustworthy'. Mus'ab ibn Abdullah al-Zubairi said: 'Ikramah embraced the beliefs of Khawarij and he claimed that ibn Abbas too embraced the beliefs of Khawarij' 

Source: Tahdeeb al-Kamal. Vol. 20, Pg. # 274 - 290, Person # 4009. 



Narrator Farwa bin Nawfal al-Ashj'ay al-Kufi

Ibn Hajar:

Saheeh Muslim, Sunnan Aboo Dawood, Sunnan al-Nasa'i, Sunnan ibn Majah۔ ibn Abdul Albar said in Al-Sahaba: 'Farwa bin Nawfal al-Ashj'ay was amongst the Khawarij'

Source: Tahdeeb al-Tahdeeb. Vol. 10, Pg. # 385 - 386.



Al-Mizzi:

Ibn Hibban mentioned him amongst the Tab'ee in the book Al-Thuqat (Authneticated Ones). He said: 'It is said that he was a Companion'

Source: Tahdeeb Al-Kamal. Vol. 23, Pg. # 180 .



Al-Dhahabi:

Farwa bin Nawfal al-Ashj'aei reports from his father and Alee, narrated from him by Aboo Ishaq and Naser bin Asem, 'Reliable' and let it be known that he had accompanied the Prophet (saw).

Source: Al-Kashaf. Vol. 2, Person # 4454.





Narrator Abi Dawood Saleh bin Dirham al-Baheli

Ibn Hajar:

Narrated in Aboo Dawood. Saleh bin Dirham al-Baheli. Ibn Hibban mentioned him in Al-Thuqat (Authenticated Ones). Abbas narrated that Yahya said: 'Saleh bin Dirham is 'Trustworthy'. Al-Darqutni said in the biography of Ibraheem bin Saleh bin Dirham  i.e his son: 'His father was pious and Trustworhty.  Al-Sajji narrates that ibn Mo'een said: 'Qadari and used to throw the belief of Khawarij'.

Source: Tahdeeb al-Tahdeeb. Vol. 2, Pg. # 196 - 193.



Al-Dhahabi:

Saleh bin Dirham al-Baheli report from Aboo Hurairah and Samra, narrated from him by Shu'aba and Yahya al-Qatan, 'Trustworthy'.

Source: Al-Kashaf. Pg. # 434, Person # 2333.




Narrator Thawr bin Zaid al-Daili al-Madani

Ibn Hajar:

Narrated in the Saheeh 'Thawr bin Zaid al-Daily al-Madani', Ibn Mo'een, Aboo Zar’a and Al-Nasahi said: 'Trustworthy'. Ibn Abdulbar said in Al-Tamh'eed: 'He died in year 135 A.H, no one disagrees about that'. He (Abdulbar) said: 'He was Truthful and no one accused him of telling lies, he ascribed to the beliefs of Khawarij'. Ibn Hibban mentioned him in Al-Thuqat (Authneitcated Ones).

Source: Tahdeeb Al-Tahdeeb. Vol. 1, Pg. # 279.



Ibn Hajar:

Thawr, the name of an animal, known as ibn Zaid al-Deli al-Madani, 'Trufthful' belongs to the sixth (generation) died in year 35 A.H

Source: Taqreeb Al-Tahdeeb. Pg. # 74, Person # 859.



Ibn Hajar:

Thawr bin Zaid al-Deli, report from Abi al-Ghayth and Ikramah, narrated from him Malik and al-Darordei, 'Trustworthy'

Source: Al-Kashaf. Vol. 1, Pg. # 285, Person # 722.








6 comments:

  1. Can the so called 'Ahl Sunnah' claim they have any relationship to the Prophet (saw) and his Ahlulbayt (as)?

    NO! :)

    Waiting for Nasibi part :)

    ReplyDelete
  2. Sunnis have taken their religion even from jews :)

    ReplyDelete
  3. This will be a future article we will be dealing with very shortly.

    ReplyDelete
  4. Looks to be a good research work

    ReplyDelete
  5. Ibn Lahi'a says, “There was a person who was once a leader *shaykh of the Khawãrij (a deviated sect). He later received divine guidance to repent for all his wrongdoings. He advised, ‘Before you accept a hadith, make sure you study the conditions of its narrators. When we (the Khawarij) wanted to propagate something, we used to fabricate a narration accordingly.”

    ReplyDelete